Digestive System Healthcare


Quinoa is another product that over time can become a regular visitor on Polish tables. Thanks to its numerous pro-health properties and high popularity, this exotic food product is slowly becoming an increasingly available product. If you want to find out if it is really worth taking a look at someone, check out the article below!

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What is quinoa?


Quinoa, also known as Peruvian rice or quinoa, is a plant known as pseudozhoża. This means that it produces starch-rich seeds, which, however, are not included in cereals. The origin of this plant is attributed to the areas of South America, where it is very often called the mother of cereals, sacred grain of the Incas or golden grain. This product is used in the culinary art, where it is used as an addition to main dishes, soups or salads. Quite often, quinoa is also used to make desserts.

Quinoa – properties

Quinoa, like soy or nuts, is one of the few products in which proteins of vegetable origin are considered to be of full value. The rationale is the presence of all exogenous amino acids that are not capable of self-synthesis in the human body. It is also worth paying attention to the fact that due to the high content of the protein, the quinoa is a very good alternative for people who avoid meat.

Another and equally important aspect regarding the properties of quinoa is the high content of unsaturated fats. I am talking primarily about linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids. As it is well known, these compounds are conducive to maintaining the proper lipid profile of our body. This means that quinoa is a very good product in the case of excessive cholesterol or as an element of atherosclerosis prevention.

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Peruvian rice is also used in diseases related to nutrition. Quinoa is a gluten-free product, so it can be successfully used by people suffering from celiac disease. It is also worth mentioning that quinoa has a low glycemic index, which is 35. Such a small result confirms the justification for the use of this product in the diet of people struggling with diabetes. In the case of this group of people, it should be added that the quinoa is a good source of fiber.

Nutritional value of quinoa

Using the USDA data (National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference), below we present the nutritional value of quinoa in 100 grams of product
Energy value – 120 kcal,
Total protein – 4.40 g,
Fat – 1.92 g,
Carbohydrates – 21.30 g (including simple sugars 0.87 g),
Fiber – 2.8 g.

thiamine – 0.107 mg,
riboflavin – 0.110 mg,
niacin – 0.412 mg,
vitamin B6 – 0,123 mg,
folic acid – 42 μg,
vitamin A – 5 IU,
vitamin E – 0.63 mg.

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calcium – 17 mg,
iron – 1.49 mg,
magnesium – 64 mg,
phosphorus – 152 mg,
potassium – 172 mg,
sodium – 7 mg,
zinc – 1.09 mg.

How to cook it?

The method of preparing a quadruple is extremely simple. The product is made by cooking, but before we get to it, Peruvian rice should be well rinsed in running water. Next, boil the cabbage into boiling water, which we cook under cover in the range of 10 to 15 minutes. Quinoa should be boiled in a ratio of 12, that is, for two glasses of water, one glass of a quota.

Where to buy it?
Calm all the frightened by the fact that quinoa is only available in South America. Nowadays, when online sales are very developed, access to the product is trouble-free. In the network there is a mass of health food stores or an ecological assortment that in their offer definitely have a quinoa. As for prices, they look different. It is conditioned by many factors – the producer’s brand, the basis weight of the product or the very place of production of this article.



Parmesan is a well-known Italian cheese. It is very hard and aromatic. It is obtained from cow’s milk treated with rennet and temperature. Real Italian parmesan has a specific cheese scent, and adding it to selected dishes improves their taste and nutritional quality. Under the name Parmesan we can find in stores products that have nothing to do with the valuable Italian cheese. Read the article below and you will certainly know how to buy original high-quality cheese. You will find out what is its history, where it comes from, and what nutritional and health-promoting properties it characterizes.

Parmesan – history
The name Parmesan derives from the place where the production of cheese began – the regions of Italian Parma. Assigning dishes to names associated with their place of origin began just after the fall of the Roman Empire. This technique was a very convenient way to describe food products informing about the main place of their production. The inventors of Parmesan were medieval monks who were engaged in breeding farm animals and fed on what they had managed to prepare themselves. At the time, parmesan was known as Caseum paramensis. The recipe of Parma cheese is over 800 years old.

Currently, it exists under the full name of Conzorzio del Fromaggio Parmigiano-Reggiano, the abbreviation of which is simply Parmesan. To this day, the Parmigiano-Reggiano member is the only name tagged on a real block of Parma cheese.

Parmesan – composition and method of production
Parmesan is somewhat reminiscent of the Moldavian cheese, but it is slightly taller than it. The average size of parmesan cheese is 18-22 cm high, 35-65 cm wide. The pancakes of parmesan cheese are prominent and the sides are slightly convex. Parmesan pulp is yellowish, without discoloration. In most cases, there are no meshes, although there are also specimens with small holes.

The production of Parma cheese is not simple or fast. It requires a subtle approach and a good knowledge of the recipe. It is made from raw cow’s milk. Real parmesan cheese is made from the milk of Razza Reggiana or Vacca Ross cows. Cheeses made from the milk of other cows do not fit into the canon of the original recipe.

Many years passed before the perfect recipe of Parma cheese was developed. A breakthrough in production occurred when pure bacterial strains were introduced into the production of cheeses. It is believed that the presence of an isolated strain of lactic acid bacteria and acid-proteolytic bacteria is necessary for proper ripening of hard rennet cheeses. It is also important to comply with strict hygiene rules from the moment the cow is milked until the final cheese matures. If a bacterial infection occurs at any stage of production, the cheese will not be suitable for consumption.

The smallest amount of milk needed to make 1 medium-sized cheese is about 350-400 liters of milk. Collected milk is poured into the boiler and, after thorough mixing, its acidity is determined in order to calculate the sourdough production needed to produce it. The sourdough must contain the most abundant bacteria that in one day make physical and chemical changes to the milk. After acidifying procedures, the milk is heated to about 33-35 degrees Celsius. Then it is also seasoned with rennet. Milk coagulation under the influence of the enzyme takes about 20-30 minutes. The semi-hard curd is cut with a wooden spatula and then comminuted into a pea-sized seed. Stirring continues until the entire volume of the clot is dry. The whole is set aside for a half-hour break. Then the heating process begins, 1-4 grams of saffron is added to the cheese mass for every 100 liters of milk used. Then, the mass of cheese is pulled out of the boiler using a scarf and formed using a Swiss rim.

The cheese is left to ripen for 15-20 days. At this time, the cheese is moisturized and lubricated with salt so that they have the right taste, the process of sowing may take another 40-50 days. The next step is to wash the cheese and put it away in dry basements at 15 degrees, where they suck up and put on a hard, uniform mass. After this time the cheese is scraped off the outer layer, pressed and rubbed with linseed oil. This action protects the valuable product against damage and mechanical damage. Good quality Parmenan cheese ripen at least 4 years, but the best can mature even several dozen years.

Parmesan – nutritional value and pro-health properties
It is assumed that one portion of parmesan cheese is 5 g. It is an extremely aromatic cheese and is not consumed in large quantities. Parmesan is a high-calorie cheese, in the portion is 20 kcal. This means that 100 g of cheese is about 400 kcal. It is a very good source of protein (40 g / 100 g – for comparison, the same amount is found in 225 g of trout). In addition, it contains a lot of fat (30 g / 100 g) and large amounts of minerals, which include sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus minerals, as well as vitamins A, B2, B6, B12.

Parmesan contains the largest amounts of calcium among all cheeses (1,109 g / 100 g of cheese). It is successfully used in dietotherapy of osteoporosis. It is important, however, to remember that parmesan (despite the high calcium content) also contains a large amount of sodium. As we well know, too much of this macroelement in the diet can have harmful effects on our health. However, if we are connoisseurs of cheeses, we must consume them in reasonable quantities.

Contained in parmesan, phosphorus is essential for the proper functioning of the skeletal system. It supports the development of bones and teeth. It also reduces the risk of kidney stones by acidifying urine. Multicenter studies have proven that the chromium contained in ripening cheeses has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism. Reasonable amounts of rennet cheese in the diet lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. They help regulate blood glucose and reduce tissue requirements for insulin. All these features indicate that parmesan (consumed regularly and in small amounts) can bring benefits in the prevention of civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes.

Recent reports from the world of science indicate that parmesan cheese not only does not cause a faster increase in body weight, and can even inhibit the development of obesity in people with metabolic syndrome.

Parmesan – application in culinary art
The taste of real Parmesan cheese can not be confused with any other. It is distinctive, ripe, the cheese has a characteristic, quite intense smell. Against the background of other rennet cheeses it is distinguished by its constant and very hard consistency.

Starters Parmesan can be an addition to cold dishes such as salads, spreads, starters. Ideally also found as a complement to hot dishes of pasta, sauces, pizzas, casseroles and many, many more. The younger cheese is a dry addition to wines and cold meats. Because of its price and its unique origin, it is not a classic element of the French cheese board.

There is really no reason to not eat parmesan. It is a source of many valuable nutrients. The only limitation that should be introduced when using the benefits of Parma cheese is the preservation of moderation in its consumption. It must be remembered that the portion of this cheese is 5 grams. Therefore, it should not be exceeded. The disadvantage of Parma cheese is its price. For one kilo of such cheese you have to pay an average of 70-150 PLN depending on the producer and the time of ripening. There are, however, very old Parma cheese, the price of which reaches even several thousand euros.

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Macronutrients in reduction diet

Many people who want to lose unnecessary kilos are wondering how they can get the desired effect. Of course, it is important to achieve a negative energy balance. Combination of an appropriate diet and physical activity is the best solution. During the reduction, it is also important to accelerate the metabolic rate. Are including, among others, regular training sessions, as well as a well-balanced diet rich in nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates and fats. What is the role of the components in the process of reducing body fat?

Protein in the reduction diet


The protein in our body has many important functions. It is a component of enzymes, hormones and the building blocks of tissues, including muscular tissue. In the process of weight loss an important role is played by the fact that proteins increase post-prandial thermogenesis, that is, they speed up our metabolism after a meal. This increase is around 25%. The protein also has a beneficial effect, increasing the feeling of satiety. In training people wishing to lose unnecessary kilograms, it also plays an important role, adapting the body to physical exertion and regenerating muscles after training. It is important, therefore, that every meal consumed on the diet should be properly balanced and contain a source of protein.

A good source of protein in the reduction diet are products such as poultry, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products and legumes. The recommended amount of protein in the reduction diet is about 1g / kg body weight. In physically active people, this amount may be increased to 1.2 g / kg body weight. Providing the body with too small amounts of protein in the reduction diet may result in a decrease in the basic metabolism and lead to the loss of muscle tissue. The excess protein, which is excreted through the kidneys, may also be unfavorable, which may lead to their efficiency being impaired.

Carbohydrates in the reduction diet

Carb Control
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in our diet. The recommended daily supply of carbohydrates varies from 50 to 60% of energy demand. Insufficient supply of carbohydrates may result in fast fatigue and weakness of the body, because glucose stored in the muscles and liver is a source of energy for the trainings. So let’s take care that they are included in a pre-workout meal.

In the reduction diet, the glycemic index (IG) of consumed products is very important. It is related to the body’s reaction to a given product. Consumption of products with a high glycemic index causes a rapid increase in the level of glucose in the blood, which may result in the storage of adipose tissue. This is because carbohydrates with high IG cause a rapid release of the hormone – insulin. An increased amount of insulin in response to consumed carbohydrates can transform unnecessary carbohydrates into fats that will be deposited in fat cells.

In the reduction diet, it is therefore worth avoiding products such as white bread, flour, rice and pasta, as well as sweets and processed products.
The sources of low and medium-weight IG carbohydrates are coarse groats such as buckwheat, barley, brown rice, whole-wheat pasta, wholemeal bread, and vegetables and most fruits. Whole-grain products as well as vegetables and fruits are also a very rich source of dietary fiber, which plays an important role in regulating the digestive tract and increasing the feeling of satiety.

Fats in the reduction diet

Diamond Fish Oil

Fats in the reduction diet should provide about 25% of energy. It should be remembered that they are the most calorific of nutrients. However, they are necessary for the proper functioning of our body. The most beneficial for us is the elimination of saturated fatty acids – for unsaturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids (EFAs) are the building blocks of cell membranes, lower cholesterol levels in the blood, as well as increase the strength of myocardial contraction by increasing the blood flow through the coronary vessels of the heart. It is also important to provide an adequate amount of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, which have anti-inflammatory activity and, as research has shown, can increase the body’s endurance by improving oxygen metabolism.

The reduction diet is preferable
– use of vegetable oils such as olive oil, rapeseed oil or linseed oil for salads;
– inclusion of seeds, oil seeds and nuts in the diet;
– consumption of sea fish 2-3 times a week.

Effective fat loss

Remember that a healthy, balanced reduction diet ensures gradual loss of body fat. This gradation is important because it can protect us from the yo-yo effect. Fast weight-related with a sharp and significant reduction in the supply of kilocalories and nutrients, it results in a lowering of the metabolic rate and the body’s attitude to fat tissue saving and storage. It is important, therefore, that the diet is suitably suited to us in terms of calorie content and the amount of proteins, carbohydrates and fats.


Butter healthy or not?

Although the taste qualities of butter make not everyone willing to give up on it altogether, the idea that it is unhealthy has taken root in general consciousness has taken root. On the one hand, we have been persuaded by doctors and dieticians to limit the consumption of saturated fatty acids, whose butter is a rich source, on the other on television, the press and billboards systematically attack us advertising slogans of margarine producers and ensure the high health of vegetable fats. But are the theories on the harmfulness of butter actually justified? 


Here you can find healthy fats – CLICK


In fact, it must be admitted that butter contains a lot of fatty acids (over 50% of the weight of the product), which excessive consumption may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, it is worth realizing that some of this butter fat is in fact short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, which not only that, unlike the long-chain acids dominant in the diet, they are easily digestible, but also have a certain pro-health potential. According to the results of scientific research, their increased consumption is positively influenced, among others, by on the metabolic rate. 

There are many indications that one should not be particularly concerned about the cholesterol contained in the butter. The results of scientific research published over the last decade indicate that food cholesterol in healthy people has a rather low impact on the lipid profile of the blood and the risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, in order to provide the amount of cholesterol in excess of the recommended standards, you would need to eat ¾ of butter cubes throughout the day. 


You can read also: The role and qualities of fat in the diet


Ranking of the best frying fats

Frying is a process in the course of which many compounds harmful to our health may arise, hence the use of this cooking technique is usually discouraged for preparing meals.

Due to the extremely attractive taste and aroma of dishes prepared in this way, few people are able to completely give up eating fried dishes, so it is important to know how to fry, to reduce the formation of undesirable substances to a minimum. The appropriate selection of fat used for heat treatment is a key issue in this context. In one of the previous articles, I mentioned fats that are absolutely not suitable for heat treatment. This time I will give some attention to fat products that are worth using for frying. 


Here you can find healthy fats – CLICK 


Coconut oil is excellent even for long-term frying at high temperatures.

At room temperature, it has a solid form, which is associated with a very high proportion of saturated fatty acids, which, due to the lack of double bonds, are thermally stable and, unlike unsaturated fats (whose coconut oil contains traces), does not oxidize during frying. Saturated fats contained in coconut oil are largely medium chain fatty acids (MCT) that do not show any tendency to influence prognostic indicators of cardiovascular disease risk such as the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions. The advantage of coconut oil is also the lack of cholesterol, which can undergo undesired oxidation during thermal processing. 

Clarified butter is a type of fat that is obtained by heating butter over low heat and removing scum accumulating on its surface and sediments that appear on the bottom (this process is called clarification). The final product is characterized by a high fume temperature, contains a significant amount of saturated, moderately monounsaturated and low polyunsaturated acids, making it resistant to high temperatures and is even suitable for long-term deep frying. In contrast to conventional butter, it practically does not contain lactose and casein, which significantly enhances its functional properties. Dishes prepared with its use gain a pleasant, desirable, buttery aftertaste. The disadvantage is the presence of cholesterol, which does not tolerate well the effect of high temperature and is susceptible to oxidation. 

Lard is an extremely underrated source of fat, while it has quite universal properties that makes it suitable for both heat treatment and raw eating, and at the same time it is ridiculously cheap. In lard, monounsaturated acids (55% oleic acid) predominate, and among the saturated acids a significant part is stearic acid, which does not adversely affect prognostic indicators of cardiovascular disease risk such as the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein (HDL). Lard excellently tolerates the effect of high temperature, due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, which, however, is higher than in butter and coconut oil and on average is about 10%, and some sources indicate that due to the type of industrial feeds it can be even greater.


You can read also: What oil is the healthiest for frying?


Note for margarines and transizomers!

Unhealthy food fats

A Doctor – biochemist, world-renowned authority in the field of fats – in the early 1950s she tried to announce to the world how dangerous it is to eat processed food fats. Unfortunately, the influential financier effectively blocked the spread of her discoveries, despite the fact that the doctor filled her mission officially as a representative of the German government for research on the impact of mass-produced food and medicines on human health. 


Here you can find healthy fats – CLICK


Fortunately, a doctor efforts were soon taken over by other world scientists who, inspired by her research work, began to conduct their own research. And so, today, all experts on fats and their impact on human health and life are beating the alarm, and their message is TO STAY AWAY FROM THERMALLY CARDED FATS! This group of food fats mainly includes margarines and products such as food mayonnaises (not all, you need to check the labels of products!), Salad dressings, popularly known as dressings. The essence of all evil are transizomers (note: producers of fats and processed foods do not show the actual amount of those subjected to the process of hydrogenation of fats on the labels!) 

How and why transizomers are produced 

Hardened cooking fats are produced in the hydrogenation process. 

Hydrogenation – consists in subjecting substances (in this case polyunsaturated healthy and desirable fatty acids in our diet) to the action of hydrogen in gaseous form under pressure and high temperature (120-210 ° C, ie 248-410 ° F). In order for a chemical reaction to occur, it is necessary to introduce a catalyst such as nickel. 

As a result of the reactions taking place, the unsaturated bonds between the carbon atoms are wholly or only partly exchanged for saturated ones. This is because the carbon atoms join the hydrogen atoms at the site of the double or triple bonds. 

As a result, the polyunsaturated fatty acid becomes either less polyunsaturated or completely saturated fatty acid. And the more saturated the acid, the more hardened it takes on the form and the less susceptible it is to oxidation, which eventually leads to complete rancidity of fat. And that’s the business of food companies 

First of all, they want to meet the demands of consumers accustomed to eating a hard, lubricating fat, which is butter (a large anticholesterol campaign supported by otherwise excellent authorities, which in recent years has been led by the medical community has effectively ousted margarine butter from many homes, meanwhile the latest research scientific rehabilitate butter and cholesterol) 

secondly, to reduce transport and storage costs must maximize product durability as much as possible, and this can only be achieved by chemical conversion of fats. Only what the consumer is no longer talking about, from the original ingredients, touted in terms of great nutritional values, hardly remains. 

Threat from the transizomers 

In the case of continuous Omega-3 deficiencies, the body tries to replace them with available fats. And here there is a serious threat from commonly used food fats, advertised as healthy and valuable. In fact, they are made on the basis of vegetable oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids, but … About this “but do not say food manufacturers or any other authorities that usually express themselves in the topic of a healthy diet. 

Well, hydrogenation processes, which these initially healthy fats are subjected to in order to meet the market requirements (adequate lubricity, extended shelf life of the product) result in the conversion of unsaturated fats to partially hydrogenated, which we call trans or trans-fats or completely hydrogenated, i.e. saturated fats. 

The chemical form of transizomers differs from the original components at first glance very little (only the amount and possibly the place of the occurrence of double bonds changes). Meanwhile, their chemical properties are different, the transizomers are harder and do not fall into oxidation reactions so easily, so they are suitable for frying and lying on store shelves for a very long time. Their electrical properties and spatial structure are also changing. 

From the biochemical point of view, they are very dangerous to health – they do not occur in nature, our body does not have any information about them, and therefore misuses them. 

For example, in a child who is learning, for the proper development of neurons, it is necessary to provide a large amount of Omega-3 so that DHA produced from them can be used to build neuronal synapses. DHA is characterized by a spatially simple carbon chain. When it is missing, the body uses transizomers. But their spatial form is twisted. Synapses emerging from them – first, they form longer, and secondly – they do not function properly. As a result, the child has not only problems with learning and memory, but also with behavior (ADHD syndrome). 


You can read also: The role and qualities of fat in the diet




Lipids are a group of natural organic compounds soluble in organic solvents and not soluble in water. 

They play a very important role in our body, but not everyone realizes how important. 

The list of their properties and functions is extremely extensive, I will cite only a few. 


Here you can find healthy fats – CLICK


Fats are important components of biological membranes, nervous tissue, they are an important element that is part of many hormones, cholesterol and important substances inside cells. In addition, fats play a protective role in our body 

-insulation (protect against heat loss), 

– keep internal organs in a fixed position, preventing their displacement, 

– they protect them from mechanical injuries. 


As I wrote earlier, these are just a few of their functions that they perform, but on their basis we can state that without their participation our body could not exist. 

Lipids are the most caloric nutrients of all (1g – 9 kcal). They improve the taste of our dishes and create a feeling of fullness between meals. 

In addition, fats found in natural foods contain fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids. 

The average fat requirement (according to the study) varies between 15 and 30% of the total caloric demand. 


Specific fats are composed of 3 molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of alcohol – glycerol. A fatty acid molecule consists of an even number of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Depending on the type of fatty acids forming a given type of fat, you can distinguish between saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Saturated fatty acids do not have double bonds in their composition, monounsaturated acids have one such bond, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more. 

Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated acids can be formed in the human body. However, there are polyunsaturated acids that the body can not produce, and so they must be supplied from food. They carry the name of the essential unsaturated fatty acids. These include linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid and other compounds belonging to their families (eg eicosapentaenoic acid – EPA, docosahexaenoic acid – DHA). 



So much for the introduction. 

In the following, I would like to present the issues that are most often addressed. 

1.) Food fat = fat gain – so many people think. 

First of all, we have to realize that the growth of body fat corresponds to a positive energy balance, not the presence of fat itself. 

This issue also applies to reduction cycles. We think that by eliminating fats we will achieve a faster effect. Therefore, fats are replaced with carbohydrates, thus depriving the body of a nutrient that is extremely important as mentioned above. 


When comparing fats with carbohydrates, carbohydrates have a greater tendency to build spare fat. Why? 

Well, excess carbohydrates (glucose) goes to fat cells, where it converts into the active form of glycerol. For the construction of fat cells, fatty acids are needed in addition to glycerol, which in the case of excess carbohydrates may also come from them. Therefore, excess carbohydrates will always turn into fat tissue. 

Foods rich in fat, of course, also affect the growth of fat, but not to the extent of carbohydrates, because the fat of fat can provide fat cells only fatty acids (glycerol supplied by fats is not activated by our body). 

In addition, with a diet rich in carbohydrates, and also low in fat, the body increases the synthesis of fatty acids. 

So let’s remember not to combine too much fat with carbohydrates (especially saturated fats) because it does not have a beneficial effect on our body composition and is not healthy. 


2.) Another issue is what fats should I include in my diet and where can I find particular types of fatty acids? 

When choosing fats for our diet, we must remember their appropriate proportions (more on below). A frequently asked question is also the question whether to choose animal or vegetable fats. Due to the right proportions, we must consider both the first and the second in the diet. 

These fats differ mainly in the type of fatty acids and the content of vitamins. In animal fats (except for fish fats) mainly saturated fatty acids occur, whereas in vegetable fats unsaturated. In some animal fats – milk and fish – there are vitamins A and D that are not found in vegetable fats. Vegetable fats, on the other hand, contain vitamin E, which is found only in small amounts in animals. 


In my opinion, we should include in our diet first of all 

– as a source of fatty acids saturated with natural butter, coconut oil, lard (about which more when frying), 

– as a source of monounsaturated fatty acids extra virgin olive oil, rapeseed oil with a reduced content of erucic acid (Canola), 

– as a source of fatty acids polyunsaturated fish oil, linoleic oil, walnut oil, pumpkin seed oil. 


We should also remember that a large part of the fats we eat are invisible fats, i.e. those that form part of such products as meat, fish, eggs and dairy products. 


3.) What should be the proportions of fatty acids in my diet? 

Regarding the ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, their proportions should be 1/1/1. This proportion, contrary to appearances, is easy to keep choosing from the products I mentioned above. 

However, when it comes to the proportions of omega 3 to omega 6, the matter is not so easy. The proportions should range from 15 to 11 (preferably 11). The case is not so easy because omega 6 is the dominant product in the vast majority of products. To meet the proportions given by me, add oil, omega 3 capsules to your diet, and oily fish is a rich source of omega 3. 

Remember also that the intake of essential fatty acids (EFAs) must be related to the appropriate intake of vitamin E (tocopherol – an antioxidant) to control and reduce antioxidant. For every 1 g of EFA, 0.4 – 0.6 tocopherol should be used. 


4.) Should you include margarine in your menu? 

Margarine is a fat with a solid consistency at room temperature for the production of which vegetable oils are used. Vegetable oils, as you know, have the consistency of liquids, so they must take appropriate processes to change this consistency into a solid one. This process is called the hydrogenation process. It involves saturation of double bonds with hydrogen. This process takes place at elevated temperature, pressure and in the presence of catalysts. These conditions are radically different from those that occur in our bodies. As a result of hydrogenation, vegetable oils are deprived of all ingredients such as vitamins, carotenoids, tocopherols, whereas omega 3 and 6 fats are transformed into hydrogenated trans fats. 

Trans-isomers increase the level of insulin in the blood, allow the flow of foreign substances into the interior of the cells causing them to mutate, increase cholesterol levels in the blood and disrupt the body’s immune processes. They may also act unfavorably on the fetus. 

Taking the above into consideration, one should strive to reduce the content of trans isomers not only by eliminating margarine but also by eliminating from their diet such products as fast food, chips, powdered soups, sweets. 


4) Frying – another frequently discussed topic. 

It is a heat treatment process based on heating the food in a fat environment, which leads to increased calorie content. During frying, many unfavorable compounds are formed. One of them are peroxides, which are the result of free radicals decay. During frying, oxidation of vitamins also takes place, and fatty acids are transformed into toxic substances. As we can see the frying process is an unfavorable process and we should strive to eat as little fried products as possible. However, if we decide to fry, we should pay attention to it 


– the amount of fat used for this process was as small as possible, 

– the duration was as short as possible – in the conditions of short frying, oxidative changes are just started, 

– pour the fat used, 

– do not let it burn, 

– take care of the proper temperature of the fat used (too low tempertaura causes fat to penetrate, too high formation of toxic compounds), 

– take care of the right type of fat. 


Regarding the type of fat, oils with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids are best used raw, without heating. Do not use them for frying because of the content in them, the large number of double bonds, to which oxygen joins, causing the hydrotherapy. The more double bonds contain fatty acid, the faster the setting process takes place. 

Also, butter should not be used for frying, because under the influence of high temperature the fat contained in it is decomposed very quickly to produce harmful substances (eg acrolein, free radicals).

The relatively short-term heating is suitable for oils with a lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. rapeseed oil, olive oil. 

Lard is suitable for heat treatment even at high temperatures. 

The usefulness of individual fats for frying can be confirmed by their smoking temperature – this is the moment when the product begins to degrade and release carcinogens under the influence of the temeprture. 

The temperature of smoking of some fats (degrees C) 

– palm oil – 240, 

– animal fat – 220, 

– olive oil – 210, 

– soy milk, sunflower – 170, 

– a grape seed, corn – 160, 

-marargine – 150, 

– butter – 110. 

The ideal temperature for frying is about 180 degrees C. 


You can read also: The role and qualities of fat in the diet



CKD and the Chinese art of frying

CKD and Chinese frying art 

The CKD diet, as we know, is sometimes onerous. We renounce so many things that preservation of taste in what we can eat seems to be a matter of state importance. In the previous post, in which I gave a few menus and ways to prepare dishes, there were several fried dishes, so – in order not to be accused that I want to poison you – I put a small warning about the process of frying that I last read about. I have, of course, a ready solution to the problem, which I give in full at the end of this article. This is, of course, the Chinese art of frying! Let’s start with the threats. 


Here you can find healthy fats – CLICK


And the threats unfortunately for the Polish cuisine are typical fry for a long time, on unhealthy fats. Usually, we also use heavy pans and pots. 

I will not mention that you should only fry on healthy fats, or that olive oil is not frying, because everyone knows about it. There was a post on this topic in this forum. It turns out, however, that you also have to be able to fry on healthy fat. Why? 

Well, I read that “fat, under the influence of high temperature, oxygen and water vapor escaping from the fried product is transformed into various chemical compounds, which very quickly undergo further adverse reactions. As a result of aeration of the fried fat, unstable peroxides are formed, which further break down into high-energy and extremely aggressive free radicals. These fast reacting particles begin to attack the remaining intact fatty acids and make them free radicals. During the decomposition of peroxides, low molecular weight compounds are formed, such as aldehydes, ketones, acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, etc. As a result of too long or rapid heating, they begin to combine and form compounds of increased weight. The peroxides formed during frying, free radicals and the products of joining various compounds are extremely toxic. 

What does this mean for us? This means that when frying a fish for too long, the nutritional value of the fat itself decreases, we can also lose such valuable omega3 value for us. The amount of fatty acids EFA that are valuable to our body will be reduced in food, which under the influence of high temperature are destroyed and converted into toxic substances. As a result of the thermal breakdown of fat, acrolein, a carcinogenic compound, is also formed. 

So instead of a tasty and healthy dish, we will get quazi – poison, and on the other hand, we will increase the viscosity of fat, which will deteriorate its taste and smell. And what else can meet us worse on our CKD than an extra-cursed taste palate? 

But this is not the end. It turns out that in poorly performed frying process proteins will also suffer, because “between the products of fat oxidation and proteins comes to the formation of complexes that reduce the biological value of Ucierpi protein, thus also its digestibility and digestibility. By the way, some of the vitamins A, D, E and B (mainly B6) pass with the wind (velvet with barrel), and the oxidized compounds will react with vitamin B2.

How to get out of this situation? Well, we will drastically limit the amount of fried foods, or we will decide on fat-free frying (which is not entirely possible due to the fat contained in the food itself), or we will just learn to fry! 

I propose in this situation to reach the secret knowledge of the ancient masters of frying, that is to the knowledge of Chinese. 

A long time ago they developed two basic methods of deep-frying and frying in shallow oil. Both processes are of course in the wok. 

Frying in deep oil is not very interesting for CKD slaves, because of what is fried in it. These are usually breaded or breaded dishes, and therefore not available to us due to carbohydrates. 


We are very interested in frying on shallow oil. So let’s remember a few basics 

1) It is worth having a wok, because the temperature in this dish is evenly distributed, which helps to prevent local burning of the food. The best woks are of course cast iron and cost about PLN 200. The aluminum wafers covered with a layer of Teflon, which cost PLN 50, work well. You can also buy an ordinary blaszaka for as much as PLN 15, but this option is the worst, because EVERYTHING burns on them. 

2) Cut all ingredients into equal sized pieces. Most often they are very heavy stripes. Thanks to this, they are made very quickly. Even the meat will be cut off without being burnt 

3) Before frying, lubricate the wok with oil, which we do with a brush. Thanks to this the whole dish is evenly greased, and this guarantees that our dish will not burn during mixing 

4) The ingredients fry one by one due to the time they are prepared. Usually fry at the highest possible temperature, for a very short time (sometimes even a few seconds) 

5) Put the fried ingredients aside to the side of the wok, and add more to the inside, so that the finished ingredients stop frying while maintaining the right temperature 

6) Immediately after frying, add the appropriate sauce and quickly mix the whole dish 

7) Another element preventing the scorching of dishes is very fast mixing of ingredients 


Someone will ask how the carbohydrate case looks like in such dishes. I assure you that it looks very good. If we use low-glycemic vegetables, and even in strictly calculated quantities, we certainly will not exceed the recommended dose. 

If in this way we will prepare food, I guarantee that we will receive dishes that are not burnt, devoid of toxic substances, and at the same time very tasty and nutritious. So, I invite you to the kitchen! 


You can read also: What oil is the healthiest for frying?


Fats – compilation

The name fats refers to the group of lipids, esters of glycerol and fatty acids. From a chemical point of view, fats are natural organic compounds made of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms with a very diverse structure. Most fats are odorless, insoluble in water and polar solvents and well soluble in non-polar solvents. They are all lighter than water and their pH is neutral. Fats are compounds that provide the most energy, during the reaction of their oxidation, two times more energy is generated than in the case of oxidation of proteins or carbohydrates – from 1g of fat, 9kcal is delivered, while proteins and carbohydrates provide only 4 kcal / g). Fats are solvents for many important compounds, including vitamins A, E, D and K. 


Here you can find healthy fats – CLICK 


Due to the origin, the fats are divided into vegetable, animal and artificial (and modified). Due to the unsaturated structure, which occurs in large amounts in plants, and saturated, which are produced primarily by animal organisms. 


Saturated fatty acids (more important) 

– butterhead 

– kapronowy 

– caprylic 

– capricious 

– lauryn 

– myristic 

– palmitic 

– stearic 

– peanut 

– behenic 

– lignoceric 


Monounsaturated fatty acids (more important) 

– oleomininine 

– oleopalmitic 

– oleic 

– elaidynowy 

– vaccen 

– gadolein 

– erukic 

– brasidine 


Polyunsaturated fatty acids – Essential Unsaturated Fatty Acids (more important) 

– linoleic (omega-6) 

-? -Linolenic (gamma-linolenic) (omega-6) 

– arachidonic (omega-6) 

– α-linolenic (alpha-linolenic) (omega-3) 

– docosahexaenoic (omega-3) 

– eicosapentaenoic (omega-3) 



Whether or not fat will work to the detriment of the body is primarily determined by its quantity, but by its nature. Saturated fats have a particularly negative effect on the body. It is they that are deposited on the inner surface of the blood vessels, significantly reducing their light. The main component of fat deposits is cholesterol, which is a component of cell membranes surrounding cells of most animal nutrients and dairy products. As the cholesterol deposits are extended, the light of the blood vessels becomes more and more limited, so that the blood has more and more problems with reaching the places served by the given vessel. In this way arteriosclerosis develops. Decreasing the amount of products containing high amounts of cholesterol in the diet significantly reduces the risk of a heart attack. The amount of cholesterol in the diet can be reduced by limiting the intake of saturated fatty acids. It is believed that unsaturated fatty acids limit the risk of atherosclerosis. Their action is reduced to the amount of harmful cholesterol circulating in the blood. There is no doubt, however, that the best prevention of cardiovascular disease is limiting the consumption of each type of fats, especially those saturated. 

So what should be the ideal proportions of fatty acids in the human diet? According to FAO / WHO experts, the ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated to polyunsaturated in the human diet should be 111. Only this ratio should ensure optimal energy supply in the form of fat. 

And what about the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids? 

According to the latest European standards (Nutrient and Energy Intakes) daily intake of fatty acids from the omega-3 to omega-6 family should maintain the ratio of 13.

We also can not forget about the proper intake of vitamin E, which is a natural antioxidant that protects unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation, without it even the optimal pro-health doses of EFA, instead of benefiting us only to harm us! Currently, the optimal optimal dose of vitamin E is administered as a safe quantity of 0.6 mg alpha-tocopherol for each gram of nnkt (Wit E). 



Saturated fatty acids, increasing blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease. 

They occur in large quantities in animal products such as meat, cheese, cream, milk, eggs, butter, bacon and in milk chocolate and other products, such as pates, labels, sausages, cakes, rolls, biscuits. 

It has been proven that a diet high in saturated fats can cause elevation in the blood level of “bad LDL cholesterol, which is the main factor in many heart conditions and the biggest killer. Such a diet can also promote other diseases and ailments, including cancer and obesity. It can lead to disturbance of the digestive balance. 

As a source of fatty acids saturated with natural butter, coconut oil, lard, palm oil, cocoa butter. 



These fats are usually liquid at room temperature, but they can solidify after cooling (in a refrigerator). They occur in large quantities in olive oil, rapeseed and peanut oil, as well as in olives, many types of nuts and in avocado. They also contain all the fats in most important quantities, most dairy products like eggs, meat and many other food items. 

Initially, monounsaturated fats were thought to have no effect on blood cholesterol levels, it is now known that they have more favorable effects on cholesterol than polyunsaturated fat; not only lower the level of “bad LDL cholesterol, but at the same time they keep on an unchanged level or slightly raise the level of” good HDL cholesterol “. 

There is evidence that a diet rich in monounsaturated fat also affects health in a different way. For example, the Mediterranean diet, containing significant amounts of this type of fats, causes that people who use it, are less likely to have heart disease and live longer. They also observe lower obesity and lower incidence of neoplastic diseases than among people on the North European diet. Oils rich in monounsaturated fats are a rich source of antioxidant vitamin E. 

As a source of monounsaturated fatty acids extra virgin olive oil, rapeseed oil with reduced erucic acid (Canola), peanut oil, avocado oil, Brazil nut oil, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, rice oil, cocoa butter. 


These types of fats are in a liquid state at room temperature or slightly lower. These are vegetable oils, such as corn oil, sunflower oil and walnut oil. Polyunsaturated fats, unlike saturated ones, lower LDL cholesterol in blood, but it should be remembered that excessive consumption of polyunsaturated fats is unfavorable, especially when used for frying. They are easily oxidized in the body, creating free radicals that can destroy cells and thus contribute to the development of tumors (a diet rich in antioxidants helps to minimize this phenomenon). 

The right dose of polyunsaturated fat is essential in the diet, because it contains essential fatty acids (EFAs), which the body needs to be healthy. They are defined as indispensable, because they are fats, the only source of which is food. The remaining fats can be produced by the body. 

There are two “families of polyunsaturated fatty acids – omega-3 and omega-6. Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in fatty fish, soy, rapeseed oil and walnuts. 

Omega-6 fatty acids are found in the seeds of sunflower, safflower (ie safflower, the so-called false saffron) and in corn oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are also one of the few rich sources of vitamin E, an important vitamin from the group of antioxidants. 

As a source of fatty acids, polyunsaturated fish oil, high linolenic linseed oil, walnut oil, pumpkin seed oil, hemp oil, safflower oil, corn oil, poppy seed oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, rosehip oil, grape seed oil, camelina oil, rice oil, soybean oil, evening primrose oil 


There is another group of fats called transizomers. Most fatty acids in food products are unsaturated processed (hydrogenated) fats by the food industry, so that they remain solid at room temperature. In this way margarines are produced, which are in fact a mixture of different oils. These hydrogenated fats become similar to saturated fats from the point of view of their effects on the body. For years, it has been suspected that the transizomers are not better for the body than saturated fat, and more and more evidence has recently appeared that they may be more harmful, for example in heart disease. Scientific research proves that the transizomers not only raise the level of “bad LDL cholesterol, but also lower the level of” good HDL cholesterol. Transizomers are the only type of fats with this effect, because natural saturated fats, such as butter or cheese, can increase LDL cholesterol, but at the same time increase HDL cholesterol.



Frying in fat is primarily a process of dewatering. Water and water-soluble products pass from the product to the fat or leave the product as water vapor. In addition, fat is absorbed by the product. 

Oils with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids are best used raw, without heating. Do not use them for frying because of their high content counts double bonds, to which oxygen joins, causing hydrotreas and highly toxic compound (HNE – 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal), which increases the risk of heart disease, liver, and even neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. The more double bonds contain fatty acid, the faster the setting process takes place. 

Also, butter should not be used for frying, because under the influence of high temperature the fat contained in it is decomposed very quickly to produce harmful substances (eg acrolein, free radicals). The relatively short-term heating is suitable for oils with a lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. rapeseed oil, olive oil. However, palm oil and lard are suitable for heat treatment even at high temperatures. 

The usefulness of individual fats for frying can be confirmed by their smoking temperature – this is the moment when the product begins to degrade and release carcinogens under the influence of the temeprture. The ideal temperature for frying is about 180 degrees C. 



Avocado oil – is obtained by cold pressing of avocados. It is characterized by a dark green color, faintly noticeable, similar to olive oil aroma and fruit-nutty flavor. It contains large amounts of vitamin E, lecithin and beta-sitosterol. The Mediterranean cuisine is widely used for cold dishes, as an addition to salads, salads and sauces. 

Contains 60-80% oleic acid, 10-20% linoleic acid, 4-12% palmitic acid, up to 2% stearic acid, approx. 2% linolenic acid, lecithin, beta-sitosterol, mineral salts, phytosterols, squalene, rich in vitamins A, B, D and E. 


Andiroba oil – is obtained by pressing or squeezing andiroba (Carapa guianensis) seeds, originating in Brazil. It is a yellowish vegetable oil with a bitter taste and a slightly nutty smell. The smell resembles olive oil. It has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiparasitic properties, prevents cancer, malaria, insect bites. 

It contains 46% oleic acid, 20% linoleic acid 


Argan oil – oil made from fruits of iron argan. Argan oil is slightly darker than olive oil, with a reddish color. There are two types of argan oil which can be used for cooking and a brighter – cosmetic one. Argan oil has various medical properties, among others, it lowers cholesterol levels, improves blood circulation and supports the natural immunity of the body. It is suitable for consumption as an addition and dressing for salads, as a marinade for meat and other food products. 

It contains about 43% oleic acid, 37% linoleic acid, 12% palmitic acid, 6% stearic acid, 0.5% linolenic acid 


Black cumin oil – obtained from the pressing of seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa), honey color to dark brown. Slightly bitter in taste, with an intense, spicy smell. 

It contains 28% saturated fatty acids, 53% linoleic acid, 25% oleic acid, 4% alpha-linolenic acid, 0.5-1.5% essential oil, vitamin E (tocopherols), vitamin A (carotenoids), biotin, microelements and trace elements. 

Validity After opening 3-4 months. 


Rosehip oil – a rare oil with a dark yellow to slightly brownish color produced from seeds of wild rose (Rosa canina) by their extraction in hexane. Then it undergoes a refining process. This oil is distinguished by its unique, naturally pink color and mild taste. It adds uniqueness to desserts, cocktails, fruit salads and meat dishes.

Contains 40% linoleic acid, 40% alpha-linolenic acid, vitamin A 

Validity After opening only 8-10 weeks. 


Coconut oil – oil obtained by pressing and warming copra – hard coconut nut flesh (Cocos Nucifera). Most commonly found as refined, deacidified and bleached. It is slightly yellow in the liquid form. At temperatures below 25 ° C, it looks like a truncated white fat (hence also called coconut butter). 

It contains saturated fatty acids (about 90%), about 44% of lauric acid, about 18% myristic acid, about 11% palmitic acid, 6% stearic acid, about 7% oleic acid, about 2% linoleic acid and 12% alpha-linolenic acid. 


Hemp oil – oil obtained from seeds of hemp, has a green-brown color and slightly bitter, spicy-nutty smell and taste. It is a valuable source of essential fatty acids, and additionally it lowers blood pressure, acts against stress, and helps in reducing the level of triglycerides. In Polish cuisine it has been known for a long time and used as an addition to potatoes, groats, boiled vegetables, salads and other cold dishes. 

Contains 54% linoleic acid, 17% alpha linolenic acid, 4% gamma-linolenic acid, 13% oleic acid, 10% saturated fatty acids 

Validity After opening only 4 weeks (even stored in the refrigerator will not extend its validity). 


Safflower oil – is pressed from ripe safflower seeds. It is used as a remedy for the formation of cholesterol in the blood and as a natural depilator. It is recommended for cold use of salads and salads. 

It contains 60-80% linoleic acid (the highest percentage of this acid contained in the vegetable oil), 10-14% oleic acid, 6% palmitic acid, 2-3% stearic acid, 0.5% linolenic acid, 0.5% peanut acid, rich in vitamins E and A. 

Validity After opening approx. 3 months. 


Corn oil – the oil obtained by extraction (in this form has a slightly reddish color) or cold pressed from maize. It is characterized by its specific taste and smell. It is best used cold for salads, sauces and soups. 

It contains 55-65% linoleic acid, 12-14% palmitic acid, 4% stearic acid, 29% oleic acid, a large amount of vitamin E. 

Validity After opening about 3-4 months. 


Lnianka oil – obtained by cold pressing seeds of flaxseed, plants traditionally grown in Poland for centuries. Due to its distinctive taste, it is ideal for salads, vegetable salads, potatoes, groats, herring, white cheese and other cold dishes. 

It contains about 35% omega-3 and 22% omega-6. 


Linseed oil – obtained by cold pressing of linseed (Linum usitatissimum), with a yellowish color and intense, bitter smell. This oil has a very beneficial effect on hair, skin and nails. The latest results show that lignans present in linseed oil consistently counteract atherosclerosis and hypertensive disease, as well as alleviate the symptoms of menopause. Its protective properties of the gastrointestinal mucosa support the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. It should be eaten cold as an addition to salads, boiled vegetables and other dishes 

Contains 10% saturated fatty acids, 58% alpha-linolenic acid, 15% linoleic acid, 17% oleic acid, rich in vitamin E

Validity After opening only 3-4 weeks. 


Poppy seed oil – it is oil pressed from poppy seeds, it has a white to black color, depending on the poppy species. It has a unique taste of potato and cheese salads. It is also an excellent addition to cakes and pastries with cheese and poppy seeds. 

It contains approx. 60-65% linoleic acid, 18-20% oleic acid and 10% palmitic acid. 


Almond oil – obtained thanks to cold squeezing of almond tree seeds, it is a syrupy light yellow liquid with a mild, sweet taste and aroma. 

It contains 65-68% oleic acid, 24-26% linoleic acid, 6-8% palmitic acid, 1-2% stearic acid and vitamin and minerals. 


Peanut oil – vegetable oil obtained from peanuts. In the cold pressed form it is a transparent, yellow oil with an intense, nutty flavor and aroma. Refined oil has almost no smell at all. It positively affects the digestive system, promotes slimming, because it provides a longer feeling of satiety and reduces appetite. Peanut oil also protects cells against allergens. Systematic use of this oil in the kitchen significantly reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Phytosterol decks bring results in the fight against cancer, which can reduce cancer metastases by almost 50%. Use cold for salads, sauces, boiled vegetables. It is a great addition to cabbage salad. 

It contains 13-45% linoleic acid, 36-72% oleic acid, 6-16% palmitic acid, 1-7% stearic acid, 1-3% arachine acid, 2-5% behenic acid, 1-3% lignoceric acid, rich in vitamins and minerals. 


Brazil nut oil – extruded from nuts of the haughty (Bartholletia excelsa). It is characterized by exquisite nutty flavor and is ideally suited for the preparation of salad dressings and desserts.

It contains about 15% saturated fatty acids, 50% monounsaturated fatty acids and 35% polyunsaturated fatty acids 


Hazelnut oil – obtained from cold-pressed hazelnuts, transparent with a golden-yellow color and nutty odor. At low temperatures, it becomes turbid / turbid. It is characterized by a unique, delicate taste and subtle fragrance. It is best to eat cold as an addition to salads, boiled vegetables and other dishes. 

It contains 78% oleic acid, 14% linoleic acid, palmitic acid, rich in vitamins, minerals and protein. 


Walnut oil – vegetable oil obtained usually as a result of cold pressing the flesh of walnut fruit. Light yellow, sometimes greenish. It is characterized by a delicate specific nutty flavor and a subtle fragrance. Walnut oil should be an integral part of the daily diet, because it reduces the content of cholesterol in the blood and its harmful effects on the human body. It contains a record amount of vitamin E, an excellent measure in slimming which also reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. It works perfectly as an addition to salads, salads, pancakes and cold desserts. 

It contains 5-15% linolenic acid, 51-58% linoleic acid, 14-28% oleic acid, 8-16% saturated fatty acids, rich in vitamins A, B and E 

Validity After opening approx. 3 months. 


Macadamia nut oil – obtained from the macadamia nut pressing, it has a light yellow color. 

It contains 57% oleic acid, 25% palmitic acid, 15% saturated fatty acids, rich in vitamins A, B, E and minerals 


Palm oil – oil obtained by pressing the seeds of Guinea oilseed (Elaeis guineensis). The seeds are very hard which makes it difficult to get oil, first they are dried, then ground, pressed and finally refined. The oil at room temperature has the appearance of hard, yellow-brown fat and a characteristic smell. After refining, it becomes a hard, white to yellowish mass with a neutral, pleasant taste. 

It contains 51% lauric acid, 17% myristic acid, 13% oleic acid, 8% palmitic acid, 2% stearic acid, 2% linoleic acid. 


Pumpkin seed oil – cold pressed unroasted pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita Pepo) give a dark green-brown vegetable oil with a nutty flavor and taste. It is the most affordable and easily available source of zinc, which most people have too little (zinc deficiency causes, among others, prostate related problems). It also contains phytosterols. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil is recommended for prophylaxis and as an adjuvant in the treatment of the initial stage of prostate hyperplasia, bladder and urinary tract diseases. It removes toxins from the human body. The oil has an extremely effective effect on digestive disorders in children, eliminating the majority of parasites in the digestive system and causing the normalization of appetite in children. Use cold for salads, cooked vegetables and other dishes prepared cold. 

It contains 47-50% linoleic acid, 30-35% oleic acid, 10-25% palmitic acid, up to 2% other fatty acids, vitamin E, B1, B2, B6, large amounts of vitamins A, C and D, rich in beta -carotene, potassium, selenium and zinc. It also contains nutrients such as phytosterols, squalen, phytosterinen, citrulin, and cucurbitin. 

Store in the refrigerator after opening, thus preserving its aroma and vitamins for about 9 months, if it is not stored in a cool dark place, it is valid for only 3 months. 


Grape seed oil – cold pressed from grape seed. It lowers LDL and replenishes HDL stores, protects against heart disease, is also an extremely rich source of vitamin A and E. In the Mediterranean diet it is widely used for salads, sauces, as well as for frying and stewing, because it can withstand very high temperatures. Its main advantage is incomparable to any other oil property preserving the natural taste of the ingredients. Dishes fried with grape seed oil will not pass through a strange aroma, they will not change their subtle flavor and aroma notes, and above all will not have a greasy aftertaste. 

It contains about 65% linoleic acid, 11% saturated fatty acids and 17% monounsaturated fatty acids. 


Rice oil – extruded or extracted from broken rice husks (oryza sativa). Recommended because of its qualities as salad oil. Also excellent for frying due to the high temperature of smoking and limited absorption of fat by the dishes. 

It contains 38% oleic acid, 40% linoleic acid, erucic acid esters, gamma-oryzanol, squalene, phosphoric acid, esters of higher alcohols and fatty acids, very large amounts of vitamin E and tocotrienols. 


Rape oil – food vegetable oil produced from rape. Perfectly counteracts cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis, reduces the risk of myocardial disease. Like most cold pressed oils, it effectively reduces cholesterol levels in the body, exacerbating the excretion of bad cholesterol. It regulates the metabolism. Studies have shown that it alleviates the symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Used by some drivers in diesel engines, because it is cheaper than oil; P 

It contains about 65% of monounsaturated fatty acids (including 59% of olinic acid), 20% linoleic acid, 9% alpha-linolenic acid, and vitamins E and A. 


Sesame oil – vegetable oil obtained by cold pressing of sesame seeds. It has light to dark yellow to brown color and slightly nutty, mild aroma and taste. The variety used in the food industry has a dark brown color and strong aroma. The compounds contained in sesame oil help to lower blood pressure and reduce the dose of drugs that have been taken to high blood pressure. Studies have shown that making up on average 35 grams a day of sesame oil for 60 days brings a drop in hypertension. Sesame seed oil also has a large amount of vitamin E, which is a natural antioxidant and vitamin K that acts anti-haemorrhaging and participates in the formation of bone tissue. 

It contains 14% saturated fatty acids, 41-43% oleic acid, 41-43% linoleic acid, 9-10% palmitic acid, 5-6% stearic acid, 0.5% linolenic acid 

Validity After opening approx. 6 months. 


Sunflower oil – oil obtained from sunflower seeds. It is best to use cold as an addition to various types of salads, salads and sauces, it should not overheat above a temperature of 100 degrees C. 

It contains 75% polyunsaturated fatty acids (including about 65% linoleic acid), 15% monounsaturated fatty acids and 10% saturated fatty acids. 


Soybean oil – it is made of pressed grains of soybean soy. The oil obtained has a dark brown color and a specific smell. Known in ancient Egypt, until recently widely used for food and industrial purposes. As edible fat it lost its importance due to the relatively high price and not very attractive taste. It contains a large amount of flavonoids, lecithin, steroline and vitamin E. 

It contains about 61% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 24% monounsaturated fatty acids (including 8% linoleic acid) and 15% saturated fatty acids. 


Evening primrose oil – is made from evening primrose seeds. It helps in the treatment of skin diseases (psoriasis, acne), hypertension, arthritis, infertility and many other diseases. Additionally, it helps to heal wounds, to survive migraines, has a beneficial effect on the immune system of the human body and regulates the menstrual cycle in women. 

It contains large amounts of gamma-linolenic acid, cis-linolenic acid and vitamin F. 


Olive oil – It is obtained as a result of the pressing process “cold or hot” on the flesh of olive fruit, varying from golden-yellow to yellow-green, characteristic smell and specific taste. The best is the virgin cold pressing – Extra Virgin, the compounds contained therein have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, and contain antioxidants like polyphenols, fighting free radicals and reducing the risk of heart disease, as well as delaying the aging of cells. It helps to reduce the level of bad cholesterol and increase the level of good. This product is easily digestible and has a protective effect on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. It also helps with the problems of constipation – in the morning on an empty stomach, drink a tablespoon of olive oil and drink it with a glass of warm water. It is widely used for salads, sauces, as well as for frying and stewing, because it withstands very high temperatures. Warmed oil – in comparison with other fats – thanks to a high content of antioxidants and oleic acid is very stable and retains its nutritional values ​​for a longer time. 

It contains 15% saturated fatty acids, 60-75% oleic acid, 14-18% linoleic acid, 10-18% palmitic acid, 2% linolenic acid, 2% stearic acid, vitamin E. 


Tran – is a liquid fish kept from fresh liver of Atlantic cod – Gadus morrhua or other fish from the family of gourd – Gadidae. It has a characteristic smell and taste. 

It contains 22.6% saturated fatty acids, 46.7% monounsaturated fatty acids, 19.7% Omega-3 acids and 0.9% Omega-6 fatty acids. In addition, it contains large amounts of vitamin A and D. 


Cocoa butter – vegetable fat obtained from seeds of ripe proper cocoa fruit. It has a bright yellow color and has a delicate chocolate sm 


Fast food vs. slow food

The modern realities have made us learn to live in a constant hurry. We work several hours a day, and most of the daily activities are done on the run and in stress, we put up late, get up early, order food to take away … A shared family dinner or dinner eaten with friends – a holiday falling several times a year. 


Here you can find healthy fats – CLICK 


Today, fast food reigns, which in practice means that instead of celebrating meals, the act of eating food is reduced to the unreflective satisfaction of the physiological need of food, satisfying the taste of pizza, cola and hamburger. You think that this problem does not concern you, because you do not eat in pizzerias and fast food bars? It is possible that you are wrong. 

Because every day as a dietitian I work with physically active people, I have some experience related to their dietary preferences. Very often it happens that my clients turn their noses if they see that preparing a meal requires more time than 5 – 10 minutes. For example, for men training in the gym, the peak of sacrifice is usually to cook rice and chicken breast. Washing and cutting vegetables? Making a salad? Why, there is no protein there … The fact that the dish is sterile and unpalatable is not important for many people, what counts is the number of calories and the content of proteins, carbohydrates and fats 


You can read also: Carbohydrates or fats?