Non-specific intestinal inflammatory diseases require a proper diet, which is an important part of treatment. What can eat people suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases and what products are prohibited? There are some general rules regarding diet with inflammatory bowel diseases, but specific recommendations depend on m. in. whether the disease is in remission or in the phase of exacerbation. Check what are the nutritional recommendations for IBD.
Nutritional assumptions should take into account the patient’s nutritional status.
In case of finding nutritional deficiencies, products rich in specific ingredients should be introduced, and if malnutrition is significant or the course of the disease makes it impossible to supplement the deficiencies in a traditional way, supplementation should be introduced The most common shortages concern protein malnutrition, fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K), vitamin C, B12, folic acid, iron (anemia), calcium (osteopenia, osteoporosis), other ingredients (magnesium, zinc, selenium).
If allergy is suspected, appropriate tests and elimination diets should be used.
You should use fresh, seasonal, natural, good quality, low processed products.
Diets should exclude products containing refined sugars – their consumption may lead to exacerbation of disease symptoms.
The source of carbohydrates in the diet should be fine groats (manna, millet, couscous, fine barley groats, other), light bread, graham bread, small pastas, rice, vegetables that are a good source of starch – potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots.
It is necessary to limit products containing long-chain fatty acids (coconut oil, palm oil, cocoa butter, nut butter, butter, lard.) The fat consumed while using the diet should be good quality vegetable oils.
Limit foods that irritate the digestive tract.
- – hard food, in large pieces, fried
- – vegetables containing hard food fiber (brassicas, legumes, immature, hard)
- – bloating products (cruciferous vegetables, onions, leek, garlic)
- – fruits containing small stones (raspberries, strawberries, blueberries)
Dietary fiber in the diet should come from vegetables, ripe, soft fruit, wheat bread or graham.Do not completely exclude from the diet berries (containing small stones), but give them in the form of purees, juices, jellies from purees.These fruits are a great source of vitamins and antioxidants, which in the nutritional support of patients is of great importance.
The dishes should be
- – cooked (traditionally, steamed)
- – baked (in aluminum foil or parchment)
- – frying and traditional baking are not recommended.
The diet should exclude meals from meat and raw fish (steak tartare, sushi, fish tatras).
One of the most serious problems in people with IBD in both cases is malnutrition.
Due to fears associated with possible exacerbation of symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, etc.), the occurrence of chronic constipation, intestinal ulcers, fistula, many people reduce food intake, which in the long run leads to serious energy deficiencies and nutrients, such as , e.g. protein, fats or vitamins and minerals.
Operative procedures, e.g. resection of the terminal ileum, can also lead to reduced absorption of lipid-soluble fat and vitamins,
Patients may often be deficient in vitamins (A, B, D, E, K, C), minerals (including calcium, selenium, magnesium, zinc), and reduced enzyme activity.
- vitamin A, which originates from offal (liver), fish fat (fish oil) and vegetables rich in beta – carotene for example, carrots, parsley, chard, pumpkin and others
- vitamin D – its deficiency will be supplemented with fish oil, fish, and above all, exposure to sunlight
- Vitamin E – is found in sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds (in ground form), vegetable oils
- vitamin K – its source is green vegetables and sprouts, vegetable oils, marine algae (eg spirulina, chlorella)
In addition, in the areas of inflammation and scarring, the absorption of proteins also worsens. To make up for the deficiency of this ingredient, lean meat and poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, fermented milk products, cereal products are the best source of protein for people with IBD.
Some nutritional deficiencies may be caused (or aggravated) by drugs used to treat IBD – corticosteroids limit the absorption of calcium, sulfasalazine – folates, and cholestiramine limits the absorption of vitamins, whereas prednisone may lead to calcium, potassium and zinc deficiency. also indigestion, taste disorders, nausea and vomiting.
Deficiencies of iron, folate, disrupted production and absorption of vitamin B12, chronic inflammation, intestinal resection and tissue blood loss very often lead to anemia. Anemia is a common problem among children with inflammatory bowel diseases.
IBD – nutrition in states of exacerbation or remission
The diet proposed in exacerbations of the disease should be modified in such a way as to relieve and protect the intestines from adverse factors, the food intervention is dependent on the severity of the symptoms.
In acute, severe and recurrent symptoms, pre-operative preparation in malnourished patients, fistulas and other units occurring in IBD, parenteral nutrition is often recommended, which allows remission (inhibition and resolution of disease symptoms.) People whose health condition has improved or exacerbated. the symptoms are small, they should use a easily digestible, high-energy and high-nutrient diet with limited intake of gastrointestinal irritants.
In the period of health improvement (remission), the patients’ diet should be based on the general principles of a fully-fledged diet and take into account the individual caloric needs, should also contain nutrients that alleviate inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, improve the functioning of the immune system and prebiotics. and consider the use of appropriate supplementation.
Diet at IBD – products not recommended and acceptable
IBD are classified as chronic, non-infectious inflammatory diseases, the occurrence of which is often associated with the intake of certain food components. Inflammation is the reaction of the body (immune system) to harmful factors for a given person. processed products Therefore, they should be excluded.It is also important to prepare the dishes.Free frying, traditional baking, frying, grilling. For traditional cooking, steamed, under pressure, baking in foil and parchment, cooking in a small amount of water without prior obscuring.
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