Eating disorders (GI) during activity are related to 30-50% of athletes. They most often appear in athletes training endurance sports runners, marathon runners and triathletes. They can affect the score and contribute to the early end of the performance.
Causes of development of food disorders during activity
The causes of gastrointestinal disorders are not fully explained. It is suggested that passing blood from the viscera to active tissues (muscles) during the workout results in increased mucosal permeability and contributes to the development of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. Improperly selected meals before activity and during training or start-up may additionally cause problems. The results of a study conducted in the early 1990s on Half Ironman racers showed the relationship between nutrition practice and the emergence of GI during take-off. Attention was paid to food ingredients such as fiber, fat, protein, carbohydrate-containing drinks with high osmolarity (> 500 mOsm / l). The main symptoms of GI are loss of appetite, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, reflux, abdominal cramps, overflowing, bouncing, stinging, acute pain, bloating.
Meals before training
People who are prone to discomfort from the digestive tract prior to training should limit the intake of fiber-rich foods, choosing those with medium or low fiber. Most fruits and vegetables are rich in fiber – to reduce its amount, eat vegetables prepared in broth or steamed. As an addition to meals, you should choose those with a reduced amount of fiber, such as tomatoes (without the skin), olives, courgettes, grapes, grapefruit, beets.
If there are still problems during the training from the gastrointestinal tract (colic, abdominal pain, pouring), dairy products containing lactose, curd, milk, yoghurt should be excluded. It’s worth replacing them with rice and almond milk, or take it at a different time of the day (breakfast, lunch, dinner). In addition, you should limit heavy products such as nuts, cucumber, peppers, and tomatoes with skin. Prepare food in a delicate way strangling with a small amount of fat, gently grilling or steaming. A pre-workout meal should appear 2-3 hours before the activity. If the workout is longer, it is worth planning an extra snack for 1 hour or 45 minutes before training.
Allows you to identify products that cause discomfort. Recommendations from Monash University suggest elimination of products rich in FODMAPs for 6-8 weeks, and then after a period of eight weeks, the gradual introduction of products rich in FODMAPS under the eye of a nutritionist at intervals. The gradual introduction is aimed at identifying products that cause discomfort. For accurate identification of food products causing discomfort, it is recommended to introduce a nutritional diary. The rules of driving are based on the recording of each meal consumed during the day (composition, quantity) and any symptoms (appearing after eating a given meal). Symptoms should be assessed on a scale of 1-10, where 1 is a great discomfort, and 10 a very good condition without symptoms.
Hydration of the body
Dehydration may exacerbate symptoms. Ensure proper hydration during the day on the route. During training, practice the hydration scheme. The European Food Safety Authority recommends a daily requirement for liquids, the sum of water content from drinks and food products in the amount of approx. 2 liters for women and approx. 2.5 liters for men. (* with moderate physical activity and good environmental conditions). Calculated per kilogram body weight is 30 ml – 45 ml / kg body weight, e.g. 70 kg * 30 ml = 2100 ml. In addition, the fluid losses caused during the activity should be compensated. Liquids should be leveled in an amount of 100% to 150% of lost fluids – eg for 1 kg body weight from 1.25 to 1.5 liter fluids. The loss supplementation should be spread over time.
Acetylsalicylic acid and NSAIDs increase the intestinal permeability and can increase the incidence of gastrointestinal complaints. Limiting the intake of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen may improve the functioning of the digestive tract.
Supplementation with probiotics in combination with nutritional strategies supports active people with gastrointestinal discomfort during activity. Most of the studies carried out suggest the effectiveness of supplementation with probiotic in the amount of 10¹º. The two main commercial species are Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum. In patients with GI, it is worth considering the introduction of a probiotic containing the L. plantarum 299v strain. The positive effect of supplementation is observed after taking probiotics for several weeks. In the first weeks of supplementation, a gradual change in the intestinal microflora can trigger
Some people have gastrointestinal symptoms. Delicate bloating, overflow may occur, but discomfort is temporary.