Categories
Healthcare

Mackerel and smoked mackerel – calories, nutritional values ​​and curiosities

Mackerel is one of the fish that Poles reach especially often. We especially like smoked mackerel – not smoked, it is not so popular. It is worth eating mackerel because it has many valuable nutritional values. In addition, it has a relatively affordable price, which means that almost everyone can buy it. 

What are the differences in nutritional values ​​between the nutritional values ​​of smoked mackerel and raw mackerel? When is it worth reaching for a mackerel and what can you do with it? 

__

Here you can find vitamins and minerals – CLICK 

__

Fresh mackerel and smoked mackerel – nutritional and healing properties 

In 100 grams of fresh mackerel we find an average of 189 calories (calories) – the calorific value depends on the age, season, spawning period, migration. Maybe for some it is a lot, but it is worth knowing that caloric mackerel comes from a large content of healthy fats. Mackerel like every fish contains a set of exogenous amino acids, so it is a source of full-value protein. Mackerel is rich in omega-3 acids that greatly affect the work of the brain and the entire nervous system. These are fatty acids, which we should reach as often as possible. Man should absorb both omega-3 and omega-6, unfortunately in the diet of modern man the latter prevail, which is not beneficial to our health. The more we should reach for more products rich in omega-3 acids to ensure the balance of fatty acids. These are found in oily fish, and mackerel belongs to one of the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids. 

In mackerel you can also find valuable and in very large quantities of vitamins – D3 and B12. 100 grams of fresh mackerel fills the daily demand for vitamin D3 in more than 100%, and for vitamin B12 in over 300%! We should reach for the mackerel, especially during autumn and winter, when the sun is much less and thus we do not absorb so much vitamin D3. Mackerel also contains quite large amounts of other vitamins from the B group – B1, B2, B3, B5 and B6. There is also a lot of choline in mackerel. 

Mackerel is also very rich in selenium.

This extraordinary element is essential for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. There are more and more people with thyroid disease, and research shows a correlation between selenium deficiency and the emergence of, for example, hypothyroidism. We recommend mackerel food to all those who have problems with the endocrine system. In mackerel you will also find a lot of phosphorus, magnesium and some potassium and zinc. Thanks to this mackerel has a positive effect on the heart, strengthens bones, prevents their demineralization and positively affects the sodium-potassium balance. Mackerel as a sea fish contains large quantities of precious iodine 

– iodine deficiency in children decreases learning ability, slows down growth and physical development during puberty. In adults, it can impair reproductive functions, make it difficult to maintain a pregnancy, lead to thyroid insufficiency and, as a consequence, to inhibit the function of many organs and life processes of the body. 

In smoked mackerel we find more calories – 100 grams of fish is about 200 calories (kcal) – here, as in the case of fresh mackerel it is dependent on many factors. Smoking is a method of food preservation by means of smoke and also temperature. Smoking has a huge impact on the amount of water in the products. During smoking, not only the water content is reduced but also chemical and physicochemical changes. As a result of smoking and water loss, the ingredients get thicker. Depending on the type of fish smoking – whether cold, hot or hot, there is a greater or lesser loss of vitamins and minerals. Smoked mackerel contains much more sodium than raw mackerel, due to the compaction of ingredients but above all by the addition of brine. Salting preserves fish, so their durability is definitely higher. To the products during smoking, also substances prolonging its durability (formaldehyde and phenols) penetrate. Smoke smoke kills the microflora in the fish and stops the spoilage. Generally, the content of vitamins and minerals in smoked mackerel is similar or even higher (due to the compaction effect of ingredients) to the value of fresh mackerel, however, as already stated, this quantity depends on the method of smoking. It is also worth knowing that the amount of precious omega-3 acids can also be high in fish, just like in raw fish. Although omega-3 acids are very sensitive to temperature, the content of acids is also largely dependent on the method of smoking and temperature. 

Comparison of calories and nutritional values ​​of fresh and smoked mackerel 

The values ​​per 100 g of the product 

Ingredient Mackerel smoked mackerel 

Calories (energy value) 189 kcal / 791 kJ 

200 kcal / 837 kJ 

Protein 19.08 g 

Total fat 11.91 g 

Omega-3 fatty acids 2.304 g 

Omega-6 fatty acids 0.324 g 

Carbohydrates 0 g 

Mackerel? Yes but … 

Although you must certainly appreciate the health-related properties of mackerel, you should pay attention to a few things. First of all, the potential content of heavy metals – including mercury. Secondly, the fish is characterized by a large number of purines, which consumed in excess can cause arthritis. Thirdly (this applies only to smoked fish) mackerel smoked by the traditional method may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) – the same compounds are also released when smoking cigarettes, in traditional smoked fish there may also be nitrosamines and dioxins. Currently, industrially smoke aromas are used more and more often instead of traditional smoking, which are made of purified smoke, which largely deprives it of harmful compounds. It is worth noting that smoked fish also contains a lot of sodium, which is important information for people with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The last issue is allergenicity. Fish are among the most common food allergens, both in adults and children – the main identified fish allergen is parvalbumin. Mackerel and especially smoked mackerel may contain large doses of histamine (resulting from the transformation from the histidine amino acid), which may cause poisoning. 

Mackerel – use in the kitchen 

Mackerel can be fried – although due to the omega-3 content it is not recommended to bake and stew. As it is a fatty fish, it is great for grilling. Fish is also a popular ingredient in salads, pastes, stuffing, sauces, soups and casseroles.  

__

You can read also: Omega 3 more important than we thought

Categories
Uncategorized

The importance of selenium and iodine to Hashimoto’s disease

Hashimoto’s disease is the name of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis – an autoimmune disease in which the patient’s immune system attacks his own tissues. This leads to the destruction of the thyroid gland and disorders of its work, contributing to the abnormal production of hormones and the development of hypothyroidism. 

The occurrence of Hashimoto’s disease depends on genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors such as infections, cytokine therapies, lithium salts and the use of certain drugs, there is also an excess of iodine and selenium deficiency. So what is the significance of these elements in the functioning of the immune system and the work of the thyroid gland? 

__

Here you can find vitamins and minerals – CLICK 

__

The importance of selenium in Hashimoto’s disease 

Selenium deficiency may lead to abnormal immune cells. Selenium sources in the diet are meat, cereals, milk products and fish as well as Brazilian nuts. In the system selenium occurs in the form of selenocysteine ​​- an amino acid responsible for the enzymatic activity of selenoproteins. Selenoproteins protect thyroid cells from oxidative stress. Selenium participates in the production of selenoenzymes, which participate in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. This element is a powerful antioxidant that protects the thyroid against the harmful effects of oxidized forms of iodine. Therefore, selenium deficiency leads to damage to thyroid cells and decrease of thyroid hormone production. triiodothyronine. 

The importance of iodine in Hashimoto’s disease 

Iodine is a basic component that is part of the thyroid hormone. When thyroxine (thyroid hormone) breaks down, iodine (around 20%) is re-used in the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency results in inadequate amount of hormones produced, which contributes to the emergence of thyroid gland. Iodine is an element that is widespread in nature especially in the vicinity of salty water clusters. The sources of iodine in the diet include sea fish, seafood, eggs, meat and meats, turnips, kohlrabi. Excess iodine has been recognized as an environmental factor that affects the development of Hashimoto’s disease. During the oxidation of iodine, free radicals are formed which, leading to oxidative stress, damage thyroid cells. Among people with Hashimoto’s disease, excess iodine and additional supplementation may accelerate the autoimmune course of the disease. Numerous studies indicate an increase in the incidence of Hashimoto’s disease in coastal states (Scandinavia, Great Britain) as well as in countries where the consumption of products rich in iodine is very high (Japan). 

Demand for selenium and iodine 

Selenium 

Demand for selenium according to Dietary Reference Intakes determined by the American National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board. 

* 1 Recommended daily intake (RDA) – a value that satisfies the needs of more than 97.5% of the healthy population in each age group, both sexes. This value is estimated by statistical methods. 

* 2 Maximum level of intake (UL) – a value that does not cause harmful effects in healthy people, as stated in the studies under medical supervision. 

* 3 Recommended Daily Intake (AI) – the probable level of daily intake calculated from observations or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of intake of individual nutrients. The AI ​​value is given when it is not possible to estimate the RDA. 

As shown by the study, the amount of selenium intake in Poland is 40 μg and is the lowest in Europe. The optimal concentration of selenium in the blood serum is 100-120 μg, while the average serum concentration of selenium in Poland is 70 μg. 

Iodine 

The iodine demand according to the Dietary Reference Intakes determined by the American National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board. 

* 1 Recommended daily intake (RDA) – a value that satisfies the needs of more than 97.5% of the healthy population in each age group, both sexes. This value is estimated by statistical methods. 

* 2 Maximum level of intake (UL) – a value that does not cause harmful effects in healthy people, as stated in the studies under medical supervision. 

* 3 Recommended Daily Intake (AI) – the probable level of daily intake calculated from observations or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of intake of individual nutrients. The AI ​​value is given when it is not possible to estimate the RDA. 

Excess iodine can be caused by too high intake of marine products (fish, seafood, sea algae). Among people with autoimmune diseases , iodine intake even at a safe dose for the entire population may result in negative symptoms. 

Appropriate concentration of selenium and iodine in blood serum can ensure proper immune response and improve thyroid gland function among people affected by Hashimoto’s disease. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the supply of selenium and iodine along with diet and dietary supplements. 

__

You can read also: Selenium in thyroid diseases

Categories
Healthcare

Elements and their occurrence

I found some descriptions from the laboratory about elements and metabolism. Write what products contain what elements and who will want to get more info about excess or deficiency, let him write because I do not want to write everything for me because it is a little. 

__

Here you can find minerals – CLICK 

__

 

CALCIUM 

chocolate, figs, peas, cabbage, cooked cabbage, cabbage spinach, Italian dill, salmon, mackerel, almonds, hazelnuts, oily milk, parmesan cheese, Emmental cheese, gouda cheese, lentils, egg yolk 

 

SODIUM 

bread, halibut, cod, turbot, whole milk, olives, salty sticks, lettuce, broccoli, sardines in oil, celery, radish, Emmental cheese, gouda, edamski.szynka 

 

POTASSIUM 

avocados, bananas, broccoli, dried peaches, cotyledon, whole-grain bread, beans, lima beans, boiled beans, boiled soya beans, peas, skinny yogurt, squash, cabbage, salmon, mackerel, cantaloupe melon, almonds, skim milk, Dried apricots, peanuts, pumpkin seeds, lettuce, celery, herring, sweet boiled potatoes, fresh orange juice, tomato juice, asparagus, cooked spinach, dried plums, boiled potatoes, baked potatoes 

 

PHOSPHORUS 

veal, whole milk chocolate, noodles, condensed milk, nuts, seeds, oters and wheat, trout, tuna, sardines in oil, emmental cheese, gouda, edam, melted, starchy vegetables, liver, musk, sausage, sausage, pork , beef, whole grain, egg yolk 

ZINC 

veal, stewed meat, pumpkin and pumpkin seeds, lobster, roast turkey, cooked crab meat, beef sirloin, nuts, sunflower, raw oysters, wedge wedges, cheese, sled, grain products, wheat bran, beef, pork and pork liver, snails, eel, yolk, corn 

 

MAGNESIUM 

bananas, brewer’s yeast, beans, peas, buckwheat, kakako, chocolate, crabs, chicken, almonds, nuts, wheat bran, steaks, pumpkin seeds, soy products, sea fish, shells, lentils, spinach, ham, pork, beef, potatoes 

 

IRON 

whole-grain bread, peas, beans, lentils, mushrooms, mollusks, meat, nuts, dried fruit, pumpkin seeds, liver 

 

COPPER 

mushrooms, meat, seeds, kidneys, nuts, dried fruits, tomatoes, whole grains, uncooked rice, liver, green leafy vegetables, potatoes 

 

CHROME 

black pepper, brewer’s yeast, grapefruit, mushrooms, artichokes, meat, nuts, seeds, oysters, whole grains, wheat and wheat bran, raisins, uncooked rice, asparagus, plums, egg yolks 

 

MOLYBDENUM

beer yeast, cauliflower, seeds, nuts, whole-grain and soy products, noodles, lentils, spinach, starchy vegetables, grits, green peas 

 

NICKEL 

chocolate, crabs, seeds, nuts, whole grains, sea fish, starchy vegetables 

 

MANGANESE 

avokado, peas, tea, barley, corn, almonds, olives, nuts, oats, parsley, wheat, rice, sunflower, spinach, whole grain, potatoes, egg yolk, rye 

 

SELENIUM 

garlic, yeast, mushrooms, eggs, wheat flour, preserved canned fish, meat, sunflower, roasted oysters, uncooked rice, cheese, crustaceans, asparagus, tuna, liver 

__

You can read also:Selenium and Vitamin E

Categories
Healthcare

Chemical elements are the building blocks of all terrestrial matter.

Some of them occur in the free state, others only in the form of chemical compounds or mixtures. They also find application in the human body, where their activity is really wide. Our article presents several of them and their role in human metabolism.

 

  1. What is behind the symbol B?

Boron is a chemical element naturally occurring in the human skeleton as well as the spleen and thyroid. In terms of chemical structure is similar to carbon and silicon. The natural sources of this microelement include nuts, as well as fresh fruits and vegetables and whole grains.

In the context of sports activity, the boron finds its place as a supportive measure for players professionally practicing strength and endurance sports or bodybuilding. In addition, it can be with successes used by people exercising amateurly due to for its pro-health character.

Boron is a semi -meter with a very wide action in the context of the human body. Among the numerous benefits of its use, it is mentioned inter alia

– stimulation of the increase in testosterone and estrogen activity

– osteoporosis prophylaxis and skeletal system effects by preventing the loss of calcium;

– antiseptic and antiviral activity;

– protection against breast cancer;

– affecting the activity of enzymes;

– improving the metabolism and metabolism of protein substances

Boron dosage, like most supplements, should take place in accordance with the current needs of the body for this element. Studies show that the daily dose of boron should vary from 4 to 10 mg.

 

  1. And like iodine

Iodine is a mineral that occurs under three different forms – water-soluble iodide, inorganic iodine or salt. This element is obtained from seaweed, which can concentrate almost 30,000 times higher amounts of this substance than those found in the water itself. Finding its sources among food products, pay attention to onions, milk, pork and beef, sunflower seeds and nuts

Iodine is primarily responsible for the regulation of thyroid hormone levels – thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Shortages of these compounds can be the cause of weakening of cognitive functions. This means that this element regulates the functioning of the nervous system. In addition, he is responsible for

– improvement of physical efficiency;

– nutrition of the skin, hair and nails

– prevention of the will.

Iodine supplementation, however, is not very popular. deficiencies in developed countries are rare, due to the varied diet. Therapy using this element can be started provided that you stop consuming salt and algae-based products. It is assumed that the daily dose, after fulfilling the above recommendations, should be from 0.075 to 0.15 mg. Higher portions can lead to suppress thyroid function.

  1. A few words about manganese

Manganese is defined as a transition metal that does not occur in nature as a free element. In most cases it is found in relationships with iron or other minerals. It is found among others in nuts, whole grains and vegetables such as beetroot, peas, spinach, potatoes, as well as green and black tea.

Without a doubt, manganese is an important ingredient for our health. In addition to stimulating the process of vitamin absorption and cell antioxidation, she is also responsible for

– regulation of the metabolism of proteins, sugars and lipids;

– removing the feeling of tiredness;

– memory improvement;

– regularity of muscle reflexes

It is also worth mentioning that manganese deficiencies can cause significant problems. It is mentioned here about osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, increased risk of epilepsy and a negative impact on fertility. Daily dose of manganese for men, it is about 2.3 mg, and for women 1.8 mg.

 

  1. How does selenium work?

It is not counted as one of the twenty-four basic vitamins and minerals to maintain optimal health. In the human body, as well as in nature, it can be found only in trace amounts, which is why it is included in micro-components.

When talking about foods in which it occurs, yeast, mushrooms, eggs, kohlrabi, nuts, tomatoes, cereals, fish and asparagus are mentioned. In order to improve general well-being and health, it is assumed that a selenium dose of 200 to 300 mg per day is sufficient.

Selenium has primarily antioxidant character

– in addition to removing free radicals and protecting erythrocytes against their toxic effects, it affects a number of other aspects of our body.

I am talking about here

– antitumor prophylaxis;

– effects on the immune system (antisepsis)

– prevention of cardiovascular disease;

– anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effect.

 

  1. The element of seafood

Vanadium is a chemical element resistant to various substances such as water, nitric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as bases.

Nevertheless, it is found within bone tissue and in a negligible amount in food. The source is seafood, i.e. oysters, mussels, lobsters, crabs and snails. In addition, this element occurs in whole grains, as well as in dill or parsley.

Vanadium is used primarily in the treatment of diabetes

– its effect is similar to the mechanism of insulin. It eliminates excessive pressure and normalizes the level of sugar in the blood. This element is also used in the prevention of heart attacks and prevents the accumulation of bad cholesterol (LDL) in the blood vessels.

The action of vanadium is still not fully understood, which is why continuous research is being carried out to show its impact on human health.

At present, it has been confirmed that vanadium has mainly prophylactic activity in the context of the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system. The daily dose taken once a day by mouth should be 100 mg in people with moderate glucose tolerance.

 

  1. An iron ally

Iron is one of the most important minerals, which is part of hemoglobin – the basic oxygen transporter throughout the body. In natural food it is found in meat products, liver, fish, egg yolks, curd, nuts, milk, legumes, shrimps, broccoli and spinach.

The element with the symbol of Fe is responsible for binding carbon dioxide (being part of hemoglobin) and directing its transport to the lungs, from where it is then removed. What’s more, it determines the proper functioning of the body and it should be used, among other things in disorders of circulation, reduced immunity and physical performance, problems with concentration and worsening of the condition of hair or nails.

Iron supplementation depends primarily on sex.

The current norms recommend the following daily doses of the element

– 19 mg for adult women;

– 25 mg for pregnant women

– 17 mg for adult men

It is also worth mentioning that substances contained in some plants contribute to limiting the absorption of iron. Chilli pepper is here (4.23 g of this product reduces absorption by 38%), rosemary as well as coffee and tea.