Low carb diet – for and against

Diet diet uneven, it is obvious. However, very often we can find diets that try to reduce the amount of carbohydrates to a minimum. One of them is “low-carb”, which is mainly derived from the fact that often carbohydrates are considered the main source of weight problems. Of course, this is not entirely true because we mainly connect the issue of losing kilograms with how much calories we eat per day and how much we burn them afterwards. This later creates various diets, which at first glance seem to be quite specific, however, this does not mean that they will not work. In this text I care about describing how the lack of (or low) carbohydrates in our body can affect us

Low-carb diet – what we lose

For starters, the most common carbohydrate sources are







Most low-carb diets mainly recommend restricting such products. Interestingly, the Australian Dietary Guideline states that there is a chance that there is a link between eating grain products and weight loss.

Low-carb diets have a small chance that during the day we will receive all the nutritional needs for our body. Most people “mainly recommend mainly consuming protein and fats. Carbohydrates can be up to 100 g / day. Such diets may have a small amount of vegetables and fruit and have in them mainly

high amount of saturated fat

low content of fiber, thiamine, folic acid, vitamins A, E and B6, calcium, magnesium, iron and potassium

lack of important antioxidants and phytochemicals

Standard foods found in such diets are beef, chicken, fish, eggs, non-starchy vegetables, and fats such as oils, butter and mayonnaise. Food that is prohibited is various types of fruit, bread, starchy vegetables and some dairy products.

It is certainly worth noting that a low-carb diet can help us lose some unnecessary kilograms. In this case, the body begins to use the available glucose and glycogen in the body to replace the lack of carbohydrates that we do not provide. We need about 3g. water to get rid of glycogen 1. also, initial rapid weight loss occurs because of water loss, not fat. After some time, of course, the body needs to take energy from another source and eventually begins to use our fat. Some people using this diet may feel some discomfort like





lack of appetite


The low-carb diet, as you can see, has many positive aspects when it comes to losing weight quickly. However, it is not recommended in the long run mainly because of the inability to provide adequate nutrients. But! There are currently no specific studies that would indicate that there are any undesirable effects in the long run. However, inadequate nutrient supply may eventually end badly. This attitude is rather due to the fact that still the best diet is adequate calorie supply, combined with exercises that will burn those calories.


Intermittent post (Intermittent fasting) – what does science say?

If anyone is interested in various trends about the diet, certainly have the opportunity to become familiar with something such as intermittent fasting. On the one hand, this seems like a rather interesting idea, but on the other hand, a red light turns on immediately saying something is wrong. I wanted to take a closer look at this diet and see what science really says. So real, supported by research. Does it really work or is it another invention of some celebrity? I invite you to the text

Intermittent fasting – what is it with?

In one of the studies presented, intermittent fasting was as follows

“Fasting day where a person consumed 25% of the energy needed

“Day of eating where a person ate as much as he wants

As you can see, the attitude was not strictly about not eating anything on certain days, but rather reducing the amount. Mainly the results were as positive as possible, at least when it comes to the short diet period. In addition, most people, despite the fact that they could eat “as much as they want during certain days, still tried to be careful with how much they eat, knowing that they are still on a diet. Some studies have shown that intermittent fasting is as effective as the daily calorie restriction. In addition, side effects were not as common in subjects. You can also meet other forms of intermittent fasting such as eating meals only at specific times of the day, e.g. from 8am to 5pm.

A positive aspect for people who use this diet will certainly be the fact that the subjects felt satisfaction without

restrictions on food intake


hyperphagia (excessive appetite)

In addition, people who do not eat often during the day or eat two meals a day are more likely to adapt well to intermittent fasting. One of the potential disadvantages that we can face with this diet is when we have to take meals like diabetes at a certain time of the day, or when we have to take a meal because of medications.


As you can see looking at the research, intermittent fasting may be the most good solution for all sorts of people from obese to people who just want to lose a few kilos. Certainly this is not just a temporary fashion but a fairly good solution for people who want to get rid of fat for a short period of time. However, this is not a diet that is recommended for a long time, despite the fact that it does not have too many negative effects.


Cleansing the body – is it just an invention?

In recent years, detox has become a very “trendy word” – mainly it seemed that it was a solution to get rid of all “bad things from the body through any solutions that at the moment seemed good, modern or old-fashioned.” I have always wanted to take a closer look and see what was really discovered in this case over the years of research. I invite you to the text.

Cleansing the body – what is it

Over the years, technology has developed at a dizzying pace. We started using things we could only dream about decades ago. Because of this, people have been concerned about what we produce and how it can harm us. All xenobiotics like synthetic chemicals and metals have become a huge concern for many. Detoxification has many different names, depending on what a person wants to convey or achieve. It is mainly associated with weight loss, withdrawal from addiction or simply a panacea for all ailments. In terms of clinical definition, detoxification is “the process of getting rid of poisons, toxins or effects previously given from the body (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry). Clinical toxicology books, in turn, state it as “any reaction, catalyzed or not, which attacks the toxin without causing injury. At the moment there is no standard in terms of clinical practices when it comes to cleansing the body.

Detoxification – what it can consist of

When it comes to detoxification, it all depends mainly on what it’s supposed to be. Very often, cleansing the body is associated with naturopathy – so-called “pseudoscience, often associated with” natural treatments. Usually considered to be contrary to science. Of course, in this case, it depends what we mean by detox, because getting rid of drugs from the body in the hospital can also be described as such. However, this text mainly stick to more “unscientific” matters. In such programs we can meet with

starvation diet

consuming mainly juices or other liquids for several days

eating only selected types of food

using various supplements

colon cleansing by enema or special hydrotherapy

combination of several of the above


At the moment, it is very difficult to determine the credibility of many of these solutions. We still need a lot of research that will determine 100% what detoxification can give us. People use such solutions because they are afraid of the impact our environment has on the body. This is completely understandable looking at many statistics related to diseases that appeared especially after the development of technology. If we feel that our body needs to get rid of something unhealthy, it is best to change your diet so that it has the least processed products, and that it is full of things that can be considered “healthy.”


Eggs – why eat them?

Very often you can find the statement that eggs are not especially healthy for us because of what they have in themselves. It is mainly about the problem of “bad cholesterol, which, as is well known, does not work well on our body. However, many studies try to show this product from another good side. It is worth to familiarize yourself thoroughly with what the egg can really offer us. I invite you to read.

Eggs – a few words

It is worth noting that eggs are a very cheap and nutritious type of food. They can contain as many as 18 different vitamins and minerals. Their occurrence depends on the age, diet and breed of chicken as well as environmental factors. Of course, despite this, we usually find in eggs a small amount of carbohydrates and about 12 g per 100 g of protein and lipids (most monounsaturated) when it comes to macronutrients. This composition adds many essential nutrients to our diet. Some of them, like zinc, selenium, retinol and tocopherols, are very poor in the Western diet (fried food, meat, salty), which gives another reason to accept eggs for our list of dishes. In addition, thanks to its antioxidant activity, this product can protect people against various problems such as cardiovascular disease.

As you can see above, eggs can be a great addition to any diet, especially they are useful for people who have problems maintaining the right amount of nutrients in the body. In addition, of course, they are recommended to people who are looking for a way to add more protein to their diet, because they can support the synthesis of skeletal muscle due to the fact that it has exogenous amino acids. Of course, there are reasons why there is a stigma regarding eggs, it is worth getting as close as possible.

Eggs – are they unhealthy?

Despite the fact that you can find many articles praising what eggs can give us, still a lot of people give up their food. One of the reasons may be that it has anti-nutritional factors like ovomucoid. However, such factors are thermolabile so that they are destroyed during frying. Certainly the main reason is how high cholesterol and saturated fat it possesses. A standard solution for many dieters is to create a menu that has as little saturated fat as possible that affects the level of cholesterol in the body. However, many studies have not been able to confirm that by adding eggs to the diet, cholesterol levels in the body increased when the diet itself had products that supply specific levels of cholesterol to the body. Interestingly, very often the contradiction in research could be due to the lifestyle itself. For example, the standard diet in the United States contained between 26% and 32% of cholesterol from eggs. In Japan, it was up to 48%. In this case, we see a difference in the approach to food, which is of great importance in how eggs will affect cholesterol in our body. In the case we have more saturated fat compared to Japan. This is an important point to remember when we think about adding these products to our menu.

Of course, another issue may also be Salmonella, which can still be a problem, even despite all legal regulations that are trying to eliminate it. However, if nothing happened while transporting the eggs to the store and then home, then just be careful that the raw egg does not touch anything by accident. Of course, the risk will always exist.


Eggs are in my opinion a very interesting and healthy product, but I also understand the reasons for eliminating them from various diets. In spite of everything, I recommend trying to include these delicious and healthy products on your menu.


Cayenne pepper

Chili, cayenne pepper, cayenne pepper, turkish pepper – these are just examples of trade names referring to various types of powdered chilli peppers. In fact, small red peppers have nothing to do with pepper plants – the powdered form of chili has adopted this name because of the spicy flavor of the spice. And although it is this extreme taste that is an obstacle for many of us – it is worth using this spice in our kitchen.

Regardless of the variety – all peppers contain an extremely characteristic substance, capsaicin, which has an extremely beneficial effect on our body. Get burned and use the hot properties of chili peppers.

1. Chilli – a hard fight with pain
2. A hot friend of the heart
3. Extreme help for the lungs
4. Trivia and good advice

1. Chilli – a hard fight with pain
Baking in the mouth after eating a seasoned chili is one of those factors that discourages us from eating such spicy dishes. It turns out, however, that thanks to this specific pain in the mouth, information about the necessity of producing natural painkillers – endorphins – reaches the brain. It is they, showing morphine-like properties, that work in a soothing way, and at the same time improve the mood.

This analgesic effect of capsaicin attempts to use scientists by conducting numerous studies. One of them, based on applying this substance to aching teeth, showed that capsaicin inhibits the neurotransmitter responsible for transferring the feeling of pain. Thanks to these remarkable discoveries, scientists predict that capsaicin will be used to create new painkillers! However, before this happens, it is worth remembering about the natural use of this property in our kitchen.

2. A hot friend of the heart

The inhabitants of Thailand contributed to the idea that chili pepper had a protective effect on our circulatory system. This population is characterized by two relationships that seem to be related to the Thai diet is extremely rich in spicy chili dishes – it happens that they consume them even several times a day! According to scientists, this contributes to the extremely rare occurrence of heart disease in them, and especially the formation of blood clots. This property was checked during the study on a group of students who showed that after eating a chili pepper dish, the ability to dissolve blood clots automatically increases. This effect lasts only a short time, because only 30 minutes after eating the food, however, it allows to conclude that frequent consumption of hot dishes can be a great natural prevention, purifying the blood on a regular basis and acting protective.

3. Extreme help for the lungs
Capsaicin, thanks to its intense and burning taste, can show another action – expectorants. The mechanism of this action is extremely simple. Probably anyone who consumed very spicy dishes, automatically experienced the occurrence of large amounts of secretions in the respiratory system. And just – after getting the sharp spice into our mouth and the entire gastrointestinal tract nerve endings become irritated. Hence, the mucus-secreting glands release a lot of secretion, which thins it and helps in its expectoration. The same happens in the bronchi and lungs, which are thus cleared of mucus. This property is used even by some doctors who recommend their patients to eat spicy foods

in the case of pneumonia, blocked sinuses or a cold.

4. Trivia and good advice

Although it may seem that chili has the same positive properties, it should not be forgotten that for our body can be extremely intense substance.

For this reason too

– adventure with sharp spices should be done gradually – let’s start with their small doses. Thanks to this, in a gentle way for our body, we can get used to the intensity of dishes

with the addition of chili and like their character;

– you should use common sense when it comes to the amount of this spice –

in too large doses instead of health-promoting effects, it can effectively irritate the digestive system and mucous membranes. The same substance can work in two ways – positive and negative, depending only on the size of the dose. Everything with limit!

People who do not accept spicy dishes, and at the same time would like to use the properties of chili, for example in colds, can drink drops of chili sauce dissolved in water every day.

There are also some popular reviews for chili, but not all are true. So what is the truth and what is the myth?

MYTHS sharp dishes contribute to the formation of ulcers. This is probably one of the most popular reviews about chili. It turns out, however, that healthy people who do not suffer from any gastrointestinal problems have nothing to fear. No studies have shown that a diet rich in spicy foods contributed to any diseases. Of course, common sense and observing your body are important – some people may be too sensitive to the acute action of capsaicin. The fact is, however, that the popular claim about the negative effect of chili peppers on the digestive organs has been in ruins – at present, they are actually given the opposite, protective action!

TRUE chili helps you get rid of extra pounds. There is no doubt that chili dishes improve metabolism and accelerate the burning of calories.

TRUTH eating large amounts of chilli can result in painful bowel movements. For this reason, people who suffer from hemorrhoids should very carefully approach this spice and consume it

in moderate amounts.

Chili is one of the most controversial spices. She is loved by some, she is hated by others, she is not indifferent to anyone. It is worth to include it in your diet, although the amount of consumed hot dishes should be controlled by us – it is not worth falling into extremes. This pepper, besides beneficial capsaicin, is mainly rich

with vitamin C and B vitamins, as well as lots of minerals. In healthy, reasonable quantities can act in our body as the best antioxidant.


Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 is an organic chemical compound produced by almost all cells of the body. Its antioxidant properties have caused that many manufacturers of supplements present coenzyme Q10 as an elixir of youth, which inhibits the aging process and prevents the development of civilization diseases. Is this really the case, you will learn from the following article.

1. What is Coenzyme Q10?
2. Coenzyme Q10 – properties
3. Coenzyme Q10 – application
4. Coenzyme Q10 – shortages
5. Coenzyme Q10 – sources
6. Is it worth to supplement Coenzyme Q10?

1. What is Coenzyme Q10?
Coenzyme Q10 (abbreviated CoQ10) is a fat-soluble chemical compound from the quinone group. Vitamin K belongs to the same group of compounds. Other names of coenzyme Q10 are ubiquinone and vitamin Q10. Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized in the body and has mainly functions related to cellular respiration. Its highest concentration occurs in metabolically active organs like the heart, liver, pancreas and kidneys, and the lowest in the lungs.

The name Q10 refers to the chemical group to which it belongs, quinones in English are quinone hence Q. In contrast, 10 means ten isoprene groups under construction of this compound.

2. Coenzyme Q10 – properties
Coenzyme Q10 plays an important role in the process of cellular respiration, which takes place in the energy centers of the cell – mitochondria. Coenzyme Q10 is a cofactor in the electron transport process in mitochondrial membranes, which makes it possible to convert carbohydrates and fatty acids into adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a type of cellular battery that is constantly charged during cellular respiration. The energy stored in ATP is indispensable in virtually any process taking place in the cells.

Coenzyme Q10 is also a very efficient cellular antioxidant.

The functions of Coenzyme Q10 as an antioxidant are based on

– preventing the oxidation of lipids and proteins in the cell, including so-called bad LDL cholesterol;

– preventing the introduction of mutations into DNA and the formation of tumors;

– regeneration of other cellular antioxidants, which additionally strengthens the antioxidant systems.

Due to this coenzyme Q10 is so important in the protection of cells against aging and development of civilization diseases. Coenzyme Q10 is present in the cell in two forms – oxidized (ubiquinone) and reduced (ubiquinol and hydroquinone). It is in the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 that it works more effectively, which is why it most commonly occurs in the body in this form.

The key to understanding the antioxidant properties of Q10 coenzyme, but also other antioxidants, is to explain what oxidative stress is and why it is harmful to the body.

Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the amount of free radicals produced in the cell and the availability of antioxidants. Free radicals are very chemically reactive molecules that can damage cellular structures by oxidation. Reactivity of free radicals results from the lack of electron on the last molecular orbital. As a result, free radicals try to make up for it, take it away from other molecules, eg proteins or fats in the cell. The result is their oxidation. The formation of one free radical leads to subsequent formation, which initiates a harmful chain reaction. Free radicals may arise as a result of cell metabolism, but their production intensifies with age and by a number of factors such as abnormal lifestyle or chronic diseases.

Toxicity of free radicals is neutralized by antioxidant compounds like coenzyme Q10, but also vitamins C and E. When antioxidants give up the electron to the free radical, they do not become free radicals themselves, therefore they interrupt the harmful chain reaction caused by free radicals. A deficiency of these substances in the body intensifies oxidative stress. Therefore, coenzyme Q10 is so important in protecting cells against accelerated aging and the development of lifestyle diseases.

Another important function of coenzyme Q10 is its ability to regenerate other antioxidants, such as vitamin E. When antioxidants give up the electron to a free radical, they need to be regenerated because they can not continue to perform their functions. In this case, coenzyme Q10 acts as a regenerating compound. The amount of coenzyme Q10 in cell membranes is 3 to 30 times greater than in vitamin E, which further underlines its role in the cell.

The antioxidant effect can also protect against cardiovascular diseases. Coenzyme Q10 prevents the oxidation of harmful LDL cholesterol molecules, which in oxidized form (oxLDL) has radiosensitive properties.

3. Coenzyme Q10 – application
Coenzyme Q10 was first isolated in 1957 by Crane from cow’s heart mitochondria. A few years later, coenzyme Q10 aroused interest in the scientific world, because it was observed that patients with tumors have decreased blood levels. It was found that coenzyme Q10 may have an indirect influence on the development of cancer cells, which is one of the protective elements of the immune system. Substances analogous to coenzyme Q10 inhibit the growth of tumor cells in cell lines and in laboratory animals. Concentration of coenzyme Q10 in the blood may also be related to the prognosis of some cancers.

Research results are promising, where it has been proven that coenzyme Q10 shows protective properties in patients with tumors treated with cytostatic drug doxorubicin. The drug is characterized by high cardiotoxicity, and studies have shown that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 may reduce it.

Other areas that hope for coenzyme Q10 are dermatology and cosmetology. The use of coenzyme Q10 in cosmetics results from its beneficial effects on the skin. Oxidative stress, which can be exacerbated in keratinocytes, eg in a relationship with inappropriate lifestyle and exposure to UV radiation, can be compensated by supplementation with coenzyme Q10 or the use of cosmetics with its content.

4. Coenzyme Q10 – shortages
Factors that reduce the amount of coenzyme Q10 in the body are:
– genetic mutations;
– age;
– diseases, e.g. cancers;
– some medicines, eg statins, blood glucose lowering drugs (glibenclamide, tolazamide);
– chronic psychological stress;
– drugs;
– incorrect diet.

The level of coenzyme Q10 in tissues decreases with age, because its internal production is less efficient and at the same time its consumption increases. This is due to the fact that with increasing age, the level of oxidative stress increases. In addition, factors such as incorrect diet and smoking may reduce its availability.

Synthesis of coenzyme Q10 in the cell is a complicated process that requires the participation of various vitamins – C, B2, B5, B6, B9, B12, therefore vitamin deficiencies may also reduce the concentration of coenzyme Q10.

Mewalonian is one of the most important precursors for the synthesis of coenzyme Q10. Mevalonate is also a precursor to cholesterol synthesis, so drugs such as statins reduce its availability in the body. Due to this, statin supplementation may be considered in people using statins.

Congenital deficiency of coenzyme Q10 is a genetic disease. The cause of the disease are mutations of genes coding for coenzyme Q10 – genes from the COQ group. Most often, mutations appear in the genes COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, COQ8A and COQ8B. It is an extremely rare disease and occurs in less than 1 person in 100,000. The first symptoms of the disease appear during infancy and include serious dysfunctions of many organs.

5. Coenzyme Q10 – sources
The content of coenzyme Q10 in the body is estimated at about 2 grams, of which 0.5 grams must be exchanged daily either by internal synthesis or delivered with food.

The richest in coenzyme Q10 are meat and fish, because these products contain cells with a large amount of mitochondria, as well as fat. Coenzyme Q10 is well soluble in fats. In products of plant origin, coenzyme Q10 is found in significant quantities in oils from the legume and brassicaceae family. Nuts also have a moderate amount of coenzyme Q10. The content of coenzyme Q10 in food products may vary depending on cultivation methods and latitude, especially in plant products.

The content of coenzyme Q10 in the diet of people living in developed countries is from 3 to 6 mg a day and comes mainly from meat products. Such supply is not enough to compensate for the decreasing Q10 coenzyme synthesis with age. In addition, products rich in coenzyme Q10 like meat and offal should not be consumed in large quantities.

Table 1. Coenzyme Q10 content in selected food products

Source Pravst I. et al., Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2010.

With the emergence of the idea of ​​functional food, the implementation of methods leading to the enrichment of various products in coenzyme Q10 has begun. However, due to the chemical properties of the coenzyme Q10, this is not easy.

Such strategies include
– adding coenzyme Q10 to food during its production
– enrichment of animal feed with coenzyme Q10
– the use of genetically modified plants that would contain large amounts of coenzyme Q10.

6. Is it worth to supplement Coenzyme Q10?
As long as the synthesis of coenzyme Q10 is normal in the body, food sources are not important. However, when the body ages or the factors that reduce its synthesis, the supply of coenzyme Q10 from external sources becomes important.

The amount of coenzyme Q10 delivered with food is not enough to raise its level in the blood, therefore, for this purpose, supplementation is recommended at a dose of 100 mg / day. Studies show that this supplementation can raise the level of coenzyme Q10 in the blood by about 2 g / mL or more.
Coenzyme Q10 is a widely used in the world dietary supplement and at the same time very safe. This has been confirmed in many controlled clinical trials.

It has been observed that a dose of 100 mg / day or more may cause insomnia, and a dose of 300 mg / day taken over a long period of time may increase liver enzymes, but without signs of damage.

Beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation have been observed in some diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes or metabolic syndrome.

It should be borne in mind that supplementation with coenzyme Q10 may reduce the response to anticoagulants, eg warfarin, and reduce the need for insulin in diabetics.

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Hoppe U. et al., Coenzyme Q10, and cutaneous antioxidant and energizer, BioFactors 1999, 9, 371-378.


Nuts – natural source of oils

You do not need to talk much about why you should eat nuts. They are a rich source of oils, vitamins, minerals and protein. Together with vegetables, fruits and seeds should be included in our daily diet. It’s hard to choose the ones that are the best, the varieties of nuts are many, and including each of them in your menu brings many benefits.

1. Walnuts
2. Almonds
3. Hazelnuts
4. Cashews
5. Brazil nuts
6. Pistachio
7. Coconuts
8. Peanuts
9. Summary

1. Walnuts

On the basis of many studies, it can be concluded that walnuts on the background of other nuts are characterized by the highest content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is not without reason that the walnut looks like a brain. One of the advantages of nuts is their beneficial effect on the functioning of this body. In addition, the high omega-3 content promotes the prevention of, among others, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases.

Consuming nuts allows you to deliver large amounts of vitamin B1, which improves the metabolism of carbohydrates, as well as vitamin B6, necessary for the synthesis of proteins and folic acid. That is why they are especially recommended for pregnant women. According to the researchers, consumption of walnuts in the amount of 30-40 g / day may improve the functioning of our body, so it is worth to include nuts in our daily menu.

Nutritionally, walnuts are a source of vitamin E, manganese, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and potassium. They soothe the nervous system and concentration, have strong antioxidant properties, alleviate menstrual discomfort, improve muscle excitability, condition of the bones, as well as libido. The nuts also contain a large amount of the amino acid L-arginine, which is used to synthesize nitric oxide in the blood vessels and is responsible for their extension.

2. Almonds

They should be in our daily diet, because of all the nuts contain the most vitamin E, which is a powerful antioxidant that protects cells against aging and the influence of cancer factors. The vitamin B2 contained in them affects carbohydrate metabolism, that is why almonds can be a good source of energy for athletes.

100 g of almonds provide approx. 21 g of vegetable protein. In addition, almonds are full of other nutrients such as manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorus and copper. Copper is essential in the synthesis of hemoglobin, it is also a component of many proteins and enzymes responsible for cellular respiration. Almonds contain a large amount of an amino acid called histidine, the increased supply of which is essential for children – almond milk will be a good alternative to cow’s milk.

3. Hazelnuts

They are a valuable source of, above all, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. Immediately after almonds hazelnuts are the best source of vitamin E. High content of monounsaturated fatty acids in them has a positive effect on lowering the LDL cholesterol fraction (so-called bad cholesterol) and raising the HDL fraction, so-called good cholesterol. It is also worth mentioning that hazelnuts are rich in quercetin – a flavonoid that helps, among others, in the fight against heart disease, diabetes, viral infections or sight problems.

4. Cashews

Of all nuts, they contain the least fat, thanks to which they are less caloric, which is important especially for people using low-energy diets. Their presence in our diet will ensure the supply of such ingredients as potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, calcium, iron or zinc. Cashews are widely used, including they are a very important component of people who have turned to veganism. They are a substitute for dairy products (they are a component of vegan cheese), thanks to which they will be perfect when preparing a vegan cheesecake.

5. Brazil nuts

They are rich in selenium – an element with antioxidant properties that fight free radicals. Research is being conducted to use it in the treatment of cancer treatment. The selenium content in 100 g of Brazil nuts is estimated at around 50 μg. Therefore, the consumption of one nut per day will cover the daily demand for this element! In addition, the consumption of Brazil nuts increases the body’s share of ingredients such as magnesium, copper, B vitamins, zinc, calcium, potassium, iron and phosphorus. Brazil nuts are also credited with beneficial effects on the heart and immunity. They also help control diabetes.

6. Pistachio

They contain a large amount of protein (about 20 g per 100 g of product). They are the only ones that contain carotenoids – lutein and zeaxanthin, which have a positive effect on the eyesight. They contain the most potassium of all nuts, therefore (of course unsalted) their consumption is recommended for people suffering from hypertension. They are rich in vitamins B1, B6 and vitamin K, which affects blood clotting.

Among other ingredients that can be found in pistachios, potassium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, vitamin C and E are exchanged. Pistachios are an ideal snack for people who are at risk of developing, among others for diabetes, metabolic syndrome or heart disease.

7. Coconuts

The pulp contained in them is rich in saturated fats. Animal fat is different in that it contains medium-chain fatty acids and virtually no cholesterol. The lauric acid contained in the coconut has strong antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties. They are also easier to digest and provide a quick source of energy. Coconut also contains pregnenolone – a substance that is a powerful antioxidant. It is difficult to find a fresh coconut in Poland, but you can use equally valuable ingredients – milk, shavings, oil or dried petals.

8. Peanuts

Peanuts (peanut) among all nuts contain the largest amount of protein (25.8 g per 100 g of product). Therefore, it is not without reason that they are included in the legume seed family.

In their composition is also the most vitamin B3, which takes part in the metabolism of carbohydrates and positively affects the condition of the skin.

In addition, peanuts are a valuable source of fiber, fat (mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids) of potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, vitamin E or folic acid. It has also been shown that the consumption of peanuts has a beneficial effect in cases of weight control, prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and heart disease, as well as inhibition of cancer cells development.

9. Summary

This is not all kinds of nuts, of course, but the tastiest, most valuable and easily available ones. They can be eaten raw,

in the form of peanut butter, you can also prepare milk from them. Although the tastiest are roasted, in this form you can eat them from time to time, because the heat treatment negatively affects the fats contained in them, and yet we want to draw from them the best!


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Mikołajczak N., Mineral components in nuts found in student mixtures = Minerals in nuts which are components of Trail Mix, Journal of Education, Health and Sport 2016, 6 (9), 832-840.

Majewska K. et al., Selected Physical Properties of Mature Walnut Fruits, Acta Agrophysica 2003, 2 (3), 597-609.

Borecka W. et al., Walnut (Juglans regia L.) – a natural source of health-promoting food ingredients, Science. Nature. Technologies 2013, 7 (2), 1-7.
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Coffee is the favorite drink of most busy people. It is usually associated with a break and relaxation. Like every product, coffee has its advantages and disadvantages. Today, coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world and many beneficial properties are attributed to it. With some exceptions, coffee is definitely better to drink than to give up.

1. Coffee – action
2. Facts and myths about coffee
3. Some reasons to drink coffee

4. Decaffeinated coffee

5. Summary

1. Coffee – action

Coffee grain contains over 1000 bioactive compounds, of which the most interest is caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and kafestol. All listed compounds have potentially beneficial effects, including antioxidant ones. Coffee is one of the most abundant sources of antioxidants in your daily diet. The effect of a coffee drink on the body depends on many factors – starting with the type of coffee (most often we deal with arabica and robusta), by burning grains, the method of making coffee, and on a specific gene set and composition of a person’s microflora . It turns out that both genes and the composition of microbiota determine the metabolism and the final effect of coffee.

Caffeine, the compound most associated with coffee, undergoes metabolism in the liver. As a result of transformations, three main compounds are formed: theophylline, paraxanthin and theobromine. It is excreted through the kidneys. Interestingly, in people who smoke, the metabolism of caffeine is accelerated due to its effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes that are involved in the conversion of caffeine in the liver. It freely flows from the bloodstream to the brain. Caffeine is an antagonist of adenosine receptors, i.e. has an inhibitory effect. Thanks to this, it eliminates tiredness and drowsiness.

2. Facts and myths about coffee

Coffee rinses out magnesium and calcium
Myth. It is true that the studies have shown increased urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, but this effect is achieved when consuming more than 744 mg of caffeine per day (approximately 8 glasses of coffee per day). Consumption of caffeine in an amount of approx. 400 mg daily with simultaneous intake of calcium with a diet of at least 800 mg does not cause negative consequences.

Coffee raises blood pressure
Myth. This effect can be observed in people who drink coffee occasionally. Drinking coffee for three days in a row causes the development of tolerance and ceases to have an effect on the blood pressure.

Coffee improves concentration
Fact, as long as it is not decaffeinated. Caffeine, depending on the dose, may improve alertness, speed of reaction, concentration, mood, and even increase self-confidence. The more rested we are, the less the effect is. Coffee can be a salvation after a sleepless night.

There are contraindications to drinking coffee
Fact. Although there are not many – there are. Drinking coffee is not recommended for pregnant women, as well as people with reflux disease or stomach ulcer. The caffeine contained in coffee may exacerbate the symptoms by stimulating the secretion of gastric juice. In addition, it also increases the secretion of gastrin, which in turn causes relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, thus the stomach content is easier to pass from the stomach to the esophagus.

Caffeine is addictive
It is not known. In DMS-5 (Diagnosis and manual manual of mental disorders), or the classification of mental disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, criteria for the diagnosis of caffeine withdrawal syndrome are included. Disorders related to the consumption of caffeine have been recognized as a problem requiring further research.

Moderate consumption of caffeine, ie about 5 cups of coffee a day, does not have negative effects on adults. However, this looks slightly different in children and adolescents, in whom low doses (100-400 mg) can cause negative symptoms such as anxiety, nervousness and sleep disorders. Considering the fact that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on the mood, for young people reaching for coffee in order to achieve this effect may lead to the development of abnormal habits.

3. Some reasons to drink coffee

First of all, coffee probably reduces the risk of premature death. Based on the results of current research on the health effects of drinking coffee, it has been shown that the lowest risk is associated with drinking 3 cups a day.

In comparison with people who do not drink coffee, coffee drinks are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease. Research shows that an extra cup of coffee a day can reduce the risk of death for cardiovascular reasons by 2%.

The higher the intake of coffee, the lower the risk of developing tumors, including prostate, liver, endometrium. People who consume coffee in comparison with coffee abstinents are less exposed to the risk of liver cirrhosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (by 1/3). Reducing the risk of these serious diseases by 30% is a spectacular result and a leading argument in favor of incorporating this drink into the daily diet.

Daily drinking of coffee may act prophylactically for type II diabetes. The caffeine is probably not responsible for this effect, but the other components of coffee, because decaffeinated coffee also works prophylactically.

Decaffeinated coffee, however, does not protect against neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease (as opposed to traditional coffee).

4. Decaffeinated coffee – does it have similar effects?
The composition of decaffeinated coffee is not much different with the profile of active compounds except for caffeine, which contains traces. Decaffeinated coffee does not bring as many beneficial effects as the natural one, however, its consumption also reduces the risk of some diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and endometrial cancer.

5. Summary

In conclusion – drinking coffee brings far more benefits than threats. In fact, there is not enough evidence of any harmful effects, except during pregnancy, in which caffeine should be limited due to the developing body of the child.

During pregnancy, hormonal changes cause a much longer persistence of this compound in the blood of a pregnant woman. This is extremely important considering that caffeine passes easily to the amniotic fluid. In addition, the CYP1A2 metabolising enzyme activity in the fetus is very low. This means that a child in the womb consuming large amounts of coffee is exposed to its action much longer than the average adult person. Therefore it is reasonable to preserve moderation. Drinking coffee during pregnancy may increase the risk of low birth weight of a child, miscarriage, premature birth.

Moderate consumption of coffee is also recommended to women because of the results of the study, which suggest that a higher intake of coffee may increase the risk of fractures (in men, this trend has not been demonstrated). It is difficult to say whether we can blame caffeine for this state of affairs. After all, intake up to 400 mg of caffeine per day should not lead to any negative consequences. However, there are doubts about the relationship between drinking coffee and the higher incidence of lung cancer. It is suspected, however, that this relationship is due to the fact that smokers often drink coffee regularly. Therefore, smoking seems to be the deciding factor, which has not been included in some studies.

Poole R. et al., Coffee consumption and health umbrella review of meta-analyzes of multiple health outcomes, The BMJ 2017, 359, 5024.

Budney AJ, Emond I, Caffeine addiction? Caffeine for youth? Time to act !, Society for the Study of Addiction 2014, 109, 1771-1772.

Bojarowicz H., Przygoda M., Kofeina. Part 1. Widespread use of caffeine and its effects on the body, Problems of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 2012, 93 (1), 80-13.

Wolde T., Effect of caffeine on health and nutrition, Food Science and Quality Management 2014, 30, 59-65.


If you do not eat meat, where do you get the protein from?

If you do not eat meat, where do you get the protein from? – every vegetarian has heard this question at least once in his life. Most people think that a vegetarian diet and building muscle mass do not go hand in hand. This diet is considered to be deficient and low-protein. In any rational diet, protein intake is the lowest of macronutrients because it can not be stored and used as a backup energy source. Varied and well-composed vegetarian diet provides a set of amino acids for protein synthesis. Not only the healing diets that are to lower cholesterol, prevent atherosclerosis, strokes, heart attacks and tumors, are based on plants. More and more athletes are also deciding to use a vegetable diet, which does not prevent them from achieving excellent results. That’s why if we go to the gym, we do not necessarily have to eat meat. Which products should I provide with protein?

1. Vegetarianism – legumes
2. Nuts
3. Groats and pseudozhoża
4. Hemp sowing

1. Vegetarianism – legumes

Legumes belong to the legume family. Among them, we can distinguish soy, lentils, chickpeas, beans, peas and beans. It is a group of plants particularly important from the nutritional point of view. Bean plants provide such nutrients as vegetable protein, minerals, vitamins and fiber. Protein is the basic ingredient of seeds. From the available crops in Poland, the most protein is soy and yellow lupine (35-42%), while the most commonly consumed peas and beans contain proteins relatively less, about 21-25%. It is worth noting that the consumption of 100 g soybean seeds provides about 36.5 g of protein, 100 g of white bean seed, 23 g of protein, while 100 g of chicken fillet meat only 19.5 g of protein. As we can see, this ratio is extremely beneficial for legume seeds.

We are often afraid of eating fabaceae, especially soy, due to the isoflavones contained in them, which interact with estrogen receptors. There have been many studies that have shown that phytoestrogens can affect the fertility and sexual development of rats. It is worth noting, however, that in the blood of men who were given isoflavones or soy products containing them, there were no changes in the concentration of estrogen and testosterone. This aspect requires additional analysis and execution of many specialist tests.

The protein of the fabaceae plants differs in amino acid composition from the meat or protein of cereals. It is distinguished by a higher share of lysine and threonine. However, their nutritional value limits the insufficient content of methionine and cystine, which are included in sulfuric amino acids. It is worth noting that the best amino acid composition has soy protein.

Often, after eating legume seeds, we complain about the feeling of bloating and the appearance of gases. To get rid of the flatulence effect after eating the pods and remove the anti-nutritive substances, rinse the seeds before cooking and then soak for about 12 hours, then cook in a fresh portion of water.

2. Nuts
In the diet of both vegetarian and people consuming animal products, it is worth paying attention to nuts, which are used, among others, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. They provide a lot of energy, 100 g of nuts provide an average of 553-718 kcal. They are a rich source of fats, but mainly unsaturated fatty acids. The amount of carbohydrates in nuts is quite low, however, in cashew nuts or pistachios it is about 30%. It is worth noting that the nuts are characterized by a high content of vegetable protein, which is approx. 20%. Its highest content is characterized by almonds, pistachios and peanuts. In contrast, walnuts or hazelnuts contain it relatively less.

Together with buckwheat, they provide all the amino acids in an equal proportion, which will allow you to fully use the amino acids for the purpose of protein construction. Instead of porridge, it is worth trying the leavings with almonds and vegetable milk – then we do not have to worry about protein deficiencies.

3. Groats and pseudozhoża
Groats and grain products are characterized by a high content of carbohydrates, mainly complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, as well as vegetable protein. These products were used in the diet of our ancestors and treated as a valuable ingredient. The best source of protein among cereal products are buckwheat groats or millet groats, which may also appear in the diet of people with gluten intolerance or those suffering from celiac disease.

For example, 100 g of buckwheat give 12.5 g of protein, millet – 10.5 g, amaranth – 13.6 g, quinoa – 14.1 g, rice – 7 g, and sweet Abyssinian (also called tefem) – 13.3 g. For comparison – 100 g chicken legs provide 16.8 g of protein, so the difference is not as big as it might seem. The aforementioned buckwheat with almonds and soy milk supplies 21 g of protein, which is after all only one meal.

4. Hemp sowing
Commonly with the word hemp, we associate Indian cannabis, which gained its popularity thanks to its hallucinogenic and curative effects. However, it is worth remembering that this species also includes flax hemp, otherwise called cannabis. These cannabis are widely used in nutrition. They are a good source of protein, contain about 20-25%. Over 65% of hemp proteins are edestins – they are globular proteins classified as the best absorbed by the human body.

Cannabis is among the superfood products due to the rich composition of seeds. Do not worry, they do not contain THC. But it is this suspicion that this most universal plant in the world has long been forgotten. In addition to protein, it provides in ideal proportions of omega-3 and omega-6 unsaturated fatty acids and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), which has anti-inflammatory properties. You can also find pure hemp protein on the market, which is a good alternative to whey nutrients.

Wilk M., Soy, a source of valuable nutrients, FOOD. Science. Technology. Quality 2017, 24, 2 (111), 16-25.
Kaniewski R. et al., Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabis sativa L.) – valuable useful and medicinal plant, Postępy Fitoterapii 2017, 18 (2), 139-144.
Stróżyk A., Pachocka L., Nuts as an important component of athletes’ diet, Problems of Hygiene and Epidemiology 2016, 97 (4), 328-334.
Czupryńska K., Marchlewicz M., Wiszniewska B., The effect of xenoestrogens on the male sexual system, Progress in Cell Biology 2007, 34 (2), 317-333.
F. Cabbage, legumes source of protein for animals and humans, Engineering Sciences and Technologies 2012, 1 (4), 16-32.
Sikora E., Liszka P., Nutrients and non-nutrients in raw and processed peanuts, Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna 2011, 44 (4), 1047-1053.


Cabbage diet

Cabbage diet is one of the more popular slimming diets in our country. Although it is cheap, it is not time-consuming and does not require great sacrifices, it is not a diet recommended by dieticians and doctors. Why? What exactly is a cabbage diet? What are its assumptions? How fast are the effects? What are its side effects? What are the risks associated with this diet? There are many questions, we will try to answer them in the following article.

What is a cabbage diet?
Cabbage diet is a short, but very promising diet plan. It occurs under many names, the most popular of which is the presidential, Swedish or Canadian diet. The purpose of this diet (like other alternative diets) is to lose a significant number of kilos in a very short time. Therefore, this plan is extremely tempting for people who need quick results, and do not have time to rationally lose weight.

The cabbage diet has become popular several years ago. Apparently former Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski was her great supporter and thanks to her got rid of unnecessary kilograms. That’s where the name of the presidential diet came from.

Cabbage diet – a menu and recipe for cabbage soup
The basic ingredient of this diet is cabbage. Vegetable is valued because of its low energy value. The creators of the cabbage diet believe that it can be eaten without restrictions. They suggest eating as much as possible of cabbage soup. They explain their recommendations with the fact that there are only 25 kcal in 100 g of cabbage. White cabbage also contains a few carbohydrates 5.8 g / 100 g, with a large amount of dietary fiber 2.5 g / 100 g.

It is important, however, to remember about the proper preparation of meals. The diet allows you to eat vegetable soup based on cabbage, however, the traditional bigos with the addition of meat and fat is a strictly forbidden product.

At the very beginning it should be clearly stated that the menu of cabbage diet is extremely monotonous. Monocomponent diets are characterized by a small variety of meals due to the limited number of products allowed during their use. The basic meal of this diet is cabbage soup, which can be eaten without any restrictions. You can find the recipe below.

Cabbage soup

– 1 head of Italian or white cabbage – white cabbage (about 2000 g) was used in the recipe,
– 6 heads of chopped onion (500 g),
– red pepper (200 g),

– yellow pepper (200 g),
– 1 bunch of celery (400 g),
– 6 fresh tomatoes (850 g),
– 1 tablespoon of rapeseed oil (10 g),
– chilli spices, pepper, garlic, curry, dill, basil (very important – we do not add table salt).

A method of preparing

Wash the washed and cleaned vegetables into small cubes. Fry all but onions in a hot pan with rapeseed oil. Add the onion when the remaining vegetables are soft. Once all the ingredients have reached the desired softness, we put them into a pot with water and cook for about 1.5 hours. Once in a while, thoroughly mix the contents of the pot, so as not to burn the soup. At the end, add spices as desired. It is very important to remember not to add salt to the soup. To prevent monotony in the diet, the soup can be served in the form of a cream or with the addition of other low-calorie vegetables.

The nutritional value of one portion of soup

– 7.2 g protein,

– fats 2.4 g,

– 28.4 g carbohydrates,

– fiber 10.2 g.

The total energy value of one portion of soup 147 kcal.

Cabbage diet is characterized by high content of dietary fiber, so you can not forget about proper irrigation of the body. It is recommended to drink at least 2 liters of liquid each day. To vary the diet, you can also reach for natural vegetable juices, herbal infusions, green tea and coffee. However, you must forget about the use of sugar, the cabbage diet excludes it. The creators of the cabbage diet indicate that achieving amazing results (minus 3-6 kg per week) is possible only if we completely comply with the weekly menu schedule.

Cabbage diet – a weekly version of the menu
The first day of the cabbage diet opens the breakfast from the previously prepared soup, dinner looks just like that. The meals between them are snacks from raw vegetables and green tea and mineral water.

The second day begins with breakfast, steamed or raw vegetables are recommended. They can be any vegetables except legumes and corn. It is also important not to eat any fruit that day. We eat cabbage soup for dinner, and for dinner, we recommend two baked potatoes without addition of table salt.

The next day of the cabbage diet begins with a bowl of cabbage soup. On the third day, we also gradually introduce fruit, they are the basis for the second breakfast, as well as afternoon tea. The most effective is the consumption of fruits with high fiber content, e.g. grapefruits and oranges. At this stage, bananas are excluded! If the afternoon tea was not filling enough, you can eat a plate of cabbage soup for dinner. If we are full, we can let go of our last meal.

On the fourth day of the cabbage diet, we can afford to make our meals more varied. Breakfast is traditionally a cabbage soup, for the second course and dinner we introduce bananas forbidden earlier. For dinner on this day, it is suggested to drink two liters of skim milk or buttermilk and drink them with four glasses of mineral water.

The fifth day begins with cabbage soup as standard. On this day, lean meat also appears on the menu. It is recommended to prepare about 200 grams of lean beef or chicken fillet once. For dinner, eat 6 medium-sized tomatoes, which are washed down with at least 4 glasses of liquid (mineral water or tea).

The penultimate day of the diet begins with cabbage soup. For lunch, a portion of 200 g of lean meat or fish should be cooked with steam. Dinner is a large bowl of finely chopped green vegetables (lettuce, peppers, leeks, broccoli).

We start the seventh and last day of the diet like the rest. For lunch we cook brown rice and serve it with low-calorie vegetables. We do not eat a substantial meal for dinner, on the seventh day, a few glasses of fruit juice (without added sugar) are served, as well as a few glasses of still mineral water.

Cabbage diet – defects and opinions
Cabbage diet, although very popular, is not a diet recommended by dieticians and specialists. The position she has achieved among other alternative slimming diets is mainly due to her low price and ease of use. Another advantage is the small time needed to achieve your dream goal. The effects of this diet, although positive, may adversely affect the condition of our body, because after stopping the diet we return to the initial state. Before starting a cabbage diet, it is worth considering the risks associated with its use. The rapid loss of kilos resulting from a very large calorie deficit is a non-physiological process. The main disadvantages of the cabbage diet include the very common yo-yo effect.

Other disadvantages of this method of feeding are the aforementioned monotony, not every person is able to get used to the taste and smell of cabbage soup. People using a cabbage diet also often complain about too frequent urination, because cabbage has strong diuretic properties. This vegetable contains a significant amount of bloating substances, intensifies the processes of intestinal gas production. In addition to unpleasant dyspeptic symptoms, the cabbage diet also causes fatigue, irritability, general weakness and can cause headaches. It is also worth noting that it is a shortage diet, so it is not properly balanced – it does not cover our needs for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.

Opinions about this diet are divided. She has many supporters and opponents. The effect of using this diet is often short-lived. The yo-yo effect in this case is a common phenomenon. Perhaps that’s why dietitians do not recommend this diet. Given its popularity, it is surprising that a small number of scientific publications and studies prove the effectiveness of such a model of nutrition. A person who wants to lose weight in a rational way, without the yo-yo effect, should think twice about it. Perhaps the lack of scientific reports on the effectiveness of this diet means that it is not taken seriously in the medical environment. It should be clearly stated that cabbage diets should not be strictly used by children and adolescents, pregnant women and nursing mothers, people with immunocompromised persons, as well as people with significant obesity.

Taking into account all opinions about the cabbage diet, it can be said that this diet is not a good or recommended way to lose unwanted kilograms. When using this diet, weight loss is only a result of water loss, not fat. In addition, the cabbage diet reduces the basic metabolism and does not cover the need for basic nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the body. Losing weight on this diet is a non-physiological and unnatural process. The problem of obesity and overweight should not be treated on your own. Long-term results and health improvement can be provided by education of healthy eating habits, so you should go for a consultation with a dietitian.