Twelve facts about cheese

Several dozen species of cheese are produced in Poland. A peculiar pearl on the EU cheese market is the Polish cheese of Podlasie. In addition, Dutch and Italian cheeses are also produced in Poland – their quality is also appreciated at home and abroad. 

Polish consumers are most fond of cheeses produced from cow’s milk, including gouda, Edam cheese (Polish cheese modeled on the Dutch edam cheese), Podlaski cheese and salami. Crossing the cheese route in the supermarket, it is worth bearing in mind that most smoked cheese is produced by the industrial method using a smoking flavor, and cheeses that promise to lower LDL cholesterol may in fact be a cheese-like product. We love yellow cheeses, but we still do not know enough about them. 


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1. Yellow cheese is produced using salts, enzymes and bacteria 

The basic ingredient of yellow cheese is milk – usually cow. However, it is very important to use salt, fermentation enzymes and bacteria in the right proportions. The process of cheese formation starts with heating milk. Milk for cheese production does not have to be pasteurized. In milk at a temperature of around 30-32 degrees Celsius, bacterial cultures and enzymes are added – most often rennet enzyme. Then, the lumps from the proteins begin to be formed, from which the cheese will form. The by-product of the cheese production is whey. The salt plays a role only after the cheese is separated from the whey. After proper formation, the cheese is soaked in brine. The last stage is the formation of cheese and its maturation. 

2. Yellow cheese can be produced even a few years 

The aging time for cheese is up to several years. The ripening period is characteristic for particular types of cheese and significantly affects its consistency, aroma and taste. Of course, such a long period of aging, and thus the period of production has an impact on the final product price. Hard cheeses are not covered with microflora and mature evenly throughout the mass. Due to the low water content (about 30-40%), maturation is quite slow. It is a mistake to think that the longer the cheese matures, the better it is. Too long maturation causes the cheese to lose its aroma and delicious taste. 

3. Gouda accounts for over 50% of global cheese consumption 

Archaeological findings from Poland confirm that about 7.500 years ago, cheese resembling mozzarella was produced. Nevertheless, now the yellow cheeses dominate the market and conquer the consumers’ palates. Gouda is one of the most popular cheeses in the world, covering around 50-60% of the total cheese consumption. Smoked Gouda is a type of this famous cheese, which is made in special ovens. Smoked Gouda has brown, hard edges and a creamy yellow interior. It perfectly combines with tasty snacks such as fruits, nuts and dark chocolate. It tastes good in the form of a sandwich and a burger. 

4. Mice do not like yellow cheese 

The fairytale Jerry liked yellow cheese and maybe that’s why everyone associates this delicacy with mice. They prefer to eat sweets and products rich in sugar. Of course, if they had a hunger or a yellow cheese to choose from, they would choose the latter. However, this is only due to the instinct of survival. The same would be done by any other animal. 

5. One liter of blue cheese is 10 liters of milk 

To produce 1 kg of cheese, you need as much as 10 liters of milk. This means that 2 slices of cheese correspond to 2 glasses of milk. No wonder that the yellow cheeses contain a lot of calcium – eating 4 slices of cheese makes it possible to cover the average daily demand for calcium in 100% – whether it is digestible – this is another matter, proteins and of course fats. The preservation of the indicated proportions is, according to the cheese recipe, necessary to produce a good cheese. Nevertheless, today’s cheese producers can use technologies that help reduce milk consumption per 1 kg of cheese and lower prices. However, it affects the quality and taste of the cheese. 

6. Eating a cheese 30 minutes before bedtime makes it easier to fall asleep 

Scientific research carried out in 2005 has shown that eating a cheese for 30 minutes before going to bed helps you fall asleep. Effect of this treat results from the content of the amino acid called tryptophan. It reduces the stress level and helps you fall asleep. 

7. Sliced ​​cheese can be stored for a maximum of 4 days 

We buy yellow cheeses in slices and in a piece. Slices of cheese are faster to mold, so keep them in the fridge for up to 4 days. Cheeses in a piece can be stored up to 3 weeks. Cheeses should be stored at a temperature of about 6 degrees Celsius. To fully enjoy their taste, let’s eat them out of the fridge when they get to room temperature. 

8. Yellow cheeses do not contain lactose and rarely cause allergies 

You can meet the products that have \ lactose free written on the packaging and are yellow cheeses. Nevertheless, the conscious consumer knows perfectly well that the yellow cheeses do not contain any or contain traces of lactose. Lactose is a milk sugar that decomposes in the maturation process. What else is a cheese-like product – if you see something on the shop shelf that resembles cheese and is \ lactose-free, it’s probably just a cheese-like product. Interestingly, yellow cheeses, although containing cow’s milk proteins (provided that they are produced from this type of milk) rarely cause allergies. Proteins, like lactose, break down in the cheese ripening process. 

9. Hole in the cheese can be caused not only by fermentation 

Holes in cheese, which are so characteristic and valued by gourmets (eye), arise in the process of its maturation due to the release and accumulation of carbon dioxide, the formation of which is the result of the activity of propionic fermentation bacteria. The holes also appear because the milk contains small impurities that could not be removed during its filtration. According to the researchers (before the tests carried out in 2015), the holes were created as a result of the use of very clean milk. 

10. Why is yellow cheese shaped like a large disc? 

According to the tradition of European cheese manufacturers, the finished product has a round shape. Thanks to the fact that the cheese had the appearance of a large disc, it was easier to transport it – you did not have to carry it, because it could easily turn, like a wheel from a wagon. Interestingly, in the English county of Gloucestershire, cheese rolling has been organized for over 200 years. They consist in the fact that participants chase a round cheese weighing about 3 kg, rolled from a steep hill. The one who first grabs the cheese wins, and the prize is of course the prize. 

11. The yellow cheese has been processed into counterfeits 

Two decades ago, chocolate-like products were popular in Poland – nowadays few consumers want them because chocolate has become more available. Nevertheless, some of the buyers can be fooled by the fake yellow cheese, i.e. a cheese-like product. The definition of cheese is defined by EU rules. According to the adopted norms, cheese is a food dairy product obtained milk in the process of extracting protein and fat from it. You can add special additives to the cheese – for example, special mold, condiments and omega-3 acids. However, the list of additions is limited. The average consumer may find it difficult to distinguish between cheese and a cheese-like product. A proven way to distinguish cheese from a cheese-like product is the name of the product. The cheese-like products are called, for example, gouda type cheese, Dutch type cheese. The composition given on the label will also reveal the truth. In the cheese you will not find, among others vegetable fats and starch. 

12. The healthiest yellow cheese is parmesan cheese 

Parmesan originating in Italy is the healthiest yellow cheese. Parmesan provides the body with a lot of vitamins and minerals, and at the same time can be helpful in maintaining proper blood pressure, as confirmed by the study. Parmesan contains relatively few calories compared to other types of yellow cheese, as 100 g of this product contains approx. 26 g of fat. It is a rich source of protein, and it is very easy to digest. 

The above-mentioned 12 facts about yellow cheese reveal that, although we really like these milk products, we can not often distinguish them from the cheese-like product. Very often, cheeses are treated as a product that must be eliminated from the diet, while they constitute a valuable source of protein, vitamins and minerals. 


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Butter – what to look for when buying it?

Butter is a product made from cow’s, goat’s or sheep’s milk.

Real butter contains milk fat and the possible addition of salt and natural dyes, such as carotene or annatto. Butter must not contain added vegetable fats. Due to the taste, the butter is used in many areas of gastronomy. It is most often chosen as an addition to fresh bread, it is a component of soups and sauces, meat dishes and fish. 

It is not surprising that butter is an item in every home. The popularity of butter has meant that producers offer a wide range of products designed for min. for spreading bread. On the market, however, you can find products that are designed to look and taste like butter, but in addition to milk fat also contain vegetable fats and artificial food additives. So how do you recognize real butter and what to look for when choosing fat for spreading bread? 


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What spreads can we find on the market? Types of butter 

Manufacturers offer a wide range of bread spreads and for use in the kitchen. The following types of butter can be found in stores. 

– extra butter – made of pasteurized and acidified cream, it should contain at least 82% fat, and water – at most 16%, also contains no more than 0.6% lactose 

– butter cream – made of non-sour cream, should contain at least 73% fat and a maximum of 19% water, contains 2-3% lactose 

– table butter – contains 73% fat, water content should not exceed 24% 

– deli butter 

– selection of butter 

Extra and excellent butter, can be produced as salted. Salted butter contains 0.3-2% salt. You can also find other products in stores. However, they must contain specific markings 

– butter with ¾ fat content – contains 60-62% fat (milk) 

– Semi-fat butter – contains 39-41% fat 

– milk fat for spreading …% – contains less than 39% fat 

Other products for spreading 

– fat mix – a mixture of milk fat (the content of which is from 10% to 80%) and vegetable fats. Fatty mixes may also contain dyes, preservatives and emulsifiers. 

– margarine – a fat-water emulsion produced by hydrogenating liquid vegetable oils (e.g. rapeseed, soybean, palm oil). The fat content in margarines is 40-80%. Depending on the composition, it has a soft consistency (available commercially in plastic containers) or hard (sold in cubes) 

What to look for by choosing butter? 


The name of the product is the first thing that should be taken into consideration when making a choice in the store. By the decision of the EU Constitutional Tribunal of 2017, the name “butter can only be used for products made of milk of animal origin. So the names “peanut butter,” vegetable butter are not allowed. The same decision applies to products such as milk and cheese. It is forbidden to use names such as “vegetable milk,” coconut milk or “soy cheese. If we want to buy real butter without the addition of vegetable fats, we should choose “extra butter. Products containing “extra butter” and “extra butter” in the name “extra creamy” may contain addition of vegetable fats. 

The same applies to bread spreads. They are a mixture of vegetable fats and milk fat with different contents. Often, however, their name can be misleading and confusingly similar to the naming of butter, eg “fat mix with the addition of butter,” a creamy fat mix, “fat mix with a butter taste,” a fat mix with the addition of butter. 

Composition of the product 

If you decide to buy a fat mix, you should pay attention to the composition of the product, especially the type of fat used for its production. Cheap fat blends and margarines are often produced from the cheapest vegetable fats, including hardened vegetable fats. Hardened vegetable fats contain unsaturated fatty acids with trans configuration, which are particularly detrimental to health. They can worsen the lipid profile of the blood, increase the concentration of “bad LDL cholesterol, while lowering the fraction of” good HDL cholesterol. They can also increase the risk of many cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancer. Therefore, we should avoid products in which we will find 

– Palm oil, 

– hardened and partially hardened palm oil, 

– hardened and partially hardened vegetable fat. 

Fatty mixes and margarines can also contain artificial colors, emulsifiers and preservatives such as sorbic acid (E200) or potassium sorbate (E202), which can cause allergies and exacerbate symptoms of asthma. 

So what to choose? 

If we decide to buy butter, choose only real butter without adding vegetable fats. 

If we want to choose a cheaper fat for spreading, we can choose a fat spread for spreads. However, it is necessary to pay attention to the type of fat used for its production and to avoid the content of hardened vegetable fats, artificial colors, flavors and preservatives. It is worth noting that people who are struggling with too high cholesterol levels in blood should limit the consumption of butter. 


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How many calories does coffee and tea have?

Black coffee and sugar-free tea do not provide calories. An espresso cup has only 1 kcal, and 0 kcal tea. It is enough, however, to add milk, sugar, whipped cream or flavored syrup so that the caloric value will increase significantly. Often you add not one, but a few additions. It is thanks to them that coffee can turn into a calorific bomb. 


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If you drink a few of these beverages during the day, you may find that you have consumed the amount of calories in a large dinner. Coffee with whipped cream and amaretto syrup is like dessert, but at the same time it still remains liquid, which reduces hunger to a small extent. 

The caloricity of tea depends on 

added sugar, 

addition of honey, 

addition of flavored syrups (eg raspberry). 

The caloricity of coffee depends on 

milk type, 

addition of flavored syrups, 

addition of whipped cream. 

Calorific value of classic coffees and teas 

See how many calories have classic types of coffees and teas without sugar! 

A cup of espresso coffee (50 ml) 1 kcal 

A cup of cappuccino coffee (150 ml) 55 kcal 

A glass of latte coffee (250 ml) 143 kcal 

A glass of cereal coffee (250 ml) 5 kcal 

A glass of black, green, red, white tea without sugar (250 ml) 0 kcal 

A glass of raspberry tea, hibiscus without sugar (150 ml) 0 kcal 

Caloricity of coffee and tea additives 

Check how many calories have the most popular additions to coffee and tea. 

A glass of milk 0.5% (250 ml) 98 kcal 

A glass of milk 2% (250 ml) 128 kcal 

A glass of milk 3.2% (250 ml) 153 kcal 

A glass of soy drink (milk) (250 ml) 103 kcal 

A glass of coconut milk (milk) (250 ml) 63 kcal 

A glass of almond drink (milk) (250 ml) 75 kcal 

Portion of whipped cream 145 kcal 

A spoon of amaretto syrup 32 kcal 

A spoon of raspberry syrup 21 kcal 

A spoon of sugar (5 g) 20 kcal 

A spoon of honey (12 g) 39 kcal 

The effect of tea and coffee additives on their calorific value 

We will show you how additives change the calorie content of coffee! See how the calories increase! 

Espresso + a glass of milk 2% 129 kcal 

Espresso + a glass of milk 2% + whipped cream 274 kcal 

Espresso + a glass of milk 2% + whipped cream + 2 tablespoons of flavored syrup 338 kcal 

A glass of black tea without sugar 0 kcal 

A glass of black tea with a teaspoon of 20 kcal sugar 

A glass of black tea with 2 teaspoons of 60 kcal sugar 

A glass of black tea with 3 teaspoons of 60 kcal sugar 

If you drink during the day 

2 teas (each sweetened with 2 teaspoons of sugar), 

latte coffee without sugar, 

flavored coffee with whipped cream and syrup, 

together you will provide an additional 600 kcal! Pay attention to this during the next meeting with friends in the cafe. 


You can read also: Coffee on a diet – how to prepare it to get the most benefits out of it?


Some facts about milk that you need to know

Many words are spoken and written about the qualities and disadvantages of milk, and the opinions about its health and nutritional values ​​are strongly divided, and the opinions expressed often contradict each other. Interestingly, a significant part of both these critical and enthusiastic theories – there is no solid justification. In this article I will present a few hard facts about milk, which you should read to form an opinion about yourself. 


Here you can find milk proteins – CLICK


Problems with drinking milk

Some people can drink milk with liters and do not experience any unpleasant consequences resulting from this fact, other people feel discomfort from the digestive tract, bloating, gas, sometimes diarrhea after just one glass. For this fact corresponds to lactose contained in milk, a sugar which is not tolerated by everyone equally. The problem with milk sugar tolerance may be related to deficiency of the enzyme – lactase. It is worth knowing that usually doses of milk in the range of 150 – 250ml are tolerated by most people quite well, only exceeding this amount results in intestinal problems. 

Scientific research

Indicates that milk can have a positive effect on the post-workout regeneration process, where its action includes, on the one hand, rapid replenishment of liquids and electrolytes, and on the other – renewal of energy reserves and enhancement of protein synthesis. It has been experimentally proven that when it comes to hydration, milk is not inferior to leading sports drinks, and in the field of muscle regeneration – it works better than carbohydrates, drinks containing soy protein. Interestingly, better results were obtained for full-fat than non-fat milk. 

Some facts

Although it would be better to drink fresh milk than it is bought in stores, it is not true to say that the latter is worthless. Similarly, it is better to choose pasteurized and microfiltered milk than UHT sterilized, but here, contrary to many theories, there is no diametrical difference between them in protein, vitamins and minerals. Often the attention is paid to adverse effects resulting from submitting milk to industrial methods of thermal processing, however, it is worth remembering that milk straight from a cow should also be subjected to high temperatures in a domestic environment, which, like pasteurisation or sterilization, would lead to some loss of nutrients. Much more important than the method of heat treatment is the way of feeding cows and in what physiological state they were in the milking period. 


You can read also: Can drinking milk be dangerous for your health?


Milk and cheese or goat milk

Cheeses are a food product of animal origin, containing almost all ingredients necessary for our body.Goat cheese is often obtained from goat milk grazed on natural pastures or fed with sweet hay harvested from ecological meadows.Goats cheeses are found in Poland by more and more consumers.These are people who are not afraid to try something new, interesting, or forcing them to do so allergy or health care.

The interest in goat products is definitely lower in our country than in Western European countries.Goat cheese, you could say new products’ on our market.


You should read it: Can drinking milk be dangerous for your health?


Few people tried to drink goat’s milk.The pursuit of a healthy diet has increased the interest in goat’s milk, considered a raw material with high nutritional value.In comparison with non-fermented milk, goat milk is about 1/3 less lactose, it can be a source of bacteria valuable to the human body

Thus, people who, for example due to allergy, can not tolerate cow’s milk, can try healthy and easily digestible, goat’s milk diet.

A goat is a little animal requiring life.It is no secret that goat’s menu may even consist of spiny thistles, which nevertheless may become for her the main supplier of vitamins, proteins and microelements

Goat milk obtained from such common food can be an excellent remedy for all lung diseases, including tuberculosis.Today’s goat products are by no means a rarity, but they have a beneficial effect on our bodies. \ NThe kitten’s milk is easy to digest and very rich in protein.It has an appetizing, slightly yellow color and a spicy, slightly salty taste.Ideally suited for makingcheese, because the fat globules are smaller than in cow’s milk.It also contains more mineral salts, mainly calcium, phosphorus, potassium and chlorine.The yellow color gives it carotene.The most valuable property of milk and goat cheese is protein, which does not cause allergies even in people allergic to cow’s milk protein or eggs.


Check also: Milk – drink or not to drink?


Goat milk is much more often recommended for consumption by doctors and dieticians than cow’s milk.It has not only nutritional but also healing properties.Eating adults, healthy people and convalescents with goat’s milk has a beneficial effect on their body.It contains a percentage less fat and more protein and vitamins compared to cow’s milk.Therefore, products made on the basis of goat’s milk, including goat cheese, are less greasy, richer in high-percentage protein, vitamins and mineral salts.

Goat products are recommended for people suffering from protein blemishes, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension, as well as children and allergies, because they do not cause allergies.Its beneficial effects are also valued in peptic ulcer disease, asthma, tuberculosis and even cancer.It increases the effectiveness of treatment, and also positively affects the growth of the body’s resistance.Daily consumption of goat’s milk and its products reduces the risk of developing respiratory and digestive diseases.That’s why it’s worth to include them in your everyday menu.It is much easier to prevent than cure.

Goat milk is digested faster and more accurately by children than cow’s milk.Mackenzi (1967) writes that according to a recent study on children with asthma, it was found that 90% of them were cured as a result of consuming, for 6 weeks, only goat’s milk which had been replaced with previously given cow’s milk.Many patients who are allergic to cow’s milk can expect favorable changes after replacing cow’s milk with goat’s milk in their diet.

The basic component of cheeses is protein constituting over 20% of cheese mass

THE PROTEIN of goat milk does not contain the main globulin fractions found in cow’s milk and acting allergenically on the human body.The structure and composition of goat milk protein are more beneficial for the human body.Goat milk protein has a high biological value, contains all the essential amino acids for humans.Goat milk contains casein in a form similar to breast milk.

The distinguishing feature of goat products is that the goat fat globules are smaller than other milk fats, thanks to which it is better emulsified, and this makes it easier to digest and absorb with easily digestible amino acids.

In its composition, goat cheeses also have exogenous fatty acids, vitamins (A, B1, B2 and PP) and especially folic acid important for young women.Due to the aforementioned advantages, goat cheeses are recommended for sufferers, includingfor cardiovascular disease or hypertension.

In addition to water, protein, fat and mineral salts, goat cheese contains vitamins A, D and E, the amount of which depends on the fat contained in the cheese, and vitamins B and C – depending on the content of whey.

The fat in goat’s milk is in the form of small and homogeneous particles (opposite to cow’s milk), thanks to which it is easily digested and digestible in the human small intestine.This causes the goat’s milk to be naturally homogenized, easily digestible and dietary.And this causes goat’s milk to lower cholesterol.

Cheese, as the only one among food products, is the richest source of calcium.The consumption of 10 dkg full-fat goat cheese fully covers the daily human demand for this ingredient.

Goat’s cheese belongs to the group of high nutritional value food products.Their nutritional value depends not only on the content of high-value nutrients, but also on their very high absorption by the human body.

Goat cheese proteins contain all the essential amino acids for the body (leucine, isoleucine, lysine, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine), which the body can not produce, but takes from the food.They are therefore full-value products.Proteins in goat cheese are particularly easily absorbed by the body.A daily consumption of approximately 10 dkg of cheese is enough.

The advantages of goat milk and milk products can not be counted.The health properties of milk are proven and used in medicine (among others, as I mentioned in allergies).So, it’s not enough that it’s healthy and tasty.Systematic consumption of cheese from goat’s milk strengthens the human body, makes it resistant to stress and diseases, increases libido and vitality, prevents osteoporosis, positively affects the nervous system, strengthens memory and supports the learning process.

A number of doctors prescribe goat’s milk as a natural remedy for many disease states and as a preventive measure.

To sum up, goat milk is an excellent substitute for cow’s milk, especially in cases of malabsorption, digestive disorders (including infant collection), cow’s milk protein intolerance, food allergies, especially stomach and duodenum.Goat milk is also used in all disease states (eg asthma and even early stages of cancer) and weakness of the body.Goat milk protein has a high biological value, it contains all the amino acids necessary for human beings.It contains casein in a form similar to breast milk.As I have already mentioned, fat in goat milk is in the form of small and homogeneous particles (unlike in cow’s milk), thanks to which it is easily digested and assimilated in the small intestine of a human.This causes the goat’s milk to be naturally homogenized, easily digestible and dietary.

On a global scale, goat milk drinks more people than any other animal.And around the world there are over 4 million goats, which on average produce about 4.8 million tons of milk.Goat milk has the same amount of protein, vitamin C and D as milk from a cow.However, it contains more vit.A and B group vitamins. It is also richer in minerals, i.e. calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus.Goat’s cheese is also more easily digestible and less calorific than its cow’s counterpart.

Although the taste of goat cheeses is quite new for Polish consumers and our palates have to get used to it, Poles are more and more willingly trying new cheeses.They also drink goat milk more often.


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Kefir nutritional value and health properties. How is kefir produced?

Kefir is a fermented milk drink made using the so-calledkefir grains. It has many health-promoting properties – includingis a very good probiotic, prevents osteoporosis, improves immunity and protects against bacterial infections.Kefir is very popular in Eastern Europe, and Poland is its second largest producer in the world.

Kefir is a fermented milk drink made using the so-calledkefir mushrooms (grains), composed of suitable bacteria and yeasts. It has a white or light cream color, slightly viscous consistency, has a distinctive, sour taste. There are bubbles of carbon dioxide in it, which makes it slightly sparkling and refreshing. Kefir contains health-beneficial lactic acid bacteria and small amounts of alcohol, as kefir grains are capable of both lactic and alcoholic fermentation. The composition and flavor of kefir depend on the amount of kefir mushrooms used and the fermentation conditions specific for each producer. Kefir is most often made from cow’s milk, goat’s milk and sheep’s milk. However, it can also be made on the basis of plant drinks such as coconut, soy or rice milk, and even with fruit juices and water.

The history of kefir


Kefir most probably comes from the Caucasus, where it was made by shepherds. They poured milk into leather sacks in which fermentation occurred due to the specific microflora. At the beginning of the 20th century, the kefir mushrooms came to Russia thanks to Irina Sakharova – a worker of the Moscow dairy, who tricked them from the Caucasian prince Bek-Mirza Bacharov.In 1909, the production of kefir in Moscow began, and in the 1930s it was already popular throughout the Soviet Union.Currently, the largest producers of kefir in the world are Russia and Poland.Kefir is very popular in the area of ​​the former Soviet Union, Hungary, Poland, as well as in Sweden, Norway, Finland or Germany.Interest in it continues to grow in the United States and Japan.


Check also: Can drinking milk be dangerous for your health?



Kefir mushrooms – characteristics

Kefir kernels are a symbiotic set of microorganisms with a specific composition that behaves like one organism.They have an irregular shape, size from 5 to 35 mm in diameter and 1-3 cm in length, white or cream color, and the shape resembles boiled rice or small cauliflower rosettes.Kefir mushrooms are composed of lactic acid bacteria (streptococcus and sticks), acetic fermentation bacteria, yeast fermenting lactose and non-fermenting yeast.Lactic acid bacteria occur most frequently.Microorganisms are kept in one structure in the form of grains thanks to the polysaccharide – glucose-galactan called kefiran.Kefir kernels are propagated by immersing in fresh milk for about 20 hours.Their production from pure cultures of bacteria and yeasts is not practiced.Depending on the origin, kefir seeds have a different composition of microorganisms.The characteristics of the final product and the benefits of kefir depend on the specific composition of kefir mushrooms.

Composition and nutritional value of kefir

The composition of kefir is variable, depending on the origin of milk, its fat content, type of kefir grains and the conditions of the production process.The main compounds formed during the production of kefir are lactic acid, carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.Diacetyl and acetaldehyde are also present.All these substances are responsible for the taste and flavor typical of kefir.Very valuable from the health point of view are bacteria and yeasts present in the kefir. Kefir is a good source of vitamins B B1, B12 and folic acid, as well as vitamin K and biotin.It also provides significant amounts of calcium and magnesium.The kefir contains essential amino acids, includingtryptophan, which has a positive effect on the nervous system and has a calming effect.Kefir is a low-calorie milk drink (50-70 kcal in 100 g), which thanks to the protein content is very filling.It contains lactose, but often does not cause digestive problems in people with intolerance to this sugar.Better tolerance results from the presence of bacteria and yeast in the kephir, which partially break down lactose.


Read also: More about Lactose



The composition and nutritional value of kefir in 100 g:

Energy 65 kcal

Protein 3.3 g

Fat 3.5 g

Lactose (milk sugar) 4 g

Water 87.5 g

How is kefir produced?

The production of kefir on an industrial scale is as follows

  1. Homogenized milk is heated to 90-95 ° C for 5-10 minutes.
  2. They are cooled to a temperature of 18-24ºC and added kefir grains in a ratio of 130 to 150. The amount of starter culture added to the milk determines the acidity, density and composition of the final product.
  3. Fermentation lasts from 18 to 24 hours.
  4. After this time, the kefir is poured into glass or plastic packaging and left to mature for 24 hours at 3-10ºC or 12-14ºC.
  5. The finished kefir is stored at 4ºC.



Check this: To drink or not to drink cow’s milk?


Health properties of kefir

Kefir has been used for thousands of years and during this time has found many uses in folk medicine. Currently, its numerous health-promoting properties are confirmed by an increasing amount of scientific research. Kefir is very often used in sanatoriums and hospitals in the countries of the former Soviet Union as an aid in the treatment of metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis and allergies. It is also used in the treatment of tuberculosis, cancer and gastrointestinal disorders when pharmaceutical preparations fail or are unavailable.Regular drinking of kefir may help to treat intestinal problems, regulate the bowel movement, reduce bloating and support the health of the digestive system.

Kefir as a probiotic

Kefir is a great probiotic – a source of microorganisms that support the development of the proper microflora of the body and prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria.The bacterial balance of the body is associated with many health aspects, among which the following are mentioned:proper digestion, regular bowel movements, irritable bowel syndrome, leaky gut, and even mental well-being and autism.In the western diet the most known probiotic is yogurt, however kefir is a much better source of beneficial microorganisms.It contains over 30 different bacteria and yeasts, making it very rich in a variety of probiotic strains.Canadian studies have shown that eating kefir helps to cure irritable bowel syndrome and reduce inflammatory processes in the intestine.

Antibacterial activity of kefir

Studies show that many bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus exhibit antibacterial activity, thanks to which they have the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.This property is used in the protection of food against deterioration, but above all in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal intoxications and intimate infections.Antimicrobial activity of kefir for Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Listeria, Salmonella and others has been demonstrated.Kefir does not have the ability to inhibit Candida yeast growth.

Kefir reduces the risk of osteoporosis

Kefir is a good source of calcium and magnesium – elements essential for healthy, strong bones.At the same time, it contains vitamin K, which is responsible for calcium metabolism and, as research shows, reduces the risk of fractures.Animal studies have shown that kefir increases calcium absorption in skeletal cells, which results in higher bone density and lower fracture risk.Due to the presence of probiotic bacteria in the kefir, the absorption of calcium, magnesium, vitamins D and K – the ingredients necessary for the skeletal system present in this drink is increased.

The influence of kefir on the immune system

In animal studies, it has been shown that both probiotic bacteria present in the kefir and bioactive peptides produced during fermentation stimulate the immune system and enhance its response to antigenic attack.Higher concentrations of antibodies in the blood of animals administered kefir were found than in the control group.At the same time, the positive effect of kefir in the prevention of asthma and allergies has been demonstrated.Drinking kefir caused a decrease in the inflammatory markers in the subjects.It has been shown to have a strong anti-inflammatory effect, which can be used in the prevention of asthma.

The ability to inhibit the development of cancer

Studies on animals and human tumor cells have shown that kefiran polysaccharide and kefir extracts have the ability to inhibit tumor cell development and prevent metastasis of breast, lung and melanoma cancers.Attempts are made to develop an anti-cancer mechanism of kefir, but the problem requires more detailed research.It has been shown that kefir has an antioxidant effect even stronger than vitamin E. This is one of the theories explaining its anticancer activity.


Read also: Does vitamin C cure cancer?


Effect of kefir on cholesterol

In a clinical trial in 2002, a group of 13 subjects examined 500 ml of kefir every day for 4 weeks, and the control group – milk.In the study group, there was a decrease in triglyceride levels and an increase in the level of good HDL cholesterol.One of the theories explaining the anticholesterol action of kefir says that the microorganisms of kefir.




Diet with lactose intolerance – principles. What foods can you eat?

The diet of lactose intolerance is a form of treatment for people whose body does not digest sugar found in milk.

A diet of lactose intolerance is a form of treatment for people whose body does not digest sugar in milk.
This type of diet relieves the symptoms of food intolerance and prevents them from re-emerging .
The diet of lactose intolerance is an elimination diet, which is a form of symptomatic treatment of lactose intolerance, therefore it is intended for newborns, infants, children and adults whose body does not digest dairy sugar .. The diet with lactose intolerance assumes complete elimination from diet ( lactose-free diet) or only limitation of the consumption of products containing lactose (you do not always have to completely exclude milk sugar from the diet.) Dietary supplements may be tablets containing lactase.The specific recommendations depend on the form of lactose intolerance, the severity of symptoms and age of the patient.


You can read also: Can drinking milk be dangerous for your health?


Diet with lactose intolerance – principles

People with primary and secondary (acquired) lactase deficiency do not have to completely eliminate from the diet milk and other products containing milk sugar. They can eat, but in limited quantities – only need to know their acceptable limit . The only exception is when the symptoms of food intolerance they are very intensified – then a lactose-free diet should be used.
In turn, people with congenital lactase deficiency must strictly use a lactose-free diet throughout their lives, because they can not tolerate even small amounts of food containing milk sugar. Failure to comply with diet can even threaten their lives.


Read also: More about Lactose


Diet with lactose intolerance – what can you eat?

Most adults with acquired or primary lactase deficiency tolerate small amounts of products containing milk sugar – usually a one-time dose of about 5-10 g lactose, or 100-200 ml of sweet milk .Therefore, in these patients there is no need to completely exclude dairy products. diets, only limiting their consumption and selecting dairy products with low lactose content You only need to determine the individual level of lactose tolerance, observing the relationship between the amount of consumed milk and the appearance of symptoms of intolerance.


Check also: Soy protein – a convenient alternative


People with primary and acquired lactase deficiency can consume fermented milk products (eg buttermilk, sour cream, blue cheese, kefir, yogurt), because the probiotic bacteria contained in them produce lactase and thus support the process of decomposing milk sugar. If they are ingested, the symptoms of food intolerance do not appear, moreover, they reduce the severity of their intake. In addition, this type of products can compensate for deficiencies resulting from the elimination of milk and dairy products from the menu.
You can also eat hard hard-ripened cheeses (ie cheddar, gouda, parmesan) because they are virtually lactose-free, therefore they are generally well tolerated by people with intolerance to this sugar, also in cream cheese such as Brie, Fromage or in melted cheeses, the lactose content is lower compared to, for example, curd cheeses.
In addition, you can find milk with low lactose in stores that is well tolerated by people suffering from this type of food intolerance.
Complementing the dietary treatment may be tablets containing lactase, which can be consumed immediately before the planned food consisting of dairy products.They facilitate the digestion of milk and reduce the post-consumption unpleasant gastrointestinal discomfort such as
flatulence, fullness, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and intestinal colic.

Diet with lactose intolerance – what to replace milk?

People with congenital lactase deficiency or those with severe lactose intolerance should avoid products containing milk sugar. Cow, goat, sheep and other milk from mammals can be successfully replaced with plant milk
buckwheat (from buckwheat and soybeans), soybean, rice (brown rice), coconut (made from pressed coconut pulp), corn (based on corn syrup) and oatmeal and products made on their basis. People with lactose intolerance are especially recommended for cheese made from soy milk because it is a good source of calcium and protein. Unfortunately, it can cause allergies, and with long-term use may cause thyroid problems.
In addition, lactose-free milk and cheese and other dairy products that do not contain milk sugar are available in stores and are labeled lactose-free . It’s good to know that milk that does not contain lactose has the same amount of calcium as regular milk.
Where can lactose be hidden?
ready meals – sauces, soups, pancakes;
bread – toast, butter buns, hamburger buns;
pates, sausages, sausages, sausages;
milk chocolate, fudge, toffee candies, ready-made cakes, ice cream, creams, chocolate bars and puddings;
medicinal syrups, tablet coatings and some artificial sweeteners
Therefore, when shopping, carefully read the labels and check if the composition contains milk powder, whey or milk fat.

What to replace calcium, vitamin D and protein?

A lactose-free diet can lead to calcium deficiency, so you should introduce other foods in the diet that contain this element
parsley, kale, beans, wheat bran, groats (eg buckwheat, barley), sprats and sardines. Fruit juices and calcium fortified flour are available on the market. In addition, mineral waters with a high calcium content (at least 50mg of calcium per 1 liter of water) should be selected. When composing a menu, one should take into account the fact that some vegetables (spinach, sorrel, rhubarb, beets) and stimulants (tea, coffee) contain oxalates, which reduce the absorption of calcium.
In some cases, it is advisable to use calcium supplements to supplement its content in the body, especially during childhood, youth, pregnancy and breastfeeding period, and in people at risk of osteoporosis.

In turn, the source of vitamin D, which may also be lacking in the diet of lactose intolerance, are fish.
By contrast, protein deficiencies can compensate for meat, poultry, fish, eggs and pulses, and soya milk, which contains a similar amount of protein as cow’s milk, is a good solution.

The intolerance of lactose, or sugar found in milk, is one of the most common food intolerances that occurs when the body lacks lactase – an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of lactose.