FODMAP is a diet developed by a research team from Monash University, which allows you to function normally with people with irritable bowel syndrome and excessive growth of bacterial flora in the small intestine in other disease entities.See the principles of FODMAP diet – the list of prohibited products and an example menu.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of the many diseases of the digestive tract characterized by bacterial growth, which in this case affects the jejunum with microflora living in the large intestine.Symptoms are burdensome and include diarrhea digestive disorders, alternating constipation, bloating, abdominal pain and impaired absorption of food.This disease is difficult to diagnose and treat and may lead to serious nutritional deficiencies and bowel dysfunction. FODMAP is a way of feeding that improves the comfort of gut and patients’ life.
What is the FODMAP diet?
FODMAP is a diet developed by a research team from Monash University – Professor Peter Gibson, director of Gastroenterology, The Alfred Hospital and Monash University, and Dr. Jane Muir – which allows normal functioning for people with sensitive bowel syndrome and excessive bacterial flora in other disease entities.The diet assumes a very low intake of products containing fructose, lactose, fructans, polyhydric alcohols and artificial sweeteners, which not only are easily fermented, but also by the osmotic properties increase the amount of water in the intestinal lumen.These substances ferment under the influence of bacteria that live there, which in turn causes increased production of carbon dioxide and methane, which in turn leads to flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhea.
Check also: Diet for women – know-how!
The name FODMAP is a compilation of the first letters of the words Fermentable Oligosacharides, Disacharides, Monosacharides And Polyols.They are compounds that in unchanged form migrate to the large intestine and become a breeding ground for bacteria, carrying out their rapid fermentation and giving symptoms of IBS. In people who suffer from sugar intolerance, as well as SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth), the fermentation takes place in the small intestine with the participation of bacteria that normally live in the large intestine.Such pathological phenomena disturb the proper digestion of nutrients, but also cause their impaired absorption and gradual damage to the lining of the intestines.This leads to symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.
SIBO is increasingly associated with the occurrence of IBS – studies show that bacterial overgrowth often occurs in patients with irritable bowel.In many studies and tests, it was observed that the elimination of foods containing large amounts of the aforementioned substances brings about 75% improvement in well-being.people with IBS.
FODMAP diet rules
The FODMAP diet consists of two phases.The first one lasts about 6-8 weeks and consists in avoiding products rich in FODMAP (depending on the state of health and individual tolerance, you can afford a small amount of such products in this phase).The second phase is much longer and depends on the reaction of the person to the products introduced back into the diet.New foods should be introduced one by one, once every few days, observing the reaction (which may be caused by substances other than FODMAP found in a given food).You should not prolong the use of the diet, because the elimination of many vegetables and fruits can lead to shortages of fiber, vitamins and minerals.You can return to the first phase whenever you feel an exacerbation of unpleasant symptoms.
Read also: Macrobiotic diet
Where are FODMAP located?List of prohibited products
Below is a list of food products that are prohibited in the first phase of the FODMAP diet.It is often updated at http // www.ibsdiets.org / fodmap-diet / fodmap-food-list /.
Although some FODMAPs are allowed in the table, the components present in them that provoke IBS should always be taken into account.It is an insoluble fiber, a large amount of fat, acids such as fruit and caffeine.The effect and mode of action of the diet will depend on the intestinal disease unit and on the individual tolerance.
High FODMAP products are those that should be avoided, or at least – to limit their consumption.The list includes products of various origins, including a large number of vegetables and fruits, as well as cereal and dairy products.
Vegetables garlic, onions, artichokes, Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus, avocado, beans, beetroot, Brussels sprouts, broad beans, cauliflower, peas, dill, green peppers, lentils, leek, peas, soy, spring onions (white part).
Fruit apples, peaches, apricots, blackberries, cherries, lychees, nectarines, pears, plums (also dried), watermelon.
Cereal products products containing wheat and rye, including bread, pasta, flour, cereals, bran, cereals, cakes, biscuits, biscuits, crackers, biscuits, tortillas.
Sweets and sweeteners fructose, glucose-fructose syrup, honey, isomalt, sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, xylitol.
Milk products cow’s and goat milk, yoghurts, cottage cheese, cream, ice-cream.
Beverages beverages sweetened with glucose-fructose syrup, beverages sweetened with fructose, beverages sweetened with other sweeteners mentioned above, high FODMAP fruit juices, beer, sweet wines.
Prebiotics FOS, fructooligosaccharides, inulin, oligofructose.
FODMAP diet – practical tips
Before buying, read the product composition carefully so that you do not buy those rich in FODMAP. Dairy products are valuable for health – if you do not have allergies to milk proteins, choose those that are low in lactose (eg low lactose dairy products, yellow cheeses) and divide them into all meals throughout the day.To avoid constipation, you should choose products rich in fiber, and poor in FODMAP – such as porridge, and drink plenty of water.
FODMAP will not alleviate the symptoms of intestinal diseases for everyone.Always in the case of weight loss, diarrhea, bloating, constipation, deeper diagnostics are necessary to avoid harm.Particular attention must be paid to people with celiac disease.Not all of the products listed below are safe for them.Before purchasing, check the food labels (pulls below).
FODMAP diet – an example menu
breakfast 454 kcal
Sandwiches from gluten-free bread with hard cheese and tomato sprinkled with sprouts, orange juice.Ingredients 2 slices of gluten-free bread, each 40 g, two slices of cheese, about 40 g, slices of tomato 60 g, juice 200 ml, freshly squeezed.
II breakfast 173 kcal
Chocolate and banana mousse.Ingredients natural yogurt without lactose – 150 g (half a glass), banana 120 g, 3 tablespoons of cocoa without sugar. Mix all ingredients.
Lunch 450 kcal
Grilled fish with potato, carrot and salad with vinaigrette.Preparation of 100 g of white skinless fish should be rubbed with spices, drizzle with olive oil and lemon juice, and grilled like potato and sliced carrot.Eat salad with sprinkled lemon juice, olive oil, sprinkled with fresh herbs.
Afternoon tea 160 kcal
Fruit salad made of kiwi, two mandarins and half banana slices.The whole is drizzled with orange juice.
Supper 304 kcal
Pepper stuffed with tomatoes.Ingredients: large green pepper 230 g, turkey breast 80 g, brown rice 30 g (2 tablespoons), chopped spinach leaves (handful), a pinch of oregano and thyme, 5 g (spoon) olive oil, 3 g parsley, pepper, canned tomatoes 240 g (1 cup).Preparation Clean the inside of the pepper after detaching the heel, fill it with stuffing of minced meat, spinach, herbs and spices;put into a pot, pour 2 tablespoons of water and simmer about 20 minutes.Put into a casserole.Stew tomatoes in a can, sprinkle with basil, put on top of peppers, bake 5 minutes at 250 degrees C. Sprinkle with parmesan cheese.
What products to avoid in the FODMAP diet – a handbag list
Excess fructose honey, apples, mango, pear, watermelon, high-fructose corn syrup and food products containing it.
Fructans artichokes, garlic (in large quantities), leek, onion, spring onion (white part), shallots, wheat (in large quantities), rye (in large quantities), barley (in large quantities), inulin, fructooligosaccharides, oligosaccharides.
Lactose milk, ice cream, cream, biscuits, biscuits, milk desserts, condensed milk, powdered milk, yogurt, soft cheeses (eg ricotta, marscarpone), cream.
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) beans, lentils, chickpeas.
Polyols apples, apricots, avocados, cherries, nectarines, pears, plums, mushrooms, sorbitol (420), mannitol (421), xylitol (967), maltitol (965) and isomalt (953).