The name fats refers to the group of lipids, esters of glycerol and fatty acids. From a chemical point of view, fats are natural organic compounds made of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms with a very diverse structure. Most fats are odorless, insoluble in water and polar solvents and well soluble in non-polar solvents. They are all lighter than water and their pH is neutral. Fats are compounds that provide the most energy, during the reaction of their oxidation, two times more energy is generated than in the case of oxidation of proteins or carbohydrates – from 1g of fat, 9kcal is delivered, while proteins and carbohydrates provide only 4 kcal / g). Fats are solvents for many important compounds, including vitamins A, E, D and K.
Due to the origin, the fats are divided into vegetable, animal and artificial (and modified). Due to the unsaturated structure, which occurs in large amounts in plants, and saturated, which are produced primarily by animal organisms.
Saturated fatty acids (more important)
Monounsaturated fatty acids (more important)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids – Essential Unsaturated Fatty Acids (more important)
– linoleic (omega-6)
-? -Linolenic (gamma-linolenic) (omega-6)
– arachidonic (omega-6)
– α-linolenic (alpha-linolenic) (omega-3)
– docosahexaenoic (omega-3)
– eicosapentaenoic (omega-3)
FATS IN THE HUMAN DIET
Whether or not fat will work to the detriment of the body is primarily determined by its quantity, but by its nature. Saturated fats have a particularly negative effect on the body. It is they that are deposited on the inner surface of the blood vessels, significantly reducing their light. The main component of fat deposits is cholesterol, which is a component of cell membranes surrounding cells of most animal nutrients and dairy products. As the cholesterol deposits are extended, the light of the blood vessels becomes more and more limited, so that the blood has more and more problems with reaching the places served by the given vessel. In this way arteriosclerosis develops. Decreasing the amount of products containing high amounts of cholesterol in the diet significantly reduces the risk of a heart attack. The amount of cholesterol in the diet can be reduced by limiting the intake of saturated fatty acids. It is believed that unsaturated fatty acids limit the risk of atherosclerosis. Their action is reduced to the amount of harmful cholesterol circulating in the blood. There is no doubt, however, that the best prevention of cardiovascular disease is limiting the consumption of each type of fats, especially those saturated.
So what should be the ideal proportions of fatty acids in the human diet? According to FAO / WHO experts, the ratio of saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated to polyunsaturated in the human diet should be 111. Only this ratio should ensure optimal energy supply in the form of fat.
And what about the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids?
According to the latest European standards (Nutrient and Energy Intakes) daily intake of fatty acids from the omega-3 to omega-6 family should maintain the ratio of 13.
We also can not forget about the proper intake of vitamin E, which is a natural antioxidant that protects unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation, without it even the optimal pro-health doses of EFA, instead of benefiting us only to harm us! Currently, the optimal optimal dose of vitamin E is administered as a safe quantity of 0.6 mg alpha-tocopherol for each gram of nnkt (Wit E).
SATURATED FATTY ACIDS
Saturated fatty acids, increasing blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease.
They occur in large quantities in animal products such as meat, cheese, cream, milk, eggs, butter, bacon and in milk chocolate and other products, such as pates, labels, sausages, cakes, rolls, biscuits.
It has been proven that a diet high in saturated fats can cause elevation in the blood level of “bad LDL cholesterol, which is the main factor in many heart conditions and the biggest killer. Such a diet can also promote other diseases and ailments, including cancer and obesity. It can lead to disturbance of the digestive balance.
As a source of fatty acids saturated with natural butter, coconut oil, lard, palm oil, cocoa butter.
FATTY ACIDS MONONATE
These fats are usually liquid at room temperature, but they can solidify after cooling (in a refrigerator). They occur in large quantities in olive oil, rapeseed and peanut oil, as well as in olives, many types of nuts and in avocado. They also contain all the fats in most important quantities, most dairy products like eggs, meat and many other food items.
Initially, monounsaturated fats were thought to have no effect on blood cholesterol levels, it is now known that they have more favorable effects on cholesterol than polyunsaturated fat; not only lower the level of “bad LDL cholesterol, but at the same time they keep on an unchanged level or slightly raise the level of” good HDL cholesterol “.
There is evidence that a diet rich in monounsaturated fat also affects health in a different way. For example, the Mediterranean diet, containing significant amounts of this type of fats, causes that people who use it, are less likely to have heart disease and live longer. They also observe lower obesity and lower incidence of neoplastic diseases than among people on the North European diet. Oils rich in monounsaturated fats are a rich source of antioxidant vitamin E.
As a source of monounsaturated fatty acids extra virgin olive oil, rapeseed oil with reduced erucic acid (Canola), peanut oil, avocado oil, Brazil nut oil, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, rice oil, cocoa butter.
FERIOUS ACID FATTY ACIDS
These types of fats are in a liquid state at room temperature or slightly lower. These are vegetable oils, such as corn oil, sunflower oil and walnut oil. Polyunsaturated fats, unlike saturated ones, lower LDL cholesterol in blood, but it should be remembered that excessive consumption of polyunsaturated fats is unfavorable, especially when used for frying. They are easily oxidized in the body, creating free radicals that can destroy cells and thus contribute to the development of tumors (a diet rich in antioxidants helps to minimize this phenomenon).
The right dose of polyunsaturated fat is essential in the diet, because it contains essential fatty acids (EFAs), which the body needs to be healthy. They are defined as indispensable, because they are fats, the only source of which is food. The remaining fats can be produced by the body.
There are two “families of polyunsaturated fatty acids – omega-3 and omega-6. Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in fatty fish, soy, rapeseed oil and walnuts.
Omega-6 fatty acids are found in the seeds of sunflower, safflower (ie safflower, the so-called false saffron) and in corn oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are also one of the few rich sources of vitamin E, an important vitamin from the group of antioxidants.
As a source of fatty acids, polyunsaturated fish oil, high linolenic linseed oil, walnut oil, pumpkin seed oil, hemp oil, safflower oil, corn oil, poppy seed oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, rosehip oil, grape seed oil, camelina oil, rice oil, soybean oil, evening primrose oil
There is another group of fats called transizomers. Most fatty acids in food products are unsaturated processed (hydrogenated) fats by the food industry, so that they remain solid at room temperature. In this way margarines are produced, which are in fact a mixture of different oils. These hydrogenated fats become similar to saturated fats from the point of view of their effects on the body. For years, it has been suspected that the transizomers are not better for the body than saturated fat, and more and more evidence has recently appeared that they may be more harmful, for example in heart disease. Scientific research proves that the transizomers not only raise the level of “bad LDL cholesterol, but also lower the level of” good HDL cholesterol. Transizomers are the only type of fats with this effect, because natural saturated fats, such as butter or cheese, can increase LDL cholesterol, but at the same time increase HDL cholesterol.
THERMAL PROCESSING OF FOODS IN FATS
Frying in fat is primarily a process of dewatering. Water and water-soluble products pass from the product to the fat or leave the product as water vapor. In addition, fat is absorbed by the product.
Oils with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids are best used raw, without heating. Do not use them for frying because of their high content counts double bonds, to which oxygen joins, causing hydrotreas and highly toxic compound (HNE – 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal), which increases the risk of heart disease, liver, and even neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. The more double bonds contain fatty acid, the faster the setting process takes place.
Also, butter should not be used for frying, because under the influence of high temperature the fat contained in it is decomposed very quickly to produce harmful substances (eg acrolein, free radicals). The relatively short-term heating is suitable for oils with a lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g. rapeseed oil, olive oil. However, palm oil and lard are suitable for heat treatment even at high temperatures.
The usefulness of individual fats for frying can be confirmed by their smoking temperature – this is the moment when the product begins to degrade and release carcinogens under the influence of the temeprture. The ideal temperature for frying is about 180 degrees C.
SHORT CHARACTERIZATION OF SELECTED FOOD FATS
Avocado oil – is obtained by cold pressing of avocados. It is characterized by a dark green color, faintly noticeable, similar to olive oil aroma and fruit-nutty flavor. It contains large amounts of vitamin E, lecithin and beta-sitosterol. The Mediterranean cuisine is widely used for cold dishes, as an addition to salads, salads and sauces.
Contains 60-80% oleic acid, 10-20% linoleic acid, 4-12% palmitic acid, up to 2% stearic acid, approx. 2% linolenic acid, lecithin, beta-sitosterol, mineral salts, phytosterols, squalene, rich in vitamins A, B, D and E.
Andiroba oil – is obtained by pressing or squeezing andiroba (Carapa guianensis) seeds, originating in Brazil. It is a yellowish vegetable oil with a bitter taste and a slightly nutty smell. The smell resembles olive oil. It has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiparasitic properties, prevents cancer, malaria, insect bites.
It contains 46% oleic acid, 20% linoleic acid
Argan oil – oil made from fruits of iron argan. Argan oil is slightly darker than olive oil, with a reddish color. There are two types of argan oil which can be used for cooking and a brighter – cosmetic one. Argan oil has various medical properties, among others, it lowers cholesterol levels, improves blood circulation and supports the natural immunity of the body. It is suitable for consumption as an addition and dressing for salads, as a marinade for meat and other food products.
It contains about 43% oleic acid, 37% linoleic acid, 12% palmitic acid, 6% stearic acid, 0.5% linolenic acid
Black cumin oil – obtained from the pressing of seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa), honey color to dark brown. Slightly bitter in taste, with an intense, spicy smell.
It contains 28% saturated fatty acids, 53% linoleic acid, 25% oleic acid, 4% alpha-linolenic acid, 0.5-1.5% essential oil, vitamin E (tocopherols), vitamin A (carotenoids), biotin, microelements and trace elements.
Validity After opening 3-4 months.
Rosehip oil – a rare oil with a dark yellow to slightly brownish color produced from seeds of wild rose (Rosa canina) by their extraction in hexane. Then it undergoes a refining process. This oil is distinguished by its unique, naturally pink color and mild taste. It adds uniqueness to desserts, cocktails, fruit salads and meat dishes.
Contains 40% linoleic acid, 40% alpha-linolenic acid, vitamin A
Validity After opening only 8-10 weeks.
Coconut oil – oil obtained by pressing and warming copra – hard coconut nut flesh (Cocos Nucifera). Most commonly found as refined, deacidified and bleached. It is slightly yellow in the liquid form. At temperatures below 25 ° C, it looks like a truncated white fat (hence also called coconut butter).
It contains saturated fatty acids (about 90%), about 44% of lauric acid, about 18% myristic acid, about 11% palmitic acid, 6% stearic acid, about 7% oleic acid, about 2% linoleic acid and 12% alpha-linolenic acid.
Hemp oil – oil obtained from seeds of hemp, has a green-brown color and slightly bitter, spicy-nutty smell and taste. It is a valuable source of essential fatty acids, and additionally it lowers blood pressure, acts against stress, and helps in reducing the level of triglycerides. In Polish cuisine it has been known for a long time and used as an addition to potatoes, groats, boiled vegetables, salads and other cold dishes.
Contains 54% linoleic acid, 17% alpha linolenic acid, 4% gamma-linolenic acid, 13% oleic acid, 10% saturated fatty acids
Validity After opening only 4 weeks (even stored in the refrigerator will not extend its validity).
Safflower oil – is pressed from ripe safflower seeds. It is used as a remedy for the formation of cholesterol in the blood and as a natural depilator. It is recommended for cold use of salads and salads.
It contains 60-80% linoleic acid (the highest percentage of this acid contained in the vegetable oil), 10-14% oleic acid, 6% palmitic acid, 2-3% stearic acid, 0.5% linolenic acid, 0.5% peanut acid, rich in vitamins E and A.
Validity After opening approx. 3 months.
Corn oil – the oil obtained by extraction (in this form has a slightly reddish color) or cold pressed from maize. It is characterized by its specific taste and smell. It is best used cold for salads, sauces and soups.
It contains 55-65% linoleic acid, 12-14% palmitic acid, 4% stearic acid, 29% oleic acid, a large amount of vitamin E.
Validity After opening about 3-4 months.
Lnianka oil – obtained by cold pressing seeds of flaxseed, plants traditionally grown in Poland for centuries. Due to its distinctive taste, it is ideal for salads, vegetable salads, potatoes, groats, herring, white cheese and other cold dishes.
It contains about 35% omega-3 and 22% omega-6.
Linseed oil – obtained by cold pressing of linseed (Linum usitatissimum), with a yellowish color and intense, bitter smell. This oil has a very beneficial effect on hair, skin and nails. The latest results show that lignans present in linseed oil consistently counteract atherosclerosis and hypertensive disease, as well as alleviate the symptoms of menopause. Its protective properties of the gastrointestinal mucosa support the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. It should be eaten cold as an addition to salads, boiled vegetables and other dishes
Contains 10% saturated fatty acids, 58% alpha-linolenic acid, 15% linoleic acid, 17% oleic acid, rich in vitamin E
Validity After opening only 3-4 weeks.
Poppy seed oil – it is oil pressed from poppy seeds, it has a white to black color, depending on the poppy species. It has a unique taste of potato and cheese salads. It is also an excellent addition to cakes and pastries with cheese and poppy seeds.
It contains approx. 60-65% linoleic acid, 18-20% oleic acid and 10% palmitic acid.
Almond oil – obtained thanks to cold squeezing of almond tree seeds, it is a syrupy light yellow liquid with a mild, sweet taste and aroma.
It contains 65-68% oleic acid, 24-26% linoleic acid, 6-8% palmitic acid, 1-2% stearic acid and vitamin and minerals.
Peanut oil – vegetable oil obtained from peanuts. In the cold pressed form it is a transparent, yellow oil with an intense, nutty flavor and aroma. Refined oil has almost no smell at all. It positively affects the digestive system, promotes slimming, because it provides a longer feeling of satiety and reduces appetite. Peanut oil also protects cells against allergens. Systematic use of this oil in the kitchen significantly reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Phytosterol decks bring results in the fight against cancer, which can reduce cancer metastases by almost 50%. Use cold for salads, sauces, boiled vegetables. It is a great addition to cabbage salad.
It contains 13-45% linoleic acid, 36-72% oleic acid, 6-16% palmitic acid, 1-7% stearic acid, 1-3% arachine acid, 2-5% behenic acid, 1-3% lignoceric acid, rich in vitamins and minerals.
Brazil nut oil – extruded from nuts of the haughty (Bartholletia excelsa). It is characterized by exquisite nutty flavor and is ideally suited for the preparation of salad dressings and desserts.
It contains about 15% saturated fatty acids, 50% monounsaturated fatty acids and 35% polyunsaturated fatty acids
Hazelnut oil – obtained from cold-pressed hazelnuts, transparent with a golden-yellow color and nutty odor. At low temperatures, it becomes turbid / turbid. It is characterized by a unique, delicate taste and subtle fragrance. It is best to eat cold as an addition to salads, boiled vegetables and other dishes.
It contains 78% oleic acid, 14% linoleic acid, palmitic acid, rich in vitamins, minerals and protein.
Walnut oil – vegetable oil obtained usually as a result of cold pressing the flesh of walnut fruit. Light yellow, sometimes greenish. It is characterized by a delicate specific nutty flavor and a subtle fragrance. Walnut oil should be an integral part of the daily diet, because it reduces the content of cholesterol in the blood and its harmful effects on the human body. It contains a record amount of vitamin E, an excellent measure in slimming which also reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. It works perfectly as an addition to salads, salads, pancakes and cold desserts.
It contains 5-15% linolenic acid, 51-58% linoleic acid, 14-28% oleic acid, 8-16% saturated fatty acids, rich in vitamins A, B and E
Validity After opening approx. 3 months.
Macadamia nut oil – obtained from the macadamia nut pressing, it has a light yellow color.
It contains 57% oleic acid, 25% palmitic acid, 15% saturated fatty acids, rich in vitamins A, B, E and minerals
Palm oil – oil obtained by pressing the seeds of Guinea oilseed (Elaeis guineensis). The seeds are very hard which makes it difficult to get oil, first they are dried, then ground, pressed and finally refined. The oil at room temperature has the appearance of hard, yellow-brown fat and a characteristic smell. After refining, it becomes a hard, white to yellowish mass with a neutral, pleasant taste.
It contains 51% lauric acid, 17% myristic acid, 13% oleic acid, 8% palmitic acid, 2% stearic acid, 2% linoleic acid.
Pumpkin seed oil – cold pressed unroasted pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita Pepo) give a dark green-brown vegetable oil with a nutty flavor and taste. It is the most affordable and easily available source of zinc, which most people have too little (zinc deficiency causes, among others, prostate related problems). It also contains phytosterols. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil is recommended for prophylaxis and as an adjuvant in the treatment of the initial stage of prostate hyperplasia, bladder and urinary tract diseases. It removes toxins from the human body. The oil has an extremely effective effect on digestive disorders in children, eliminating the majority of parasites in the digestive system and causing the normalization of appetite in children. Use cold for salads, cooked vegetables and other dishes prepared cold.
It contains 47-50% linoleic acid, 30-35% oleic acid, 10-25% palmitic acid, up to 2% other fatty acids, vitamin E, B1, B2, B6, large amounts of vitamins A, C and D, rich in beta -carotene, potassium, selenium and zinc. It also contains nutrients such as phytosterols, squalen, phytosterinen, citrulin, and cucurbitin.
Store in the refrigerator after opening, thus preserving its aroma and vitamins for about 9 months, if it is not stored in a cool dark place, it is valid for only 3 months.
Grape seed oil – cold pressed from grape seed. It lowers LDL and replenishes HDL stores, protects against heart disease, is also an extremely rich source of vitamin A and E. In the Mediterranean diet it is widely used for salads, sauces, as well as for frying and stewing, because it can withstand very high temperatures. Its main advantage is incomparable to any other oil property preserving the natural taste of the ingredients. Dishes fried with grape seed oil will not pass through a strange aroma, they will not change their subtle flavor and aroma notes, and above all will not have a greasy aftertaste.
It contains about 65% linoleic acid, 11% saturated fatty acids and 17% monounsaturated fatty acids.
Rice oil – extruded or extracted from broken rice husks (oryza sativa). Recommended because of its qualities as salad oil. Also excellent for frying due to the high temperature of smoking and limited absorption of fat by the dishes.
It contains 38% oleic acid, 40% linoleic acid, erucic acid esters, gamma-oryzanol, squalene, phosphoric acid, esters of higher alcohols and fatty acids, very large amounts of vitamin E and tocotrienols.
Rape oil – food vegetable oil produced from rape. Perfectly counteracts cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis, reduces the risk of myocardial disease. Like most cold pressed oils, it effectively reduces cholesterol levels in the body, exacerbating the excretion of bad cholesterol. It regulates the metabolism. Studies have shown that it alleviates the symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Used by some drivers in diesel engines, because it is cheaper than oil; P
It contains about 65% of monounsaturated fatty acids (including 59% of olinic acid), 20% linoleic acid, 9% alpha-linolenic acid, and vitamins E and A.
Sesame oil – vegetable oil obtained by cold pressing of sesame seeds. It has light to dark yellow to brown color and slightly nutty, mild aroma and taste. The variety used in the food industry has a dark brown color and strong aroma. The compounds contained in sesame oil help to lower blood pressure and reduce the dose of drugs that have been taken to high blood pressure. Studies have shown that making up on average 35 grams a day of sesame oil for 60 days brings a drop in hypertension. Sesame seed oil also has a large amount of vitamin E, which is a natural antioxidant and vitamin K that acts anti-haemorrhaging and participates in the formation of bone tissue.
It contains 14% saturated fatty acids, 41-43% oleic acid, 41-43% linoleic acid, 9-10% palmitic acid, 5-6% stearic acid, 0.5% linolenic acid
Validity After opening approx. 6 months.
Sunflower oil – oil obtained from sunflower seeds. It is best to use cold as an addition to various types of salads, salads and sauces, it should not overheat above a temperature of 100 degrees C.
It contains 75% polyunsaturated fatty acids (including about 65% linoleic acid), 15% monounsaturated fatty acids and 10% saturated fatty acids.
Soybean oil – it is made of pressed grains of soybean soy. The oil obtained has a dark brown color and a specific smell. Known in ancient Egypt, until recently widely used for food and industrial purposes. As edible fat it lost its importance due to the relatively high price and not very attractive taste. It contains a large amount of flavonoids, lecithin, steroline and vitamin E.
It contains about 61% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 24% monounsaturated fatty acids (including 8% linoleic acid) and 15% saturated fatty acids.
Evening primrose oil – is made from evening primrose seeds. It helps in the treatment of skin diseases (psoriasis, acne), hypertension, arthritis, infertility and many other diseases. Additionally, it helps to heal wounds, to survive migraines, has a beneficial effect on the immune system of the human body and regulates the menstrual cycle in women.
It contains large amounts of gamma-linolenic acid, cis-linolenic acid and vitamin F.
Olive oil – It is obtained as a result of the pressing process “cold or hot” on the flesh of olive fruit, varying from golden-yellow to yellow-green, characteristic smell and specific taste. The best is the virgin cold pressing – Extra Virgin, the compounds contained therein have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, and contain antioxidants like polyphenols, fighting free radicals and reducing the risk of heart disease, as well as delaying the aging of cells. It helps to reduce the level of bad cholesterol and increase the level of good. This product is easily digestible and has a protective effect on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. It also helps with the problems of constipation – in the morning on an empty stomach, drink a tablespoon of olive oil and drink it with a glass of warm water. It is widely used for salads, sauces, as well as for frying and stewing, because it withstands very high temperatures. Warmed oil – in comparison with other fats – thanks to a high content of antioxidants and oleic acid is very stable and retains its nutritional values for a longer time.
It contains 15% saturated fatty acids, 60-75% oleic acid, 14-18% linoleic acid, 10-18% palmitic acid, 2% linolenic acid, 2% stearic acid, vitamin E.
Tran – is a liquid fish kept from fresh liver of Atlantic cod – Gadus morrhua or other fish from the family of gourd – Gadidae. It has a characteristic smell and taste.
It contains 22.6% saturated fatty acids, 46.7% monounsaturated fatty acids, 19.7% Omega-3 acids and 0.9% Omega-6 fatty acids. In addition, it contains large amounts of vitamin A and D.
Cocoa butter – vegetable fat obtained from seeds of ripe proper cocoa fruit. It has a bright yellow color and has a delicate chocolate sm