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Coffee

Coffee is the favorite drink of most busy people. It is usually associated with a break and relaxation. Like every product, coffee has its advantages and disadvantages. Today, coffee is one of the most popular drinks in the world and many beneficial properties are attributed to it. With some exceptions, coffee is definitely better to drink than to give up.

1. Coffee – action
2. Facts and myths about coffee
3. Some reasons to drink coffee

4. Decaffeinated coffee

5. Summary

1. Coffee – action

Coffee grain contains over 1000 bioactive compounds, of which the most interest is caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and kafestol. All listed compounds have potentially beneficial effects, including antioxidant ones. Coffee is one of the most abundant sources of antioxidants in your daily diet. The effect of a coffee drink on the body depends on many factors – starting with the type of coffee (most often we deal with arabica and robusta), by burning grains, the method of making coffee, and on a specific gene set and composition of a person’s microflora . It turns out that both genes and the composition of microbiota determine the metabolism and the final effect of coffee.

Caffeine, the compound most associated with coffee, undergoes metabolism in the liver. As a result of transformations, three main compounds are formed: theophylline, paraxanthin and theobromine. It is excreted through the kidneys. Interestingly, in people who smoke, the metabolism of caffeine is accelerated due to its effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes that are involved in the conversion of caffeine in the liver. It freely flows from the bloodstream to the brain. Caffeine is an antagonist of adenosine receptors, i.e. has an inhibitory effect. Thanks to this, it eliminates tiredness and drowsiness.

2. Facts and myths about coffee

Coffee rinses out magnesium and calcium
Myth. It is true that the studies have shown increased urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, but this effect is achieved when consuming more than 744 mg of caffeine per day (approximately 8 glasses of coffee per day). Consumption of caffeine in an amount of approx. 400 mg daily with simultaneous intake of calcium with a diet of at least 800 mg does not cause negative consequences.

Coffee raises blood pressure
Myth. This effect can be observed in people who drink coffee occasionally. Drinking coffee for three days in a row causes the development of tolerance and ceases to have an effect on the blood pressure.

Coffee improves concentration
Fact, as long as it is not decaffeinated. Caffeine, depending on the dose, may improve alertness, speed of reaction, concentration, mood, and even increase self-confidence. The more rested we are, the less the effect is. Coffee can be a salvation after a sleepless night.

There are contraindications to drinking coffee
Fact. Although there are not many – there are. Drinking coffee is not recommended for pregnant women, as well as people with reflux disease or stomach ulcer. The caffeine contained in coffee may exacerbate the symptoms by stimulating the secretion of gastric juice. In addition, it also increases the secretion of gastrin, which in turn causes relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, thus the stomach content is easier to pass from the stomach to the esophagus.

Caffeine is addictive
It is not known. In DMS-5 (Diagnosis and manual manual of mental disorders), or the classification of mental disorders of the American Psychiatric Association, criteria for the diagnosis of caffeine withdrawal syndrome are included. Disorders related to the consumption of caffeine have been recognized as a problem requiring further research.

Moderate consumption of caffeine, ie about 5 cups of coffee a day, does not have negative effects on adults. However, this looks slightly different in children and adolescents, in whom low doses (100-400 mg) can cause negative symptoms such as anxiety, nervousness and sleep disorders. Considering the fact that caffeine may have a beneficial effect on the mood, for young people reaching for coffee in order to achieve this effect may lead to the development of abnormal habits.

3. Some reasons to drink coffee

First of all, coffee probably reduces the risk of premature death. Based on the results of current research on the health effects of drinking coffee, it has been shown that the lowest risk is associated with drinking 3 cups a day.

In comparison with people who do not drink coffee, coffee drinks are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease. Research shows that an extra cup of coffee a day can reduce the risk of death for cardiovascular reasons by 2%.

The higher the intake of coffee, the lower the risk of developing tumors, including prostate, liver, endometrium. People who consume coffee in comparison with coffee abstinents are less exposed to the risk of liver cirrhosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (by 1/3). Reducing the risk of these serious diseases by 30% is a spectacular result and a leading argument in favor of incorporating this drink into the daily diet.

Daily drinking of coffee may act prophylactically for type II diabetes. The caffeine is probably not responsible for this effect, but the other components of coffee, because decaffeinated coffee also works prophylactically.

Decaffeinated coffee, however, does not protect against neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease or Alzheimer’s disease (as opposed to traditional coffee).

4. Decaffeinated coffee – does it have similar effects?
The composition of decaffeinated coffee is not much different with the profile of active compounds except for caffeine, which contains traces. Decaffeinated coffee does not bring as many beneficial effects as the natural one, however, its consumption also reduces the risk of some diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and endometrial cancer.

5. Summary

In conclusion – drinking coffee brings far more benefits than threats. In fact, there is not enough evidence of any harmful effects, except during pregnancy, in which caffeine should be limited due to the developing body of the child.

During pregnancy, hormonal changes cause a much longer persistence of this compound in the blood of a pregnant woman. This is extremely important considering that caffeine passes easily to the amniotic fluid. In addition, the CYP1A2 metabolising enzyme activity in the fetus is very low. This means that a child in the womb consuming large amounts of coffee is exposed to its action much longer than the average adult person. Therefore it is reasonable to preserve moderation. Drinking coffee during pregnancy may increase the risk of low birth weight of a child, miscarriage, premature birth.

Moderate consumption of coffee is also recommended to women because of the results of the study, which suggest that a higher intake of coffee may increase the risk of fractures (in men, this trend has not been demonstrated). It is difficult to say whether we can blame caffeine for this state of affairs. After all, intake up to 400 mg of caffeine per day should not lead to any negative consequences. However, there are doubts about the relationship between drinking coffee and the higher incidence of lung cancer. It is suspected, however, that this relationship is due to the fact that smokers often drink coffee regularly. Therefore, smoking seems to be the deciding factor, which has not been included in some studies.

Bibliography
Poole R. et al., Coffee consumption and health umbrella review of meta-analyzes of multiple health outcomes, The BMJ 2017, 359, 5024.

Budney AJ, Emond I, Caffeine addiction? Caffeine for youth? Time to act !, Society for the Study of Addiction 2014, 109, 1771-1772.

Bojarowicz H., Przygoda M., Kofeina. Part 1. Widespread use of caffeine and its effects on the body, Problems of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 2012, 93 (1), 80-13.

Wolde T., Effect of caffeine on health and nutrition, Food Science and Quality Management 2014, 30, 59-65.

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Healthcare

How many calories does coffee and tea have?

Black coffee and sugar-free tea do not provide calories. An espresso cup has only 1 kcal, and 0 kcal tea. It is enough, however, to add milk, sugar, whipped cream or flavored syrup so that the caloric value will increase significantly. Often you add not one, but a few additions. It is thanks to them that coffee can turn into a calorific bomb. 

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If you drink a few of these beverages during the day, you may find that you have consumed the amount of calories in a large dinner. Coffee with whipped cream and amaretto syrup is like dessert, but at the same time it still remains liquid, which reduces hunger to a small extent. 

The caloricity of tea depends on 

added sugar, 

addition of honey, 

addition of flavored syrups (eg raspberry). 

The caloricity of coffee depends on 

milk type, 

addition of flavored syrups, 

addition of whipped cream. 

Calorific value of classic coffees and teas 

See how many calories have classic types of coffees and teas without sugar! 

A cup of espresso coffee (50 ml) 1 kcal 

A cup of cappuccino coffee (150 ml) 55 kcal 

A glass of latte coffee (250 ml) 143 kcal 

A glass of cereal coffee (250 ml) 5 kcal 

A glass of black, green, red, white tea without sugar (250 ml) 0 kcal 

A glass of raspberry tea, hibiscus without sugar (150 ml) 0 kcal 

Caloricity of coffee and tea additives 

Check how many calories have the most popular additions to coffee and tea. 

A glass of milk 0.5% (250 ml) 98 kcal 

A glass of milk 2% (250 ml) 128 kcal 

A glass of milk 3.2% (250 ml) 153 kcal 

A glass of soy drink (milk) (250 ml) 103 kcal 

A glass of coconut milk (milk) (250 ml) 63 kcal 

A glass of almond drink (milk) (250 ml) 75 kcal 

Portion of whipped cream 145 kcal 

A spoon of amaretto syrup 32 kcal 

A spoon of raspberry syrup 21 kcal 

A spoon of sugar (5 g) 20 kcal 

A spoon of honey (12 g) 39 kcal 

The effect of tea and coffee additives on their calorific value 

We will show you how additives change the calorie content of coffee! See how the calories increase! 

Espresso + a glass of milk 2% 129 kcal 

Espresso + a glass of milk 2% + whipped cream 274 kcal 

Espresso + a glass of milk 2% + whipped cream + 2 tablespoons of flavored syrup 338 kcal 

A glass of black tea without sugar 0 kcal 

A glass of black tea with a teaspoon of 20 kcal sugar 

A glass of black tea with 2 teaspoons of 60 kcal sugar 

A glass of black tea with 3 teaspoons of 60 kcal sugar 

If you drink during the day 

2 teas (each sweetened with 2 teaspoons of sugar), 

latte coffee without sugar, 

flavored coffee with whipped cream and syrup, 

together you will provide an additional 600 kcal! Pay attention to this during the next meeting with friends in the cafe. 

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You can read also: Coffee on a diet – how to prepare it to get the most benefits out of it?

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Healthcare

Coffee – healing properties and the use of coffee (part 2/2)

Coffee helps in allergy and asthma

Previous results of research carried out by numerous laboratories around the world suggest that caffeine may be useful in the treatment of allergies, because it reduces the concentration of histamine – a substance involved in allergic reactions, while it is proven that in people with asthma caffeine reduces the frequency and severity of attacks shortness of breath, and that’s because it widens the bronchi.

Coffee with milk harms?

Some scientists argue that frequent pice of coffee with milk harms health. In their opinion, the acids contained in coffee react to protein from milk, making digestion difficult. After drinking a cup of coffee and milk, eaten foods are in the stomach. Other researchers have shown that you can drink coffee with milk without harming the body.

Coffee and medicines. Sipping coffee drugs can hurt

You should not drink coffee because it weakens or increases the effect of some of them, for example coffee, due to the presence of tannins, reduces the absorption of many substances (eg neuroleptics). Lowering the pH of gastric juice (by stimulating the secretion of hydrochloric acid) reduces the effectiveness of inhibitors proton pump.¹ People who struggle with anemia and take iron preparations should also not drink coffee because it causes the iron to not be absorbed. Other medicines that are not allowed to combine coffee are:

  • statins
  • aminophylline and theophylline
  • antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin)
  • contraceptives
  • cimetidine
  • magnesium and calcium preparations
  • all painkillers
  • antifungal drugs

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You can read also: Coffee on a diet – how to prepare it to get the most benefits out of it?

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Coffee – side effects, side effects, contraindications

Caffeine increases the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, it also stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid, which favors the development of gastric ulcers. Therefore, patients with gastroenterological diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease should be advised to limit consumption of coffee.

The daily dose of caffeine for a healthy adult should not exceed 600 mg. In extreme cases, excessive consumption may cause nerve palsy, convulsions and even death. It is assumed that the lethal dose is determined according to the conversion of 150 mg of caffeine per 1 kg of body weight ( about 80 cups a day for a healthy person, without being overweight.) The safe dose is 600 mg per day, or about 6 cups.

Coffee flushes out magnesium from the body?

It is generally believed that coffee flushes out magnesium from the body.Indeed, after consuming coffee there is a slightly increased urinary excretion of magnesium, which persists for several hours.Caffeine contained in coffee causes a loss of magnesium in the amount of several mg per day.However, coffee is a source of not only caffeine, but also … magnesium.100 g grains provide 3 mg of this element.In the light of American food composition tables, depending on the brewing method, a portion of coffee supplies 7-24 mg of magnesium, while according to national data, 100 ml of coffee brew provides 12 mg of this element.5 Therefore coffee is a source of magnesium for the body (admittedly not too good, the average cup of coffee covers about 5% of the recommended daily intake of magnesium, so the increase in the supply of this ingredient through coffee does not seem to matter) 5, but the most important is that the cup of coffee provides more magnesium than it flushes out of the body.Therefore, the balance is positive.

Coffee – care properties

In many anti-aging cosmetics, caffeine is one of the most important ingredients, not only because it improves microcirculation in the skin, but also because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties that help to combat various skin imperfections, but more importantly – polyphenol compounds contained in coffee ( mainly chlorogenic acid) delay the process of decomposition of vitamin C and thereby smooth out the unevenness of the skin and prevent the formation of new ones.

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Here you can read: Coffee and caffeine and theirs benefits for an active person

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Coffee in cosmetics – what’s the properties? Caffeine in skin and hair care

Caffeine in body cosmetics inhibits the lipogenesis process, i.e. the formation of new fat cells, and at the same time stimulates the lipolysis process – breakdown of triglycerides in the tissue. Accelerating fat burning significantly reduces the visibility of cellulite – with regular use of cosmetics with caffeine, the skin becomes smoother, firmer, more tense.

Caffeine is a component often used in eye creams, because it has a beneficial effect on the microcirculation in the capillaries of the skin – it widens them and thanks to that improves blood flow, which in turn reduces the oppressive dark circles under the eyes.

In addition, the coffee strengthens the hair.The caffeine in shampoos and hair conditioners stimulates their growth and reduces the sensitivity of the hair follicles to the adverse effect of hormones – this mainly affects male baldness as a result of dihydrotestosterone .Also, caffeine reduces the adverse effect of stress on hair follicles, significantly reducing their falling out.

Coffee – selection and storage

The best and the most tasty drink is obtained from freshly roasted and ground beans. They should be aromatic and free from cracks.

The darker the roasted coffee, the stronger and more bitter it will taste.

Store the coffee in a sealed box in a dry and cool place. Ground coffee, which will not be consumed during the week, can be stored in the fridge, but it should not be frozen.It’s good to know that coffee absorbs odors.

Coffee – application

Coffee is best grinded just before serving.Finely ground will brew the fastest.

You can get strong coffee by pouring two tablespoons of coffee for every 150 ml of water.

Cold water brings out the taste of ground coffee.

HERE YOU CAN READ PART 1/2

Categories
Healthcare

Coffee – healing properties and the use of coffee (part 1/2)

Coffee has a beneficial effect on health because it has many healing properties, which is why coffee beans are highly valued by the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, among others, because they contain substances that delay the aging process of the body. Check what properties coffee has and what it found application.

Coffee – care properties

Coffee is obtained from the seeds of red fruits of evergreen coffee plants (Coffea) grown in the tropic zone, mainly Africa and South America, where their curative properties and uses are known. from roasted and ground coffee beans.

Most of the coffee consumed comes from Robusta or Arabica varieties, 70% of the world’s production is Arabica, aromatic and mild in taste. Robusta comes from Southeast Asia and Brazil, has a slightly bitter taste and contains about 50% more. caffeine than Arabica.

It’s good to know that every day in the world people drink more than three billion cups of coffee. The largest consumption per capita is recorded in Scandinavia (even more than 10 kg per year.) In Poland, consumption is estimated at 1-1.5 cups a day, corresponding to an annual intake of approx. 2-3 kg.

Coffee – a source of caffeine

Caffeine is the most well-known and valued ingredient of coffee that determines its healing properties Caffeine has found application in anti-migraine, anti-asthmatic, analgesic and stimulant preparations. The therapeutic dose is 200 mg, which is equivalent to about 4 espresso coffees, 3 cups of instant coffee, 2 cups ground coffee and about 20 cups of decaffeinated coffee .

Caffeine content in various types of coffee

Type of coffee, caffeine content

  • a cup of black coffee 70-140 mg
  • a cup of 95 mg coffee
  • espresso cup 57 mg
  • a cup of frozen coffee 50-70 mg

For comparison, an incomplete glass of black loose tea contains 65 mg of caffeine, and a bottle (0. 33 l) of coca-cola – 45 mg.

Caffeine

Coffee – anticancer properties

Coffee is also a source of valuable antioxidants – chlorogenic and coffee acids, which not only neutralize oxygen free radicals in the body and improve the purification of the body of harmful toxins, but also improve the body’s defenses. Scientists believe that thanks to these properties, antioxidants can protect against damage genetic in cells and thus protect against certain cancer diseases. Recently, it has been proven that the level of these valuable antioxidants in coffee increases significantly during the process of burning its grains.

The most expensive coffee in the world is extracted from the Łaskunów faeces. Kawa kopi luwak costs about 1 thousand euros per kilogram! In Poland, in a café in Ćmielów, a cup of this drink costs 100 PLN.

Researchers at the University of Southampton have shown that drinking coffee reduces the risk of liver cancer. Increasing coffee consumption by one cup a day was associated with a reduction in the risk of hepatocellular HCC by 20%. Drinking two cups more – 35% and so on until up to five cups (few people drink more than five).

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Here you can read: How coffee affects the human body – nine facts that you do not know

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Coffee improves memory and concentration

Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine present in the coffee beans act on the central nervous system, accelerating the flow of electrical impulses in the brain, or mental processes, so it stimulates the mind, increases short-term memory and facilitates concentration: caffeine begins to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract after about a quarter of an hour after drinking a cup of coffee, and the highest concentration in the blood reaches and most strongly affects the nervous system after about three hours.

Coffee and Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease

Long-term coffee, specifically caffeine, theophylline and theobromine, has a reduced risk of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, as researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago (USA) have shown. Their research has shown that the onset of Parkinson’s disease in coffee drinkers is later ( 72 years) than those who did not consume coffee (64 years).

Other studies have confirmed the beneficial effect of caffeine intake in lowering the risk of Parkinson’s disease, reducing the risk compared to non-drinkers by about 30% .This protective effect was achieved with the consumption of 3 cups per day, with a further increase in the dose of caffeine not correlating with its severity. it was more noticeable in men than in women

Coffee reduces the risk of diabetes 2

Coffee can reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This is the result of a study by Dutch scientists from the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, which have been published in the Lancet. Among respondents drinking over 7 cups a day, compared with 2 With a cup a day, this risk is reduced by up to 50%.

Coffee supports slimming

Caffeine accelerates metabolism in the body, and especially fat burning, which is why coffee has become one of the desirable ingredients in preparations to help overweight.

HERE YOU CAN READ PART 2/2

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Healthcare

How many coffees a day you can afford – the latest reports

Can you start your day well without a cup of coffee? Difficult, right? Until recently, this drink did not enjoy a good reputation. Have you heard the opinions that coffee raises pressure, irritates and makes you addicted, or maybe just the contrary to your ears you have only positive reports about one of the most popular drinks in the world? Which opinions are true and whether to reach for another coffee or switch to tea you will find out in a moment.

One of the main ingredients of coffee is caffeine. It is a stimulant that stimulates the nervous system, removes fatigue and improves concentration. Caffeine is a substance that delays the aging process of the body. It also reduces the risk of developing Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. Research shows that even 600 mg of caffeine has beneficial effects on our body.

The beneficial influence of the small black on the human body results, among others from the high content of antioxidants we find in coffee beans. Funny antioxidants are also found in tea, but there are fewer of them. Drinking 5 cups of green tea, we provide as much antioxidants as after drinking three cups of coffee.

“In a typical cup of coffee, roasted from natural grains, there are many more antioxidants than in the same amount of black or green tea,” explains Liz Applegate, who is involved in feeding athletes at the University of California.

Two cups of coffee provide our body with approximately 1200 milligrams of polyphenols that prevent cardiovascular diseases and some cancers.

Research carried out by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore has shown that drinking between 3 and 5 cups of coffee a day can reduce the risk of a blockage of arteries that can lead to a heart attack.

“Compared to people who did not drink coffee, those who drank three to five cups of coffee a day had less risk of calcium deposits in their coronary arteries, an indicator of heart disease,” the researchers explain.

Another study proves that drinking between 3 and 5 cups of coffee a day improves survivability compared to people avoiding this drink. This may be due to anti-inflammatory effects of coffee and improving insulin sensitivity. In turn, people who drink more than 5 coffees per day notice a deterioration of this parameter, which may be related to the fact that too much coffee adversely affects blood pressure.

Sipping a morning cup of coffee, it is worth to enjoy this moment without remorse, knowing that we are supplying many beneficial substances to our body. However, with drinking coffee, as with everything, it is worth to keep healthy sense and moderation, and above all drink it without sugar with the addition of skim milk or vegetable drink enriched with calcium.

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Health & Beauty Healthcare

Green coffee – hit or putty ?

Green coffee is a frequently used supplement supporting slimming. You can find it in the form of capsules or infusion. What is it really? Grains of green coffee are grains that have not been heat treated. Thanks to the fact that they are not roasted, they have a green color and retain certain properties that black coffee does not have anymore. I will try to introduce the issue of green coffee in this article.

  1. Green coffee – properties
  2. Green coffee – how it arises
  3. Coffee for slimming
  4. Opinions
  5. Green coffee – taste
  6. Summary

 

  1. Green coffee – properties

Coffee (Coffea L.) is a plant belonging to the Marzena family. It is an evergreen plant, it is 4-7 m high. Coffee bushes grow in the tropics. The flowers are white, small in size and smelling of jasmine. Coffee fruits are fleshy berries that change color from red to yellow to purple during ripening. Inside, there are seeds that are extracted, shelled and selected for the production of coffee.

Coffee contains many biologically active compounds, including caffeine and a number of antioxidants. Due to its rich composition, it has many positive properties, among others, it lowers the level of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood. Our body is constantly exposed to the harmful effects of free radicals, which are produced both inside and outside it. Excess free radicals lead to the development of many diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, bronchial asthma, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and even cancer. Antioxidants neutralize their action.

Antioxidants include phenolic acids, which are significant in coffee. Of these, the most is coffee and chlorogenic acid, which is a combination of the former with quinic acid. Coffee acid is called an inhibitor of cancer. It also works antibacterially. Chlorogenic acid is of great importance in chemoprevention of tumors. It dilates blood vessels and reduces the absorption of glucose in the blood. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory and cholagogue. Both acids as natural antioxidants have the ability to scavenge free radicals and bind heavy metal ions. Gugliucci et al. Proved that by drinking coffee we provide the body with eight isomers of chlorogenic acid. They are all well absorbed. In addition, coffee counteracts tooth decay. The compounds contained in it – caffeine, chlorogenic acid and trigonelline get inside the tooth and interfere with its contact with bacteria.

 

  1. Green coffee – how it arises

The raw material for coffee production is the fruit of the coffee tree, which blooms only a few days, but a few times a year. The fruits ripen for about 9 months. The ripe fruit is a red berry, which in size and shape resembles a cherry fruit. Each fruit contains two half-round seeds. To extract coffee seeds, two methods are used – natural drying of fruits in the sun, followed by machine shelling and so-called. wet method. The wet method consists in separating the seeds from the pulp by crushing the fruit using special machines using a large amount of water. After that, they undergo a fermentation process lasting up to 60 hours. The next stages are sorting, drying, polishing, etc. Such raw grains are just green coffee. It is very durable, it can be stored even a few years without significant deterioration of quality.

 

  1. Coffee for slimming

Green coffee is known mainly as an effective slimming aids. All this is due to the high content of chlorogenic acid, which is scarce in roasted coffee. Positive effects on the reduction of body weight are confirmed by scientific studies. Studies in mice have shown that regular consumption of green coffee can counter overweight and obesity. It reduces the accumulation of adipose tissue by regulating the production of fat cells and genes related to the metabolism of lipids and proteins. The human experiment confirmed the positive effect of green coffee beans on slimming processes. The study involved obese women aged 25-45. They were divided into two groups – women consuming 400 mg green coffee per day and women taking a placebo. Both groups of women applied a properly balanced reduction diet. After 8 weeks, weight loss was observed in both groups, but weight loss in women consuming green coffee was greater. The result of the analysis confirms the beneficial effect of green coffee on weight loss, but only when observing a healthy diet.

 

  1. Opinions

There are many species of coffee shrubs – arabica, robusta, liberica, excelsa, etc. The most popular species used to make coffee are arabica and robusta. They constitute as much as 40-60% of world production.

Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) is aromatic and delicate. It comes from Ethiopia and Mozambique. Today it is produced in Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, India, Costa Rica and the Middle East. Fruits throughout the year. It is very demanding when it comes to growing. Due to its composition and flavor, it is considered the best variety. It is characterized by a mild taste. It contains more lipid compounds and sugars, but about half as much caffeine as robusta. Robusta coffee (Coffea robusta) is grown in the Ivory Coast, Zaire, Angola and Indonesia. It is less demanding when it comes to growing, and more resistant to diseases than arabica. The taste is more bitter, which is caused by a higher content of caffeine. It is considered an inferior type of coffee. It is used for the production of instant coffee and inferior coffee blends.

The content of valuable biologically active substances in coffee is not constant. It depends on many factors, including from growing conditions, its location, access of light, soil, temperature, amount of rainfall and production process. Jeszka-Skowron et al. Compared robusta and arabica coffee from various regions of the world with respect to the content of caffeine and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that robusta contains more caffeine and antioxidant compounds, including chlorogenic acid, than arabica coffee. Differences in the content of individual compounds also occurred within one species. The table shows the content of caffeine and antioxidants in arabica and robusta coffee of various origins.

The most caffeine contains robusta from Indonesia, while the least comes from Uganda and Vietnam. When it comes to arabica, the most caffeine is from Laos and the least from China and Rwanda. The largest amount of chlorogenic acid is robusta from Indonesia and arabica from Rwanda, while the smallest robusta from Vietnam and arabica from Laos. Another research done by Babova et al. Showed that a very high amount of chlorogenic acid with a small amount of caffeine is characterized by arabica coffee from Kenya. It is worth to enrich the diet with this coffee.

 

  1. Green coffee – taste

Despite the many pro-health properties, the taste of green coffee is not satisfactory. Although it is characterized by a higher content of polyphenols compared to roasted coffee, its organoleptic qualities are much worse. It does not contain the desired intense aroma as in the case of roasted coffee beans. It is characterized by a delicate, slightly bland taste and aroma. Chlorogenic acid gives it astringent, slightly sour taste.

Due to its unfavorable flavors, the supplement market has released a number of preparations in the form of capsules, which contain green coffee extract. They are recommended primarily to people who are slimming. Very often they also contain other ingredients, such as chromium, which additionally support weight reduction.

The diet supplements market is becoming more and more popular, and the variety of these products is still growing. If we decide on a green coffee supplement, pay attention to the composition, so that it is as short as possible. In addition, we choose well-known Polish brands. If we decide on a given supplement, let’s read the manufacturer’s website and check if the plant has implemented certified quality systems, such as HACCP, ISO or BRC. Production according to these systems guarantees high product quality. However, the best choice is green coffee in the form of raw seeds.

 

  1. Summary

Green coffee has many positive and healthy properties. Thanks to the chlorogenic acid content it supports the weight loss process. The composition of the coffee depends on its species and country of origin. That is why it is very important that we read the labels before buying the product. We can consume green coffee in the form of a brew or capsules. Let’s choose preparations with the shortest composition, the best-known Polish producers. Remember that green coffee will help you lose weight only when you use a healthy diet.

Bibliography

Babova O., Chemical partitioning and antioxidant capacity of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of different geographical origin, “Phytochemistry” 2016, 123, 33-39

Baeza G. et al., Exhaustive Qualitative LC-DAD-MSnAnalysis of Arabica Green Coffee Beans Cinnamoyl-glycosides and Cinnamoylshikimic Acids as New Polyphenols in Green Coffee, “Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry” 2016, 64 (51), 9663-9674 .

Choi BK et al., “Asia Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine” 2016, 9 (7), 635-643.

Haidari F. et al., Energy restriction combined with green coffee bean extract, adipocytokines and body composition in obese women, “Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine” 2017, 26 (6), 1048-1054.

Jeszka-Skowron M. et al., Chlorogenic acids, caffeine content and antioxidant. Coffee, European Food Research and Technology 2016, 242, 1403-1409.

Gugliucci A., Markowicz DH, Chlorogenic acid protects paraoxonase 1 activity in high density lipoproteins from inactivation caused by physiological concentrations of hypochlorite, “Phytotherapy” 2009, 80, 138-142.

Matysek-Nawrocka M. et al., Biologically active substances extracted from tea, coffee and cocoa and their use in cosmetics, “Postêpy Fitoterapii” 2016, 2, 139-144.

Olczak-Kowalczyk D. et al., Nutrition and tooth decay. Part 2. Food containing polyphenols, “Nowa Stomatologia” 2017, 2, 80-88.

Parus A., Antioxidant and pharmacological properties of phenolic acids, “Postêpy Fitoterapii” 2013, 1, 48-53.

Pastusiak K. et al., Green coffee and parameters of carbohydrate metabolism and blood pressure, “Metabolic Disorders Forum” 2016, 7 (4), 170-175.

Sarriá B. et al., Regularly consuming a green / roasted coffee blend reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome, “European Journal of Nutrition” 2016, 394, 1-10.

Œwiderski F., Commodity of processed food with elements of technology, Warsaw 2010, 535-544.