Pancreatic diet plays an important role in the treatment process. The diet in diseases of the pancreas is most often used for chronic and acute inflammation of this organ. Improving the functioning of the pancreas can be dangerous for the body, therefore the purpose of pancreatic diet is to relieve the body and help its normal functioning. What is the pancreatic diet? What can you eat? Which products are indicated and contraindicated. What is the example menu look like?
Pancreatic diet is important in the healing process and prevents many ailments associated with pancreatic insufficiency. The pancreatic diet is a easily digestible diet with a reduction in fat and fiber. It is modified according to the patient’s condition and its digestive capacity. The more severe the disease, the more strictly follow the nutritional guidelines.
In the treatment of the pancreas, we can distinguish between dietary management in acute inflammation, recovery after acute inflammation and chronic pancreatitis, disrupted pancreas results in impaired digestion of all macronutrients, and can lead to diabetes mellitus as a result of damage to pancreatic islets that produce insulin. a life threatening condition.
Pancreatic diet – principles of nutrition with acute pancreatitis
In acute pancreatitis, the main factor damaging the organ is the activation of digestive enzymes, which is caused by the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract, therefore in the case of acute pancreatitis in the first days no food or drinks are administered orally.
In people with severe disease, it is necessary to include intravenous or enteral nutrition by gavage with special enteral nutrition mixtures. People with mild acute pancreatitis do not give food by mouth for 3-4 days, and intravenous fluids and electrolytes are supplemented. Therefore, a few days of fasting is used, after which meals are started orally.
The first meal is gruel on water with a volume of 200-300 ml. With its good tolerance, the patient can eat two more meals based on gruel enriched, for example, with lean milk or boiled vegetables.
In the 2-3 day of nutrition you can increase the number of meals to 4-5 and extend the menu with jelly, pudding on skim milk or natural yoghurt Another dietary variety includes dishes with a mushy or solid consistency such as vegetable puree, cooked minced meat, corn crisps e.t.c.
With good meal tolerance, you can start expanding your diet based on recommended and contraindicated products in the easily digestible diet with fat restriction.
For the first month, an easily digestible diet with a reduction in fat and fiber is strictly forbidden in any amount, as well as canned products, tinned. The basis of the menu are carbohydrates.
In the 2000 kcal diet, 65 g of protein, 40 g of fat and 345 g of carbohydrates from low-fiber sources are supplied, eg wheat bread, semolina, rusks, and jam-free jams.
The protein comes from low-fat sources, such as skinless poultry, lean fish, lean dairy products.
Half of fat in the daily food ration is fat contained in food, and half – so-called visibly fat, added raw to dishes. Fatty additives selected should be easily digestible and come from butter, vegetable oils or 30% cream, sometimes from egg yolk.
The dishes should be primarily boiled in water or steam, vegetables and fruits can be eaten only in a cooked form, initially as purees. In raw form are allowed only as juices and purees.
Small meals are recommended, not too cold or hot, eaten 5 or even up to 7 times a day. Non-carbonated water and weak tea infusions at moderate temperatures are recommended.
In the second month, a readily digestible diet with fat restriction is still in use and is based on the same recommended products, gradually increasing the protein and fat content in the diet.
The daily caloric content increases slightly from 2000 kcal to 2,200 kcal, it contains 70 g of protein, 50 g of fat and 370 g of carbohydrates, gradually increasing the amount of fat and raw products in the diet, observing the body’s reactions.
If you have fatty stools or abdominal pain, flatulence, abdominal wall drainage, feelings of fullness after a meal, etc., periodically return to the previous diet model.
Gradually, you have to try to introduce new foods, because the second phase of the diet is to lead to full-bodied feeding and the so-called basic diet.
In addition to cooked meals should be introduced stew meals without previous frying, baked in foil and parchment, arriving with increasing tolerance to fried dishes.
Eating fried foods is usually possible after a full recovery. The better you feel and the test results, the more often you try to incorporate raw vegetables and fat-rich foods into the diet.
Self-monitoring and observing the body’s reaction to new foods is still recommended.
Pancreatic diet – principles of nutrition for chronic pancreatitis
The diet used in chronic pancreatitis is a low-fat diet with increased protein and carbohydrates, and the most important thing is strict adherence to the total ban on drinking alcohol.
The amount of fat in the diet is 40-50 g. This is the fat contained in the products and added to the dishes in an amount of 20-25 g.
Protein is administered in an amount of 1-1.5 g / kg body weight. It should come from sources with low fat content, such as skinless poultry, lean fish, egg white, lean curd. The products should be removed visible fat, removing it from meats, meats, taking off the layer of fat from soup, etc.
In the case of fatty stools, fat tolerance can be improved by administering preparations with pancreatic enzymes.
Carbohydrates are the basic source of energy in the pancreatic diet. They should come from sources with low fiber content, eg wheat bread, cast noodles, fruit purée.
Tolerance for vegetables and fruits is very individual, vegetables and fruit are contraindicated cabbages, onions, garlic, dry seeds of legumes, pears, plums and cherries.
In the case of non-tolerance of raw vegetables, eat cooked. Recommended cooking techniques include cooking in water and steam, baking in foil or parchment, stewing without frying. The soup is boiled on vegetable broths without roux.
Meals should be eaten 5 times a day at regular intervals and in a quiet atmosphere, breakfast should be eaten up to an hour after waking up, and dinner 2-3 hours before bedtime.