Nootropics are substances that improve both the brain and the nervous system. These preparations are increasingly finding supporters not only among the sick, but healthy people who are subjected to excessive intellectual effort. Are “smart drugs” really safe and beneficial to our body? More in the text below.
What is piracetam?
Piracetam is a nootropic drug belonging to the group of compounds called pyrrolidones. This compound is a derivative of the very well-known ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA). Nootropic drugs are substances of various structure and mechanism of action, but they are compatible with the metabolism of the central nervous system. The effect of this can be the stimulation of memory processes and awareness. Piracetam is a substance that does not show physical dependence.
Piracetam – action
Piracetam is a substance used in the treatment of pathological conditions of neurological background. Responsible primarily for enhancing the metabolism of neurons in states of reduced activity. This leads to improved nerve conduction, increased use of oxygen and glucose, improved synthesis of neurotransmitters and high energy compounds. Piracetam also has strong antimonlonic activity.
The above reactions have a very positive effect on the activity of the higher parts of the central nervous system. What’s more, they lead to the improvement of cognitive processes (eg memory, consciousness or learning) and psychophysical efficiency. It is worth adding that piracetam in people with dyslexia improves the speed of reading and improves the process of memorizing. In addition, this compound is used as part of the prevention of brain function changes.
Another important action of piracetam is its impact on the cardiovascular system. Among the numerous impacts, it is worth specifying
– lowering of blood and plasma viscosity;
– stimulation of prostacyclin synthesis;
– removal of pathological spasms of small vessels;
– reduction of the aggregating ability of thrombocytes (platelets);
– limitation of adherence of erythrocytes to the endothelium of blood vessels;
– prolonged bleeding time and decreased fibrinogen levels.
The standard dose of piracetam for children is from 40 to 100 mg of substance for every kilogram of body weight. In the treatment of dyslexia, lower doses, not exceeding 50 mg, are also used. In turn, adults should use between 1200 and 4800 mg per day. The maximum effectiveness is shown by the maximum dose divided into three servings during the day of 1600 mg each.
Indications and contraindications
Pharmacological treatment using piracetam is intended mainly for people with cognitive impairment (dementia syndromes with the exception of Alzheimer’s disease). In addition, it is very often used in the case of peripheral cortical myoclonus and middle dizziness, as well as dyslexia.
Among the contraindications to the use of piracetam is above all hypersensitivity to any component of this substance. In addition, here he mentions intracerebral hemorrhage, severe renal failure, Huntington’s chorea. As a result of the impact on the blood coagulation process, one should be cautious when using this supplement in the event of disturbances of homeostasis, severe surgical operations and severe haemorrhage.
Piracetam is also responsible for the intensification of thyroid hormones. There are reports of occurrences of confusion, irritability or insomnia during simultaneous supplementation of the drug with thyroid preparations.
Side effects are rare and usually occur at the beginning of therapy with piracetam. The most common symptoms are excessive excitement, nausea and vomiting. Other symptoms that may occur include dizziness, fluctuations in blood pressure, increased salivation and allergic reactions.
A study conducted on healthy young volunteers aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of piracetam supplementation in the context of improving brain function. Despite the lack of any impact in the normal situation, the results confirmed the assumption. Participants were subjected to a situation of inadequate oxygenation of the brain (excessive concentration, sleepless night), followed by an EEG test. The analysis showed improvement in the efficiency of brain work after earlier use of the nootropic drug.
What is sunifiram?
The above compound belongs to the group of synthetic derivatives of piracetam. DM-235 is also a nootropic medicine that strengthens cognitive processes. Very often it is referred to as AMPAkine due to its action through the AMPA receptor and kainic acid.
Sunifiram – properties
The action of sunifiram is very similar to its precursor – this nootropic drug is responsible for improving the metabolism of the nervous system, which promotes the efficiency and effectiveness of energy transformation. Due to the low level of toxicity and the greater (almost 1000 times) nervous system impact power than piracetam, it is increasingly used in the treatment of neurological problems. Sunifiram is also responsible for oxygenating the brain, improving the blood circulation, and also affecting the production of acetylcholine.
Sunifiram is recommended for the purpose
– improving intellectual performance;
– improvement of cognitive functions;
– increase in the productivity of professionally active people;
– metabolism stimulation.
Due to the lack of detailed human studies, it is very difficult to determine the optimal dose of sunifiram. Estimated doses were calculated on the basis of tests on rats, in which the optimal supplementation is about 1 mg per kilogram of body weight. Therefore, it is assumed that a man should use from 0.08 to 0.16 mg of substance for every kilogram creating the mass of his own body.
Aniracetam – general information
This is another derivative of piracetam, which is very similar to it in terms of structural structure. Its action, as in the case of sunifiram, is much more effective, which is why it is increasingly used in the pharmacological therapy of the nervous system. This relationship very often occurs under the names Ampamet, Draganon, Memodrin, Referan or Sarpul.
Action and supplementation
Aniracetam, like the previously described substances, affects memory processes and concentration. Due to the improvement of blood flow through the brain, it affects the process of analytical thinking. Very often it is referred to as an element necessary to “assemble the puzzle into the whole “.
In addition to the typical medical use of substances (including Alzheimer’s therapy or depression), it is very often used as a dietary supplement. It is recommended mainly to intellectual employees who spend many hours in concentration. Aniracetam is also a very good solution for mitigating and renewing the effects of harmful alcohol activity.
Aniracetam is a very fat-soluble compound, therefore the preparation should be taken with a fat meal. The recommended daily dose of the preparation should be from 1000 to 1500 mg. This dose should be divided into two minor doses.
What is nefiracetam?
Nefiracetam is a chemical compound belonging to the racetam group. Like aniracetam, it is fat soluble in compound with which it easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier and penetrates the central nervous system more quickly. Together with the previously described compounds, it is part of nootropic drugs that stimulate the brain and our body. The preparation is not as popular as aniracetam or piracetam.
Nefiracetam – properties and dosage
Nefiracetam is a component of medicines that improve memory and concentration. He is responsible for increasing acetylcholine signaling and glutamate in synapses, which prolongs the action of calcium in active neurons. The result of such activity is intensification and improving the quality of memory processes, cause-and-effect thinking and learning. Very often it is recommended as a drug for the treatment of ADHD and depression.
Supplementation of nifracetam should contain doses of 150 to 450 mg per day. This portion should be divided into three equal doses. Single doses do not improve cognitive function. Despite this, they affect the brain within 30 to 60 minutes after ingestion.