Glycemic index

A diet with a low glycemic index and low glycemic load is an important element in the prevention of diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. A menu based on products that have a low glycemic index and are rich in dietary fiber is particularly important for people with impaired carbohydrate metabolism or people with a predisposition to this type of disorder. The slower absorption of carbohydrates by the body results in a slower increase in the level of glucose and less insulin delivery by the pancreas in response to food intake. The lower the variations in glucose and insulin in the blood, the easier it is to control your appetite. It is also an effective way to get rid of sleepiness after eating a meal.

 Glycemic index – what is it?
Glycemic Index (IG) is a parameter that determines the rate of increase in blood glucose after consuming carbohydrate products in comparison with the increase that occurs after consuming the same amount of carbohydrates as pure glucose. It is a way to measure the rate of conversion of carbohydrates contained in the product into glucose circulating in the blood.

It was assumed that the intake of 50 g of available carbohydrates (glucose) causes an increase in blood sugar level by 100%, this means that glucose has IG = 100. The higher the IG of a given product, the faster it is digested and the faster the blood sugar level is raised, and this, in turn, results in a large discharge of insulin by the pancreas. As a consequence, glucose levels are reduced, often even to values ​​lower than those at baseline, which leads to reactive hypoglycemia.


Reactive hypoglycemia is a condition in which the glucose falls below 55 mg/dl within 4 hours after eating a meal. This usually manifests as weakness, fatigue, confusion, convulsions, dizziness, and fainting. In order not to allow such a phenomenon, one should base in the diet on low and medium GI products. Low GI products are absorbed much slower due to longer digestion and do not cause such rapid fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels.

Due to the postprandial increase in blood glucose concentration, food products were divided into three groups

– products with a low IG ≤ 55,
– products with medium IG 56-69,
– products with a high IG ≥ 70.

It is worth choosing mainly products with the low and medium glycemic index. Products with a high glycemic index may appear in the diet sporadically, in small amounts and it is best to combine them with those with low GI.
Factors influencing the reduction of the glycemic index

Factors lowering IG is
– a high ratio of amylose to amylopectin, e.g. in legumes such as lentils, chickpeas, peas, beans, and also in barley;
– fructose content (present in fruit) and galactose;
– high content of β-glucan (present in grains, mushrooms, and bamboo);
– cooling (boiled potatoes should be cooled in a refrigerator to create a resistant starch, which will reduce the glycemic index of the product, such potato preparation allows inclusion in the diet, although it is not recommended for people with diabetes and insulin resistance);
– low maturity, e.g. green bananas;
– high content of lectins and phytates (included, among others, in legumes, peanuts, tomatoes, aubergines, peppers);
– high content of proteins, fats, organic acids;
– low fineness (rice will have a lower glycemic index than rice flour made from it).

Fats and proteins delay gastric emptying, digestion, and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine, and this reduces IG. In practice, it is worth combining a product containing carbohydrates (eg oatmeal) with a protein product (eg cottage cheese) and fat (eg nuts), then the glycemic index of the entire meal will be reduced. Similarly, in the case of buns, which is characterized by a high glycemic index – to lower it, it is advisable to consume buns with cottage cheese paste (source of protein) and fresh vegetables (source of dietary fiber) sprinkled with sunflower seeds (source of fat).

The water-soluble fiber fractions slow down or even inhibit the secretion of the enzyme (amylase) digesting sugar, which also causes a reduction in IG. Insoluble fractions do not affect the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Products containing organic acids (lactic acid) have a lower GI, so fermented dairy products such as yogurts, kefirs, buttermilk are characterized by lower GI than milk.

Resistant starch may also reduce IG – the more it is in a given product, the better; also because it is a medium for bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which have a positive effect on the microbiota. To increase the amount of resistant starch in the diet, prepare starch products at high temperatures without water or in a small amount (baking or steaming) and consume starchy foods cooled, poured with cold water. The glycemic index of potatoes is high, but if we cool them down, IG will decline. In practice, this means that it is better to cook porridge, rice or pasta a day before and the next day to reheat it than to consume such a product freshly after cooking.

A minimum of one-day bread and immature fruits will also contain higher amounts of resistant starch, which becomes indigestible to the body, and thus – does not undergo conversion into glucose. Also, the dish becomes less caloric and more filling. Starch resistant will also reduce the need for insulin and will not cause fluctuations in the level of sugar.

Factors influencing the increase in the glycemic index
Factors increasing IG
– low amylose to amylopectin ratio, e.g. in rice, potatoes, and wheat flour;
– glucose content (both added to the food product at the stage of its production as well as resulting from the decomposition of starch as a result of long storage of vegetables or fruit);
– low content of β-glucan;
– roasting, extruding and cooking, e.g. corn, popcorn;
– high maturity, e.g. ripe bananas and grapes;
– low content of lectins and phytates;
– low content of proteins, fats, organic acids;
– high fragmentation;
– grain cleaning.

The traditional, long cooking of starch-containing products in the water causes a change in its structure. Under the influence of heat, bonds between molecules of starch start to crack and bind large amounts of water. Starch begins to swell and form gruel. The degree of pasting depends on the amount of amylose in the product. The fewer it is, the faster the product is digested, which means a rapid increase in blood glucose. How to apply this knowledge in practice?

A good example will be porridge prepared in two different ways. The higher glycemic index will have oatmeal prepared from instant oatmeal, which has been boiled for a long time in milk, than porridge prepared based on mountain oat flakes filled with yogurt. Several factors affect the increase in the first porridge of IG – cooking, product fragmentation and the lack of organic acids.

Too long storage of root and tuber vegetables also increases their glycemic index – young potatoes will have a lower GI than those stored a few months earlier. The time of day, the size of the meal and the speed of its consumption are also important. Fast food intake also increases its IG.

Glycemic load

If we use the glycemic index, we do not take into account the number of carbohydrates consumed in a given product, but only the quality and rate of glucose absorption. The parameter called glycemic load (LG) takes into account both the quality and the number of carbohydrates consumed.

The glycemic load is calculated by multiplying the number of available carbohydrates in a given portion expressed in grams by the IG of a given product. The value obtained should then be divided by 100.

LG = (carbohydrates digestible in a portion of g × IG) / 100

Due to the glycemic load, food products were also divided into three groups
– products with low LG ≤ 10,
– products with medium LG 11-19,
– products with a high LG ≥ 20.

The following values ​​are used to determine the daily intake of LHS
– low LG diet ≤ 79,
– a diet with an average LG 80-119,
– high LG diet ≥ 120.

It is not worth focusing only on IG, but also consider LAG, the following example may support this. Watermelon has a high IG (75), but due to the low carbohydrate content (about 8 g per 100 g of the product) is characterized by a low ŁG of 6 (ŁG = (75 × 8) / 100), which means that after consuming carbohydrates they will absorb quickly, but the blood glucose will not be high. The condition is, however, eating watermelon in an amount of about 100-150 g.

It is very important to properly compose meals. It is worth combining low IG products with those with medium GI to maintain balance in the meal. A diet with a low glycemic index and low glycemic load will help in weight reduction, glycemic regulation, and lipid profile. It will also reduce the risk of many civilization diseases and, consequently, improve quality and life expectancy.


  Intermittent fasting prevents type 2 diabetes

Intermittent fasting is a diet based on the use of periodic fasting and a short (usually several hours) diet window. Eg 18 h post + 6 h feeding window. The IF diet showed that despite the common myths, you can eat all the calories in the afternoon (when a diet window will fall out there) and … lose weight.


Here you can find insulin sensitivity supplements – CLICK 


The overall caloric balance is important for slimming, and the timing of carbohydrate administration is important for people with glycemic problems. Recently, scientists 1 invited 8 men aged 35-70 in the initial stage predestinating to diabetes. Men 5 weeks were eating normally or 3 meals from 8 am to 8 pm. In another 5 weeks, a diet in the form of intermittent fasting was used. Men ate 3 meals between 8 am and 12 noon.


After 5 weeks of diet in the form of intermittent fasting, men responded with a lower dose of insulin after loading carbohydrates (glucose). And that means that men needed less insulin to lower blood sugar levels, so intermittent fasting improved insulin sensitivity. In addition, there was a drop in blood pressure, and men less hungry for food than in the conventional diet. This is a promising direction and perhaps the IF will find application in the prevention of type II diabetes.


You can read also: Do not get diabetes !



Chlorogenic acid – properties, side effects, sources

Chlorogenic acid has many properties. In one study, chlorogenic acid has been shown to reduce the absorption of sugar, helping people struggling with diabetes, which is also a good remedy for weight loss. What are the effects of chlorogenic acid? What can be the side effects of its use? What are the natural sources of chlorogenic acid? Are the products with chlorogenic acid offered by the pharmacy always full-value? What is the price of chlorogenic acid?

Chlorogenic acid is also a caffeoylquinic acid, in short CGA, as well as green coffee extract. It has many properties, among which the slimming properties are best known.

Green Coffee Extract 500mg

Chlorogenic acid and slimming

Are chlorogenic acid good for slimming? Some people argue that chlorogenic acid reduces the amount of sugar absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to compelling the body to use the previously accumulated stores, thus helping to lose weight.

The slimming properties of chlorogenic acid are proved by, among others, clinical studies of Norwegian scientists, which were carried out on 12 healthy volunteers.It was given soluble coffee enriched with chlorogenic acid. It turned out that it caused a reduction in glucose absorption by 6.9% compared to with a group of control.

Chlorogenic acid reduces the absorption of sugar from the gastrointestinal tract and improves the sensitivity of tissues to insulin.

The second, comparative, randomized, double-blind, 12-week study investigated the effect of chlorogenic acid on body weight of 30 overweight people, divided into two groups: one that was soluble with chlorogenic acid and the other with no added compound. The average loss of body weight in the group that was taking chlorogenic acid was 5.4 kg, and in the group that took normal coffee – 1.7 kg.6

The researchers concluded that soluble coffee enriched with chlorogenic acid seems to have a significant impact on the absorption and utilization of glucose from the diet, an effect that – if coffee is used for a long time – can reduce weight and body fat.’

However, it is not possible to draw too broad conclusions based on a study that concerned such a small number of participants, and the doctors also pay attention to the high amount of caffeine contained in the green coffee extract. The slimming substance is caffeine or chlorogenic acid It is also not known whether the slimming effect is permanent.It seems that after discontinuation of chlorogenic acid may lead to a re-increase in body weight, or yo-yo effect.

You can risk saying that chlorogenic acid as a dietary supplement can help reduce body weight if you modify your diet at the same time, but it can not be ruled out that your body will regain weight again after stopping this compound.

Chlorogenic acid and diabetes

Chlorogenic acid lowers blood sugar, so it can be used by people struggling with diabetes. This is the result of research by scientists from the University of Scranton in Pennsylvania (USA) .3

Participants (both men and women) of normal weight who did not have diabetes were given daily from 100 mg to 400 mg of extract in a water capsule, and then tested for glucose tolerance. At the end of the study, tests showed that the extract green coffee effectively reduced the blood sugar level in each participant.

Those who took the largest dose – 400 mg, experienced the greatest decrease in blood glucose, although all doses caused a significant reduction in blood sugar.

If chlorogenic acid can affect the level of glucose in a normal person, it should work even better for diabetics, because they have a problem, said study author Joe Vinson.

The researchers also noticed that they noticed that participants who consumed this green coffee extract for 22 weeks lost about 10% of body weight.


You can read also: Coffee and caffeine and theirs benefits for an active person


Diabetic diet consistent with the principles of healthy nutrition

Diabetic diet, in addition to blood sugar-lowering drugs, is the basis for the treatment of diabetes. Diabetes does not have to give up a good kitchen. Diabetic diet can also be tasty and varied, only a few rules must be observed. Check what a diabetic diet is all about you can eat and which products are contraindicated.

Diabetic diet is not complicated at all and diabetes is accumulating more and more, it is estimated that over 2 million people suffer from it in Poland. About 1 million people are asymptomatic, the most common is type 2 diabetes, attacks 90% In most cases, people struggling with obesity, after the age of 40, fall into it.

Diabetic diet is an indispensable element in the treatment of all types of diabetes, and several types of disease are distinguished among carbohydrate disorders

Type 1 diabetes, in which the pancreatic beta cells stop producing insulin, it appears in children;

type 2 diabetes, in which the tissues become insensitive to insulin, and the pancreas at some point burns out as a result of the more and more intense production of insulin;it is mainly the result of poor diet;


Here you can read: Diabetes and physical exercise – contraindications. A post-training meal for a diabetics


Diabetic diet, or what?

The official recommendations of the diabetic diet for a very long time were based on guidelines limiting dietary fat and recommending carbohydrates with a glycemic index below 55 as the main source of energy in the diet. The Polish Diabetes Association in the guidelines for 2017 still recommends that 45% of energy in the diet comes from carbohydrates (or even 60 percent, if they are high-fiber products), which with a standard diet of 2000 kcal is up to 250 g and involves eating carbohydrates in practically every meal.

This type of diet recommended for many years did not bring the expected results, it did not allow satisfactory control of glycemia and lowering parameters associated with diabetes, such as fasting glucose or HbA1c glycated hemoglobin.

Currently, the highest diabetes diet is considered to be a low-carb diet with an increased fat content, which is confirmed by large, reliable scientific research, as well as practice in a dietetics department. 2015 25 renowned doctors and scientists who in the journal Nutrition proved the effectiveness of a low-carb diet in diabetes, analyzing nearly 100 studies.

In their publication, they refer to the lack of treatment effects of a low-fat diet with a low glycemic index and side effects of drugs used in type 2 diabetes. They urge the medical community to reject the traditional approach that did not allow to control the diabetes epidemic and recommend a low-carb diet to patients. however, one good low carb diet recommended to everyone.

Keep in mind that carbohydrates do not provide more than 30 percent of energy in your diet. Good quality fat should not be feared, which does not contribute to weight gain and is not a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is also confirmed by new scientific research. can be based on the fashionable paleo diet in recent years, but also to introduce cereal products in the right amounts.This nutritional approach allows people with type 2 diabetes to even completely abandon drug therapy, and people with type 1 diabetes – reduce the dose of insulin.


You can also read: Low-Carb Diets


Pumpkin’s nutritional value and medicinal properties of pumpkin

The value of nutritional pumpkins and its medicinal properties can not be overestimated.” Pumpkin is a vegetable rich in vitamins and minerals, especially the zinc required for men, and at the same time has very few calories.The fresh pumpkin seeds help to get rid of pinworms, tapeworms and other parasites. Medicinal properties have pumpkin and try recipes for pumpkin dishes.

Pumpkin and its healing properties and nutritional values ​​have already been appreciated by Mexican Indians, found in both Mexican natural medicine and cuisine (recipes for pumpkin products are passed down from generation to generation.) However, the first pumpkin pie was made by one of the first American pumpkins were a hollow pumpkin filled with honey, milk and spices, and then roasted.Today, pumpkins are grown primarily in the United States.The world’s ‘capital of the world’ is considered to be Motron in the state of Illinois. It is also a symbol of Halloween, which was born in this country, However, it is not possible to prepare tasty dishes from these fears in Halloween, because the pumpkins are divided into two main categories – edible and decorative Not all are orange – there are white, bluish and even red varietiesEuropean.


Pumpkin and diabetes

Researchers at East China Normal University in Shanghai (China)  have found that the substance found in the extract of the pumpkin pulp – D-chiro-inositol – can replace insulin.This substance stimulates the regeneration of pancreatic beta cells in diabetic rats and regulates the activity of insulin.

Glycemic index of pumpkin = 75, therefore it is not indicated in diabetes.

Raising the level of insulin in the blood leads to a decrease in the level of sugar, which in turn results in a decrease in the amount of oxygen free radicals, damaging, among other things, the production of insulin, beta cells. for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2), but also significantly reduce the need for insulin in patients who are already ill.

It should be noted, however, that this is how the substance contained in the extract from the fig fruit pulp comes in. Pumpkin itself is not indicated in diabetes, because its glycemic index is high and amounts to 75.


Pumpkin can prevent cancer

Pumpkin is rich in beta-carotene – it’s orange, red and yellow vegetable dye (thanks to it the pumpkin has such an intense color) and also a substance with healing properties. Beta-carotene – like all carotenoids – is an antioxidant, which means that It inhibits harmful oxidative processes, and thus can prevent the development of cancer. Research has shown that frequent consumption of pumpkin reduces the risk of stomach cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer.


Pumpkin for hypertension and heart disease

Beta-carotene reduces the level of bad cholesterol, thus preventing the deposition of cholesterol deposits in the walls of the arteries, and thus – prevents atherosclerosis, and further heart disease such as heart attack or stroke, and also regulates the level of arterial pressure.


Pumpkin in the prophylaxis of macular degeneration (AMD)

The beta-carotene contained in the pumpkin ensures the proper functioning of the eyesight, especially at dusk.” Vitamin A, in which beta-carotene is transformed in the human body, is a component of the visual pigment in the retina, allowing to see in the semi-darkness.

Pumpkin pulp has an anti-emetic effect – it’s good for pregnant women. Pumpkin seeds help fight motion sickness.

In addition, beta-carotene reduces the risk of macular degeneration, which is the leading cause of vision loss in old age, and has been shown to inhibit the development of xerophthalmia (dry eye syndrome) and prevent lens damage and cataracts.


Pumpkin for worms

Modern phytotherapy recommends pumpkin seeds for parasites Pumpkin seeds have antiparasitic properties due to the content of cucurbitacin – a substance contained in the film surrounding the seeds that protects them against germs.Most kukurbitacyna is in fresh, soft seeds, which is why pumpkin deworming is best carried out in autumn.


Pumpkin for prostate problems

In natural medicine, pumpkin seeds are used for prostate problems.” According to folk medicine, pumpkin seeds reduce the enlarged prostate, and research has shown that they can prevent prostate cancer and are believed to improve sexual function and sperm life.


Pumpkin for slimming

Pumpkin is low-calorie (10 dag to 26 kcal) and provides dietary fiber, so it helps in weight loss, it also helps cleanse the body of toxins and has deacidifying properties. Very often it is acidification that is the cause of overweight or obesity.

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Prostatic hypertrophy and diabetes – the latest reports

Enlarged prostate differently prostatic adenoma, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects many men over 45 years of age and significantly annoys their lives. Doctors hurry with the help of prescribing drugs to improve the functioning of the urinary tract and to facilitate urination. Of course, the drugs are effective, but sometimes their use is associated with unpleasant side effects, which should be aware especially that the latest scientific reports say that one of the commonly used drugs may increase the risk of diabetes and impair erection.


Symptoms and treatment of prostatic hypertrophy

Prostatic hypertrophy is caused by hormonal changes in the man’s body with age. This phenomenon often causes urinary retention or other ailments of the lower urinary tract, such as a reduction in the flow of urine, which causes repeated wake up at night for micturition (medical definition of urination). To improve the quality of life, doctors prescribe for men drugs such as alpha blockers, such as Tamsulosin, which relax the smooth muscles of the prostate and improve urination or other drugs, such as Proscar (finasteride) or Avodart (dutasteride), which improve micturition by reducing the volume of the prostate .


What is Avodart?

Avodart is used in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, i.e. a non-neoplastic prostatic hyperplasia caused by excessive production of a hormone called dihydrotestosterone. The active substance is dutasteride, which belongs to the group of 5-alpha reductase enzyme inhibitors.


Side effects of taking Avodart

The treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the widely prescribed drug Avodart (dutasteride) according to a study recently published in the journal Hormones Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigations may cause an increased risk of diabetes, elevated cholesterol, non-alcoholic liver disease and increasing erectile dysfunction.

Physicians should be fully aware of the latest discoveries of scientific research. Their duty is to make the patient aware and discuss with him the potential consequences of using this preparation, which, as it turns out, can lead to impairment of metabolic and sexual activities.


What do the scientists say?

Professor Traish biochemistry and urology from the Boston School of Medicine (BUSM) says the following: We believe our findings suggest that Avodart has a negative effect on men’s general health because it increases glucose and glycated hemoglobin in the blood, and increases the concentration of lipids. Increased blood glucose and HbA1c levels may predispose men to diabetes, and lipid increases may predispose them to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD). Most importantly, this factor worsens sexual function and reduces the quality of life.


Which drug seems safer?

The study mentioned by the professor included one group of men with BPH who received Avodart and a second group who were prescribed Tamsulosin (alpha blocker). Both groups were looked after for 36-42 months. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and liver enzymes were determined at each visit. Participants also completed questionnaires to assess the quality of life and the international index of erectile function to assess their sexual activity. Data for men from the Avodart group were compared with those of men taking Tamsulosin.

Researchers at BUSM believe that data obtained as a result of this study and reports published by other scientists conducting animal models and clinical trials suggest that Avodart can cause serious undesirable side effects that were not obvious a few years ago. In order to reduce the negative impact on health and quality of life, doctors should discuss with patients the potential adverse side effects of taking Avodart, Professor Traish said.

This text aims to increase the awareness of people in the risk group as well as everyone interested in the topic that is common and we should not be ashamed to speak about it. Talking to your doctor about the best treatment is our privilege and we can not be embarrassed by asking for it. Conscious patients motivate physicians to learn about the most effective methods of help, which is always good for everyone.

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Zinovoda and barberry – the roots of these plants are the source of a very helpful and highly pro-health substance called berberine. This plant alkaloid is considered one of the strongest natural supplements, and its healing properties have been appreciated centuries ago in traditional Chinese medicine

Representatives of the Berberis family, like barberry, once performed widely on the territory of Europe. It gained its notorious shrub when it turned out that it is the breadwinner, a pest destroying crops. For fear of the fate of their crops, the farmers began to exterminate the barberry massively. Their fate was different in Asian countries. In China, barberry was considered a plant with powerful healing properties. Today, its aesthetic values ​​are used throughout the world – it is grown as an ornamental plant, but the benefits of its health properties seem to gain more and more interest. The raw material that is used to obtain the active substance – berberine – is the root, leaf, fruit and bark of barberry. From the leaves, infusions are obtained, which were used already in the Middle Ages in diseases of the bile ducts and liver. Fruit that can be used to prepare preserves – jams, juices and syrups, besides containing numerous active substances, also have amazing nutritional properties. They contain vitamins C and E and act similar to vitamin P, which help in the fight against colds and flu. In addition, they are characterized by a significant content of valuable minerals, carotenoids and pectins – insoluble components of the plant cell membrane and constitute one of the fiber fraction.

Who is it intended for?

Berberine is credited with numerous activities, from antibacterial and antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory to anti-depressant, and even – the ability to fight tumors. Therefore, in the Middle Ages, barberry extracts were a valued drug for anxiety-provoking diseases such as malaria and jaundice. The healing effect of berberine finds its application primarily in people who have problems with excessive levels of cholesterol and blood sugar. In addition, it can be used in gastric and cardiovascular problems. Studies also confirm the antiseptic effect of berberine when used in low concentrations.

Panaceum for diabetes and overweight?
The attention of scientists and doctors, however, attracts other properties of berberine. Dietary supplements that contain it turn out to have a powerful effect lowering blood sugar, slimming, and reducing cholesterol. This makes the barberry extract a serious candidate for a drug against diabetes. This is of great importance because the data on the increase in the incidence of this disease are alarming. Statistics show that until 2035, diabetes will affect up to 592 million people in the world. The operation of berberine is multidirectional. It reduces insulin resistance, promotes glycolysis, ie the breakdown of sugar in cells, reduces the amount of sugar produced in the liver, slows down the breakdown of carbohydrates in the intestines, and promotes the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the digestive system

The action of berberine in the fight against diabetes
– reduces insulin resistance,

– modifies the intestinal bacterial flora and reduces the absorption of sugar in the gut,

– reduces the production of glucose in the liver,

A wonderful preparation?
In addition to the above-mentioned, documented action of berberine in the treatment of diabetes and in the fight against overweight, this compound also shows a number of other beneficial effects on the body:

Berberine can be successfully used as a supplement to improve cognitive functions and memory. It directly influences the work of cholinergic pathways and neuroprotective effects. This relationship restores the appropriate level of BDNF, the factor responsible for improving the work of existing neurons and supporting the aggregation and formation of new units, moreover, BDNF is responsible for the appropriate process of memory, especially long-term memory. Berberine also prevents damage to neurons in the case of limited blood flow in the brain areas, and thus a low supply of oxygen, characteristic for example in the case of blood clots, narrowing of the blood vessel walls or blockages of blood vessels. The documented neuroprotection of berberine after a stroke is probably associated with inhibition of caspase 3 and JNK kinase and activation of the Akt / GSK3β / ERK1 / 2 protein pathway.

Berberine has a very positive effect on the intestinal function and regulation of the intestinal lining. Damage to the lining of the intestine occurs in the case of leaky intestinal syndrome and autoimmune diseases. This disorder is also associated with abnormalities in the blood-brain barrier. Berberine limits the amount of inflammation by reducing the amount of TNF-alpha. In addition, berberine also buffers the level of pathogens in the gut and affects the production of more SFA – short-chain fatty acids that strongly affect the activation of AMPK kinase, which in turn stimulates the factor PGC1-alpha, one of the epigenetic elements affecting a number of important metabolic proecesses in the body .