Few facts about cereal products

Cereal products are the basis of the diet of many of us. Bread, pasta, cereal or flakes almost every day land on our plates, which – in the absence of health contraindications – it is beneficial for our body. Contrary to the rules of many restrictive diets, eliminating cereal products from our diet is not a good idea, and what’s more, it does not make our weight fall magically. The basis of good nutrition, conducive to reducing body fat, is a varied diet, providing all the necessary nutrients, in which cereal products occupy a well-deserved high place. The problem is, however, in our choices – we love soft wheat rolls or white pasta. It is time to find out for whole grains, or the most nutritious ones. Let’s get to know the most important benefits of eating them.

Flour – the most important component of cereal products

To accurately assess the value of individual flours, please refer to with their types and types, as well as the way to receive.

To determine the type of flour, the name of the grain from which it was obtained is used – in this case we are talking about the two most important – wheat and life, because they are the most commonly used ones. The part of the name of the flour is its type (indicated by the appropriate numbers, e.g. type 450), in other words the amount of minerals, so-called. ash, expressed in grams per 100 kg of flour. In other words – the bigger the number, the more nutritious the flour is.

In this way, we divide wheat flour into the following types

– type 450 – cake;

– type 500 – krupczatka;

– type 550 – luxurious;

– type 650;

– type 750 – bread;

– type 1050;

– type 1400 – strainer;

– type 1850 – graham;

– type 2000 – wholemeal;

while the types of rye flour are

– type 500;

– type 720 – bread;

– type 1150;

– type 1400 – strainer;

– type 1850 – Starogard;

– type 2000 – wholemeal.

When choosing a flour one should follow one most important rule – its highest types are characterized by the highest content of vitamins and minerals as opposed to the lowest types that have been deprived of these precious ingredients in the purification process. Let’s look at the mechanism of the formation of particular types of flour.

Grain grain is made up of four main parts

– scales, i.e. fruit-seed coat, rich in fiber and minerals, whose task is to protect the grain;

– aleurone layer, protecting the endosperm and the embryo that abounds in protein, fiber, fats and vitamins;

– endosperm, providing carbohydrates and protein.

In the process of forming the flour of the lowest type, cereal grain is deprived of the most valuable elements of the husk, the aleurone layer and embryo. The production of wholemeal flour, on the other hand, consists in the whole grain being ground together with its major parts (listed above). This type of production also explains the color of individual types of flour – the more valuable ones are distinguished by a darker color due to the presence of external grains.

The most important types of bread

When we already have information on the types and types of flour, we can go to the division of bread.

Wheat bread, as the name suggests, is baked from wheat flour, most often with the participation of yeast. Due to the type of flour used, we distinguish ordinary wheat, graham and whole wheat bread.

Rye bread in addition to rye flour requires the presence of leaven to produce. Due to the slightly lower gluten content in this flour (compared to wheat), rye bread is characterized by a quite dense, heavy formula. An important feature of real rye bread is also the specific taste resulting from the presence of leaven. Among the rye bread we distinguish, for example, sieve, starogard or wholemeal bread, whose name results from the type of rye flour used.

The third type of bread is wheat-rye, in the production of which wheat and rye flour are mixed in various proportions.

Other types of cereal products

In addition to wheat and rye, cereals also include rice, maize, barley, oats, buckwheat and millet, and other cereal products, in which our diet abounds, we also exchange cereal, cereal and pasta.

Groats, i.e. edible cereal seeds in crushed form or only without hard husk, is a group of cereal products which has a high nutritional value.

The most important types of groats are

– buckwheat – one of the healthiest, high in protein high quality, similar to the quality of leguminous protein, also rich in carbohydrates, B vitamins, vitamin PP, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium;

– millet – arises from the hulled millet grain, has deacidification properties, is ideal for people on a gluten-free and easily digestible diet, as well as for people suffering from joint ailments;

– barley – pearl barley, pearl barley and barley broken, is the most commonly eaten barley;

– maize – good for people on a gluten-free diet, it is a source of fiber, B group vitamins and also beta-carotene;

– manna – produced from wheat, is the second barley next to barley, as easily digestible it works well in children’s diets and people suffering from digestive system ailments;

– couscous – is made of durum wheat and is considered a product combining the features of groats and pasta.

Flakes are a frequent element of many of us breakfasts, the most important of them are Oat flakes – their health properties are innumerable, they are a good source of fiber, B vitamins, vitamin E, magnesium and selenium; help to lower the level of bad cholesterol, greatly affect the condition of the skin, hair and nails, in addition, they work on reducing diets and for a long time provide a feeling of fullness;

– barley flakes – rich in fiber, B vitamins, vitamin PP and numerous minerals – magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron; fiber contained in them positively affects both the digestive system and blood circulation, reduces the level of bad cholesterol;

– cornflakes – great for people on a gluten-free diet, rich in protein, vitamins A, E and from group B, as well as fiber; during their selection it is necessary to familiarize themselves with the composition, because most of them may turn out to be a highly calorific product and not very healthy due to the additives used.

Pasta, among which you can mention wheat (including white and wholemeal), but also rye, rice, soy, corn, buckwheat, oat or spelled.

The number of cereal products that we can incorporate into your menu is huge. It is important, however, to choose the ones of the highest value – thick cereal, bread and whole-wheat pasta, brown rice or oatmeal.

This famous fiber – why is it so important?

One of the most important values ​​of the so-called wholegrain cereal products are fiber. Although they are not the products that are the most abundant in this ingredient, they are its main source for many of us, because we eat the most of them.

Numerous scientific studies confirm that the change of the resulting products from white flour cleaned to wholefood, rich in fiber, it has numerous health benefits

– has a positive effect on the heart and cardiovascular system, because it regulates blood pressure and reduces the risk of numerous cardiovascular diseases;

– reduces the level of abdominal fat – according to scientists in people who excluded purified products and regularly consume these whole grains, its level is 10% lower;

– gives a feeling of fullness for longer, protects against attacks of hunger and unnecessary snacks, thanks to which it is beneficial in reducing diets;

– improves metabolism;

– regulates the level of sugar in the blood, protects against its sudden fluctuations, which is important especially for people suffering from diabetes, but also for others – thus protects against sudden fatigue;

– reduces the risk of diabetes – research results show that in people who consumed the most fiber contained in cereal products the risk of disease was 27% lower compared to the group of people who ate it the least.

High fiber content in whole grains is a huge advantage. It plays an important role in the prevention and control of various diseases, and it also helps to maintain a healthy, slim figure. This is an important feature for athletes and people on a reducing diet, for whom fat burning is a particularly important issue.

However, not all fiber is the same health – people suffering from inflammation of the stomach, pancreas, biliary and intestinal tract, gastrointestinal catarrhage or stomach and duodenum ulcers should give up from wholegrain products to their cleaned counterparts. With the mentioned diseases, excessive consumption of high-fiber products may cause or exacerbate abdominal pain, bloating or diarrhea.

5. Other nutrients contained in whole-grained products

Fiber, which has a positive effect on our figure and health, is not the only wealth of wholemeal products. They are also a good source of the following minerals and vitamins

– phosphorus;

– magnesium;

– zinc;

– iron;

– folic acid;

– vitamin PP;

– vitamins from group B.

An important issue also applies to the protein contained in flour – the higher the type of flour, the better it is in quality. This is due to the fact that the composition of amino acids in the grain depends on the way they are processed – darker flours are characterized by its much higher nutritional value.

How not to be cheated?

Today, the food industry in most cases puts for a short time and low production costs, not quality, which is why – contrary to appearances – it is not so easy to find good bread.

Manufacturers use various tricks that can confuse us

– coloring the bread to get the brown color characteristic of bread made from wholemeal flour – for this purpose, for example, caramel, malt or maltose syrup are used;

– sprinkle the bread with various grains, for example, with seeds or pumpkin seeds and sunflower, to get the impression of healthiness of their products;

– they use a catchy name, eg wholemeal bread (wholemeal is a name that Polish standards do not take into account – wholemeal bread does not have to be wholemeal bread, the correct names of bread types come from the name of the type of flour used to bake them – wholemeal bread, graham , Starogard, etc.);

– they describe the bread with the names of rural, traditional, multigrain type, which mean nothing and can only be bad counterfeit products, properly colored and sprinkled with grains.

So how can you not be fooled? Pay attention to

– the composition of real bread has in its composition flour of a certain type, water, salt, yeast or in the case of rye bread leaven and healthy additives, such as pumpkin and sunflower seeds, ground, oatmeal, poppy seed, sesame, bran. If the list of ingredients is longer and contains preservatives, stabilizers, dyes, improvers and other additives, the product has nothing to do with real bread;

– the bread structure is made from wholemeal flour and will not be fluffy and soft as white bread, and heavy, compact and clayey; in addition, it should not crumble, and its freshness is kept much longer.

Producer scams are also encountered in the case of pasta and flour. The first ones can be colored, whereas the flours are called the insignificant slogan full-grained. In both cases, the most important thing is to read the composition and check the type of flour and the presence of dyes.

Whole grains are extremely important components of our diet, rich in fiber, high quality protein and numerous minerals and vitamins.

In the absence of health contraindications, it is worth incorporating them into your diet. As confirmed by numerous scientific studies, their regular consumption will help us in a healthy weight reduction and maintenance, and also can protect against or relieve many diseases.

But let’s be smarter than dishonest producers – read the lineups and check the quality of the full milling products, because otherwise we can spend money on chemical counterfeits.


Sorghum properties, nutritional values and culinary uses

Sorghum can be a substitute for potatoes or rice in the kitchen.

Sorghum is an ancient gluten-free cereal cultivated thousands of years ago in Africa. It is mainly grown for fodder, but is also increasingly used in the food industry. Sorghum grains have a high pro-health potential. They can be used in the treatment of colon cancer, melanoma, dyslipidemia and problems with carbohydrate metabolism.

Sorghum belongs to ancient cereals, which were cultivated already 8 thousand years BC in Egypt and Sudan, and 3-5 thousand BC in the areas of Ethiopia. From South-East Africa, sorghum spread to the whole of Africa, and the sea routes reached the Middle East, India and China. This cereal grows wild or is grown in many regions of the world with a tropical and subtropical climate, as well as moderate warm – in India, Africa, Australia, the United States, Central and South America.Currently, the largest producer of sorghum is the United States, where it is the third most important grain.In the world, sorghum is ranked 5th in terms of production volume and accounts for only 2 percent of all crops grown.It is also the basis of food in many countries of Africa and Asia.In Poland, sorghum crops are very small, few farmers deal with them, and their area does not exceed 100 ha. Due to the fact that sorghum is one of the most efficient cereals in cultivation, and at the same time cheap, very resistant to drought, fungi and molds, and also easily adaptable to environmental conditions, it is considered to be the cereal necessary for the survival of humanity.It is estimated that due to the deterioration of climatic conditions for the growth of cereals in Poland, more and more farmers will decide to grow sorghum, especially in sandy areas with a small amount of rainfall.


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Sorghum cultivars

Sorghum occurs in many varieties.Red and orange are classically grown cereals, cream and white are most often used for flour, and black and brown are varieties very rich in antioxidants, which are used in various ways in the food industry.Sorghum belongs to the gluten-free cereals that can be used in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease, allergies and gluten intolerance.Sorghum is also used for the production of groats and flour, but it is primarily a feed for livestock and raw material for the production of ethanol.About 1/3 of the production is spent on biofuels.Sweet sorghum is a raw material for the production of sweetening syrup – formerly an important sweetener used in households, and now a component in the production of whiskey and rum.

Sorghum – nutritional values

In terms of calorific value, sorghum resembles other grains and provides 329 kcal in 100 g. It consists mainly of carbohydrates and contains a lot of fiber – 6.7 g, which supports the work of the digestive tract, regulates the rhythm of bowel movements and accelerates the excretion of toxins from the body.100 g of sorghum cover the protein demand by 21 percent. Amino acids, which are present in it in the highest concentration, are leucine and tryptophan (essential amino acids), and deficient is lysine. Sorghum contains little fat, most of which are unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 (65 mg / 100 g) and omega-6 (1.3 g / 100 g). This cereal is a good source of B vitamins (mainly niacin, thiamine and vitamin B6), which participate in energy changes, accelerate metabolism and control the functioning of the nervous system. Manganese abundantly present in sorghum is an essential component of bones, also affects sexual performance and fertility, thyroid work and protection against free radicals. High magnesium content in cereals promotes bone health, and the presence of iron and copper reduces the risk of anemia, increases energy levels and promotes faster hair growth. Sorghum contains a lot of potassium and very little sodium, thanks to which it has a beneficial effect on blood pressure and the level of retained fluids in the body.The composition of grains contains bioactive phyto-antioxidants, such as lignans, phenolic acids, plant sterols and saponins. Their antioxidant activity is similar to berries – one of the strongest plant antioxidants. Thanks to the rich composition of sorghum, it reduces the risk of colon cancer more than other cereals, reduces cholesterol levels in blood and supports the functioning of the circulatory system.


Check also: Dietary fiber and weight loss


Sorghum and genetic modifications

The safety of sorghum was confirmed in laboratory tests and in tests on humans.Sorghum is commonly regarded as a plant that has not been subjected to genetic modification, but research is being carried out on modified sorghum, which is to solve the problem of hunger in Africa.At least one large company in the United States (Monsanto) uses genetically modified sorghum to increase its nutritional value and make it more soil friendly.However, it is not taken into account that the crossing of modified species with wild sorghum may lead to the extinction of natural varieties.

Health properties of sorghum

Sorghum belongs to cereals with high pro-health potential.Due to its rich composition, the research environment checks the impact of sorghum on various diseases.The healing effects of gluten-free grain confirmed scientifically

inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells

3-deoxytanine (3-DXA) – a powerful antioxidant found in sorghum seeds responsible for antiproliferative activity (inhibiting cell division) against human colon cancer cells.Most 3-DXA is found in black and red varieties, but the compound is also present in lower concentrations in light grains. Sorghum grains have a 3-4 times higher antioxidant potential than other grains.

Protection against insulin resistance and diabetes

Sorghum, in contrast to wheat, rice and oats, due to the high content of antioxidants, inhibits the glycation of proteins (the process of attaching glucose to proteins, causing them to age).Advanced end-products of glycation greatly influence the problems associated with diabetes, which is why some sorghum species may have a beneficial effect on processes related to the risk of diabetes and insulin resistance.

Lowering blood cholesterol

Studies on hamsters have shown that a diet enriched with fat from sorghum reduces the total cholesterol and bad LDL cholesterol in the blood, while not affecting the decrease in good HDL cholesterol.In animals fed for 4 weeks with a diet of 0.5 percent sorghum fat, LDL dropped by 18 percent, and 5 percent of fat – by 69 percent.Research suggests that sorghum seeds can be used as a component of cholesterol lowering supplements in humans.


Check:How to lower cholesterol?


Support for melanoma treatment

Phenolic sorghum ingredients can slow down the development of cancer melanoma cells, as confirmed in studies on human cancer cells.It turns out that in regions of South Africa, where sorghum in the diet has been replaced with maize, there has been a strong increase in the incidence of cancer of skin epithelial cells.



Millet – properties and application

Millet (common millet, millet appropriate) is a cereal whose grain has numerous properties and nutritional values, which is why it has found many uses: millet is a gluten-free cereal, therefore it can be consumed by people with celiac disease and gluten intolerance a source of B vitamins, beneficial polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants What health action does piglet have? What has been found in the kitchen? What is being done with it?

Millet (common millet, millet appropriate, Panicum miliaceum L.) is a cereal whose seeds have long been known to humanity. Its properties and nutritional values ​​were appreciated in ancient China, from where millet came to Europe and America. , and in developed countries, it is mainly used as animal feed.

Millet is a cereal rich in protein, which is the source of essential amino acids

Methionine and cysteine. Millet is also characterized by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber and polyphenols. Millet is rich in complex carbohydrates. Consumption of a meal with the use of millet gives energy for a longer time, causing a gradual release of energy and increases the feeling of satiety. Millet is therefore an excellent choice for people who are slimming and who want to maintain a healthy weight.In addition, the cereal is rich in copper, phosphorus and iron. In addition, it contains significant amounts of B vitamins.


  • is a grain without gluten, which is why it is a great option for people suffering from celiac disease and gluten intolerance
  • reduces cholesterol, stabilizes blood glucose levels due to the presence of dietary fiber (beta-glucan)
  • has a positive effect on the digestive system, facilitating defecation
  • thanks to the presence of phosphorus, zinc and vitamins from group B has a positive effect on the circulatory system
  • strengthens the walls of blood vessels and lowers blood pressure,
  • Antioxidant compounds contained in it protect against free radicals – they protect DNA against damage and prevent the formation of cancer cells
  • thanks to high non-heme iron content has a positive effect on the formation and functioning of red blood cells, prevents the onset of anemia, which is associated with cognitive, immune and digestive disorders
  • helps to keep the blood glucose level constant, which prevents the onset of diabetes, metabolic syndrome
  • it reduces the level of glucose in the blood and decreases insulin resistance in diabetics, it also reduces postprandial glycemia
  • thanks to its alkaline properties it helps to maintain the acid-base balance in the body
  • accelerates wound healing and prevents tissue damage
  • it has a probiotic effect – it supports the intestinal microflora and supports its re-colonization by bacteria. Fermented millet products act as natural probiotics in people with diarrhea