South Beach Diet

The South Beach diet, also known as the South beach nutrition model, was invented and developed by Arthur Agatston, an American cardiologist. He created it in 1995 with the intention of improving the health and condition of his heart patients and those suffering from type 2 diabetes. He did not expect that his nutritional plan would be so effective that the television station in Miami would offer him a performance in one of programs aimed at presenting the principles of the created food model. The coincidence of the events described above resulted in the popularity of the diet among the inhabitants of Florida praising the removal of excess kilograms and well-being. In 2003, this resulted in the publication of the first doctoral book with the significant title The diet of southern beaches, which spread in the number of 23 million copies.

Fashion in this way of feeding went around and mastered the whole world. The result was the publication of further guides, cookbooks and additional guides translated into many languages ​​and intended for many diet lovers from Florida. Although in Poland it had its great 5 minutes a few years ago, still many people are considering the pros and cons of switching to this style of nutrition 2.

General principles and assumptions of the South Beach diet
The South Beach diet is based on fairly simple and easy to remember rules. First of all, it does not take into account the calories of meals, or the right amount of macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats, there is also no look at the delivered dose of vitamins and minerals, which unfortunately can lead to their numerous deficiencies. The only thing that the author pays attention to is the glycemic index, or IG (glycemic index) selected for consumption of products. In this respect, the model is reminiscent of the recommendations made by Montignac, the first person to pay attention to the importance of looking at the quality of carbohydrates supplied with food.

It is also worth mentioning here that, contrary to the assumptions of the above-mentioned author, the south beach diet does not look at the glycemic load at all, although it has been known for years that it is a more reliable indicator of the body’s sugar load than the food index itself . It should also be remembered that eating products with a high content of pure glucose in small amounts gives the same effect as eating a large amount of food based on complex carbohydrates. Unfortunately, in the assumptions of the Florida nutrition model, there is no mention of it, although Agatston recommends eating any portion size 2.

Continuing, in the South Beach diet should be excluded from the menu of highly processed products, containing large amounts of saturated fatty acids, and those whose glycemic index is higher than 60. The author emphasizes that after eating dishes with, for example, white noodles or bread is not enough that there is a high ejection of sugar into the blood, it is also due to the rapid digestion of such substances, hunger appears almost immediately. Therefore, he recommends replacing them for whole grains, as well as vegetables and fruits, but only those whose IG does not exceed a maximum of 50.

You can also include protein in your daily menu, but at the same time, you should limit the supply of this macronutrient from dairy products. The sources of good unsaturated fats, such as vegetable oils, avocados and sea fish, are also important. When it comes to drinks, the doctor recommends only non-carbonated mineral water, juices, but only vegetable, decaffeinated coffee and tea that do not contain theine. Such products can be drunk in any quantity.

An important rule in this way of eating is the ban on avoiding breakfast, because without this meal the body is exposed to sudden attacks of hunger and the desire for sweets increases. Thanks to the menu thus composed, you not only do not have to make a big jump in blood glucose during the day, but you should not feel hunger 5 too often.

The diet of the southern beaches consists of three phases in which individual products are excluded or included in the menu. Each stage is characterized by a different restrictiveness of assumptions. It is assumed that such a nutritional model allows you to drop as much as 6 kg during the first two weeks of its duration. Although Agatston stresses in their assumptions that calories are not important, the way in which the recommendations are arranged in each phase assumes menus with calories that often do not exceed 1200 or 1400 kcal. Even in the case of people who only use allowed products, but actually eat as much as they want, often not only do not lose weight, but even increase it 5.
South Beach diet phases and their course
The priority assumption of the first stage of the southern beaches diet is the leveling of the glycemic level, and thus the normalization of results in the case of people with type 2 diabetes. In this phase, lasting only two weeks, depending on the so-called. Starting weight can be used to lose weight up to 6.5 kg. Of course, the more weighed at the beginning, the more significant and effective these defects are.

The first stage menu should contain about six meals, the size of which should fully satisfy hunger 5. Unfortunately, the list of products that may be included in this phase on the plate of the person starting his adventure with the South Beach nutrition model, is not too extensive.

Meat products are mainly recommended for lean beef, especially tenderloin, roast beef and cross-dressing, fat-free pork in the form of ham, entrecote, leg or calf kidney, and saddle of lamb. Cured meat is mainly poultry, preferably cooked or smoked chicken or turkey breasts, of course not containing almost any composition of lipids. The menu may include all available fish, shellfish and seaweed.

Also recommended is leguminous plants both fresh and frozen and from the can, provided that they do not contain sugars. The most often mentioned are white, black and red beans, including mung type, chickpeas, lentils, soy and all its products with limited fat content, including milk from its seeds. The menu may also contain eggs in an unlimited number.

As for vegetables, the most recommended is eggplant, chard, Chinese cabbage, or bok choy, as well as its blooming variety, or choy sum, in Poland also known as Chinese broccoli, Brussels sprouts, onions, garlic, all varieties of pumpkin, endives, escarole, green beans, fennel, poisonous peas, all kinds of mushrooms, kale, jicama, i.e. Mexican potato, kohlrabi, kopary, cauliflower, white cabbage, as well as Chinese, Italian, headless and leavened, artichokes, edible ketmia, vegetable juice cocktails, alfalfa sprouts, broccoli, beans, lentils, radishes and sunflower seeds, , mustard leaves, turnip and grape, cucumber and green and sour, walnut, hot pepper, tomato and also one year old, also known as turkey pepper, parsley, artificially sweetened pickles, any type of tomato, leek, rhubarb, red chicory , arugula, watercress, radishes, including Japanese variety, any type of lettuce, root celery, celery, artichokes, palm hearts, tomato juice, sugar peas, shallots, chives, asparagus, spinach and broccoli.
Every day, the menu should also specify exactly one portion of nuts or seeds in the amount of 15 pieces of almond, cashew or Italian variety or 3 tablespoons of sesame or sunflower seeds, otherwise linseed or pumpkin seeds. The appropriate dose from the type of products described may also be 30 pistachios, pine nuts, hazelnuts or ¼ cup of soybeans.

When it comes to fats, the maximum daily amount available for consumption is 2 spoons of one selected type of oil. The recommended group consists of rapeseed, corn, linseed, sesame, sunflower, soybean oil, extra virgin oil and grape seed. Interestingly, the recommended form of lipids is also low-fat mayonnaise and soft margarine. On the other hand, the full-value additives and spices in the first phase of the diet include broth, horseradish, lemon or lime juice, paprika paste, aromatic oils and anything that adds flavor to the dishes, but does not contain glucose.

As a substitute for ordinary sugar, Agatston recommends 27 to 100 kcal per day of long-rejected and unrefined fructose and saccharin. On the other hand, allowed beverages include herbal tea, mint style, chamomile or dill, moderate amounts of coffee and tea, vegetable juices and carbonated drinks without sugar 5.

It is worth noting here that the dietetics based on research has already excluded some drinks from the group of healthy products, where carbon dioxide is injected in an industrial manner. This is due to the fact that this gas leads to the formation of ghrelin, or stomach hunger hormone 3. A few years after the release of the first version of the South Beach diet book appeared its improved version called turbo. In this option, the first phase of the described feeding model is extended by several dairy products, such as skimmed milk or buttermilk, to a maximum of 1% fat in the composition, natural yoghurts 0%, light cheese and curd containing less than 3% lipids. Interestingly, the new recommendations also allow you to deliver daily from 75 to 100 kcal from such ingredients as jelly, jams, cocoa, ice cream, chewing gum. Of course, all these items can not contain sugar.
Lotus Cookie Flavored Protein Cream
What is most amazing, despite the possibility of adding artificial fructose to dishes, all fruits, including those with a low glycemic index, are prohibited by the author 5. Such rigorous recommendations and limited product base are a simple way to bring about numerous shortages dangerous to the health of each person, and more patients with cardiac problems and type 2 diabetes, despite the fact that it was initially designed for them to describe the model of nutrition.

After probably the most difficult two-week start-up phase, the second phase of the southern beaches diet begins. It lasts until the person’s weight is reached, even though the weight drops are much slower during this period than at the start. The menus of this stage begin to be small steps enriched with carbohydrate products. Agatson recommends very slow introduction of dishes with wholegrain bread, brown rice, whole-meal pasta and low IG fruit. This is justified by the need to get used to an increased ejection of sugar into the blood. In addition, it is to help check how the body of each person reacts individually to a specific product.

During the first week of the second phase, you can eat only one fruit and one starchy product per day. However, the harvest of trees is forbidden for breakfast, because, according to the doctor, they may cause increased appetite. In addition, we only eat these ingredients in combination with a source of protein, such as skimmed yogurt. This is to lead to the elimination of hunger.

In the second week of this stage on the first day, we can still eat one fruit, but two starchy products. In the next day, we add one more crop to the set. Then we add the complex carbohydrate component again and keep it that way for 48 hours. Then, by the end of the week, we watch the number of 3 fruits and 2 meals based on starch 2.

During the second phase of the South Beach diet, specific products from different food groups can be included. From the dairy products, it is allowed to introduce light-style fruit yoghurts that do not count as healthy food. As regards cereals, it is possible to consume barley products, unprocessed flakes, wholemeal pasta, wholemeal or leavened bread, wild rice or brown rice and roasted or shot grits.

In the case of fruit, only specific species such as grapefruit, peaches, blueberries, strawberries, pears, apples, kiwi, mangoes, cantaloupe, oranges, plums, cherries, blackberries, raspberries, as well as high GI grapes are allowed to enter the menu. and apricots in both fresh and dried form. In the second phase, green peas, black and pinto beans are available in the diet, and according to some sources, both sweet and ordinary potatoes, but only in small quantities. The author at this stage also allows you to eat small portions of bitter chocolate and red wine 5.

Importantly, despite the main rule, not to count calories and eat as much as you want, not to feel hunger, the portions of most products that come in this phase are very specific. And so during the day you can eat only ¾ cup of gooseberry or blueberries, strawberries, raspberries or cranberries. According to some sources, even one medium banana per day is allowed. The menu can also include no more than a single, not too large peach, pear, orange, pomegranate or kiwi, or a small apple or papaya. From other available fruits you can choose a half of grapefruit or mango, ¼ melon, 15 balls of grapes, 2 ordinary plums or 4 dried, 12 cherries and 4 apricots.

In the case of cereal products, you can not afford more than 1 slice of wholemeal bread, ½ cup of wholemeal, buckwheat or soy pasta or brown or wild rice. Importantly, according to some sources, 3 cups of popcorn and breakfast cereals with an average amount of sugar are also allowed. With vegetables, the recommendation of a specific portion applies only to carrots and peas, which should not be eaten more than half the average size of the cup. As for the aforementioned wine, a maximum of 2 glasses is recommended, although some say that 330 ml beer is also acceptable alcohol. The following products are not added to the menu: beets, pineapples, watermelons, lychee, dates, figs, raisins, honey and sweetened ice cream and desserts 5.

This stage of the diet is already much more varied than the previous two weeks. It is incomprehensible, however, to introduce into the menu also unhealthy products like light fruit yoghurts, sweetened breakfast cereals or beer for products still banned, which are harmless to the body.
Thermo Speed Extreme
The next and the last stage of the style of feeding south beaches takes place after reaching the desired weight. The third phase according to the author should last until the end of his life. There are no prohibited products at this time. However, you should observe your body and at most eliminate yourself on your own, what you consider harmful or causing weight gain 2. Of course, foodstuffs with a glycemic index below 50 are recommended. Agatston recommends going back to phase two if weight is increased. The amazing fact is that the author himself allows his followers to exclude any selected products and to experiment with his health and metabolism on the principle of any transition from the last stage to the one that preceded it.

Effects possible to obtain
Supporters of the South Beach diet exchange numerous beneficial effects that they gained when they switched to this eating model. The most important of these is, of course, a large and quite fast loss of weight, especially during the first two weeks, where record-players lose even 10 kg. Generally, during the entire treatment, the weight loss usually varies from 15 to a maximum of 20 kg. Unfortunately, nobody underlines that his health will change for the better. Some also enjoy mixing the model of the south beaches with the 1000 kcal option to get even better and more spectacular effects related to the pursuit of perfect figure 2.

Unfortunately, both the traditional South Beach diet and its version maximally trimmed by the amount of energy supplied may have deplorable health effects related to dysregulation of the metabolic system, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, liver and kidney burden with too much protein, which may result in disease conditions at the result of malfunctioning of these organs.

Additional side effects are also emphasized by the patients themselves, especially in the first phase they complain of fatigue, irritability, general nervousness and weakness, probably due to the total discontinuation of all carbohydrate sources, which is a simple route to hypoglycaemia, especially dangerous for people suffering from diabetes for whom it may even end up in death

It should also be emphasized that the brain functions and draws energy only from glucose, so for the first two weeks it will not work properly. Unfortunately, a large proportion of people trying to use the diet of the south beaches and obtaining the dream figure in the third stage quickly returns to their former weight or is caught by the yo-yo effect.

Opinions of specialists and people using
On many websites and forums people who are satisfied with the rapid loss of excessive kilos share their experiences and praise the use of this model of nutrition. The only drawbacks that are noticed and underlined is the abandonment of bread, but what you do not do for the perfect look. What’s more frightening is the fact that some nutritionists also consider this diet healthy and rational and promote its use with their name. Only individual sources emphasize that the South Beach diet is not safe for health. Despite the states of hypoglycaemia, weakness and nervousness, the consequences of deficiencies of vitamins, minerals, nutrients and the burden of two important organs, such as the kidneys and heart, can last for months or even years 2.

It is important to emphasize that there are healthy ways to get rid of excess weight and get a great figure not for a moment, and for years. It is worth to go to a proven dietitian who will help you learn the proper and healthy eating habits for the whole body.

Contraindications, or can South Beach diet reach everyone?
The main contraindications not to use the South Beach diet, which are currently exchanging sources, are kidney diseases, diabetes or frequent fluctuations in blood glucose level 1. Unfortunately, due to improper balance of this diet, it should not be recommended to anyone, let alone people young people and teenagers who often consult on internet forums and follow what is fashionable, fast and effective. The price of health, even until the end of life, is not adequate to obtain, often only for a moment, attractive and slim figure. Especially that you can take care of a satisfactory appearance and good health at the same time.

An example menu for one day from phase I, II and III
Below are some examples of menus for each stage of the South Beach diet. Of course, trying them on is not recommended.

First phase
And breakfast is a seafood salad and tea without theine.
II breakfast vegetable juice.
Lunch, boiled chicken breast, boiled cauliflower, a tablespoon of olive oil, still water.
Afternoon tea, cut vegetables, decaffeinated coffee.
Grilled zucchini and aubergine dinner with smoked salmon, still water.
Snack 3 tablespoons sunflower seeds, still water.

The second phase
And breakfast of boiled egg, tomato, red pepper, still water.
II breakfast natural light yogurt, small apple, tea without theine.
Lunch of half a cup of boiled wild rice, baked trout, sauerkraut salad, vegetable juice.
Afternoon tea 2 cubes of dark chocolate, still water.
Supper one slice of wholemeal bread with soft margarine, a slice of poultry ham without fat, with green peppers, tea without theine.
Vegetable juice snack.

Phase three
And breakfast cereal on milk 1%, still water.
II breakfast sandwich with lean cottage cheese, tomato, decaffeinated coffee.
Lunch of zucchini cream soup with wholegrain toasts, vegetable juice.
Afternoon tea light fruit yogurt.
Dinner salad with iceberg lettuce, light mozzarella, red, yellow and green peppers, tomatoes, pumpkin seeds with a tablespoon of olive oil.
A snack of 3 bitters of dark chocolate.

As can be seen from the above examples, especially in the first and second stage, there is no way that the menu composed in this way would provide all the necessary vitamins, minerals, nutrients and adequate energy supply.

Summary – does this model of nutrition have more disadvantages or advantages?
Looking objectively at the advantages and disadvantages of the model of nutrition created by Dr. Arthur Agatston, it is not difficult to conclude that despite good motives he composed a diet that can quickly destroy the body. The only plus that everyone probably knows is a fast loss of unwanted kilos in the first two weeks of use.

Unfortunately, the downsides resulting from South Beach nutrition are much more. Deficiencies of vitamins, minerals, hypoglycemic states, weakness, nervousness, excessive supply of protein and general poor balance of meals and a 24-hour menu leading to health loss are not and should not be acceptable side effects of the treatment.

To get a beautiful figure and at the same time stay healthy, it is enough to follow scientifically based eating habits and introduce a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity into your daily schedule. If you can not start changing your life yourself, remember that there are specialists who will be happy to help you. Good luck!

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A balanced and varied diet is the foundation of health. This variety of diet consists of using food from each group of products. One of the most important groups is fish. They are a great source of high-quality protein, healthy fats, and some rare vitamins. The general nutritional recommendations indicate that we should consume two portions of fish during the week. Unfortunately, in our country (despite the access to the sea), too few fish are consumed, which is a pity, because they are extremely tasty. Among many species from this group, halibut deserves particular attention. His meat is extremely tasty and delicate, it also contains a very small amount of bones. It’s called fish for demanding people – why? You will find the answer below.

Halibut – description of the species and occurrence
Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) is a predatory sea fish in our country, also known as a saddle. Halibut is the largest representative of fish from the flounder family, some halibut specimens are up to 3.5 m long and weigh over 200 kg. However, halibut from other fish differs not only in its size, because its shape differs significantly from the shape of the fish that we know. The halibut’s body is asymmetrical, flat and ovally elongated, covered with tiny scales of black color, less likely to fall into a dark blue or olive shade. The bottom part of the halibut’s body is light and quite delicate compared to the back.

The specific body structure, contrary to appearances, does not hinder hunting halibut. Convex eyes provide fish with a wide field of view. An additional advantage is a large mouth with sharp teeth. These two characteristics make Halibut a dangerous underwater predator.

Halibut is deep-water fish, it means that they live at very large depths. They are best found at a depth of 200-1600 meters, although also living and hunting individuals have been documented at a depth of 2,200 meters. These fish feel good in cold water areas. They live mainly in the northern areas of the Atlantic Ocean, coastal waters of Canada, Greenland, and Iceland. You can also find them in the waters of the North Sea and the White Sea.

An interesting fact is that a small population of halibut lives in the waters of our native Baltic Sea. The most desirable species on the market is the Atlantic halibut that achieves considerable size. However, you can often find halibut black and navy blue. Another type of fish is Pacific halibut, rarely imported into our country.

Halibut – nutritional values
Fish and their products play a very important role in human nutrition. They are not only a good source of healthy fats and vitamins soluble in them. Fish are also a great source of highly digestible protein. In 100 grams of halibut, we can find 20.1 grams of protein, for comparison in salmon 19.9 grams, and trout 18.0 grams. These values ​​do not differ much from each other, however halibut as a skinny fish differs from the above mentioned low energy value, 100 g of fish is around 90 kcal (two times less than in salmon). This feature makes halibut a fish recommended in particular to people who observe energy balance in their diet. In addition to high protein content and low calorie content, halibut contains a lot of potassium (435 mg / 100 g), phosphorus (236 mg / 100 g) and selenium (45.6 μg / 100 g). Halibut is also a source of vitamins B6, B12, A, E, PP, and D.

Halibut is a fish valued for its characteristic taste, its meat is white, fragile and extremely juicy. It is said to be one of the tastiest fish you can get on the market today. After all, fresh fish (not frozen before buying) is a real rarity, even in specialist fish stores. Fresh fish can be obtained on request. Here, however, there is another problem – the price. A kilogram of fresh halibut fillet currently costs about PLN 120. However, the case looks different when it comes to frozen fillets, prices start at PLN 40. Although the price is relatively high, it is worth to introduce halibut once in a while (below you will find some interesting recipes). An additional advantage of halibut fillets is a small number of bones.

 Halibut – health properties and contraindications
Like most marine fish, halibut is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 100 g of meat contains 0.29 g of FFA belonging to the omega-3 family. The presence of these compounds in the diet has a special health significance. The omega-3 fatty acids actively participate in the formation of the nervous system and its proper functioning from the time of fetal life. It has been proven that women who consume the right amount of omega-3 fatty acids give birth to children with a higher intelligence quotient than those who have deficits of this ingredient.

Omega-3 fatty acids also play an important role in the proper functioning of the eyes, as they are components of the retina of the eye. Long-term omega-3 deficiency in the diet may contribute to the development of eye dysfunctions (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and others). The main omega-3 dietary source in the diet is marine fish.

Cross-sectional studies of the intake of these fish have proven that the smallest quantities are consumed by people over 60 years of age. It so happens that in this group also the most common eye defect called macular degeneration. This disease is one of the most common causes of blindness in adulthood. Therefore, it can be safely stated that an adequate supply of marine fish, including halibut, can contribute to reducing the incidence of sight defects in adulthood.

Fatty acids from the omega-3 family contained in halibut are also used as a remedy for degenerative diseases of the joints. Research has proven that a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids reduces pain episodes in osteoarthritis. Omega-3 fatty acids contained in meat and oil from halibut have a strong anti-inflammatory effect.

The anti-inflammatory activity of fatty acids from the omega-3 family works well for cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 reduces the risk of blood clots, maintains good blood vessels, reduces triglycerides and total cholesterol in the blood serum. In short, they have anti-material effects.

Although halibut is a very valuable and tasty fish, it is not recommended in the diet of pregnant women. It is caused by the possibility of accumulating significant amounts of heavy metals in the body of the sea fish. The most common here is mercury, which is easily stored in halibut tissues. Under the Regulation of the European Union Commission No. 1881/2006 of December 19, 2006, it is acceptable to consume the meat of fish in which the concentration of mercury is less than 0.050 mg/kg. As previously mentioned, it is a fish that reaches a large size and mature age, which promotes the storage of dangerous heavy metals. Pregnant women are therefore advised to exclude halibut from the diet for other equally tasty fish.

Super Omega-3 Gems

Spring piccata with halibut
The recipe is perfect for a light spring dinner, although it does equally well as a main course for a romantic dinner for two. It’s light, tasty and very easy to prepare – try it yourself, and you’ll find out.

Ingredients for 2 servings
– 300 g fillet of halibut,
– 3 spoons of lime juice,
– 200 ml of fish broth,
– 4 teaspoons of butter (82% fat content),
– 4 tablespoons of green pickled olives,
– 3 cloves of garlic,
– 1 bunch of chopped chives,
– 1 bunch of chopped dill,
– lemon salt and pepper spices.

A method of preparing
Prepare the fish with steam or bake for a short time in paperwork. Pour the finely chopped leek and pressed garlic through the press on a hot and greased frying pan. Add the fish broth, lime juice, butter, stew until the part of the broth evaporates – it is recommended to reduce it halfway before adding the previously baked fish. After adding the halibut fillets, add the finely chopped greens, salt, and pepper. The dish can be served with bread or brown rice depending on preferences.

Halibut on spinach with spicy lemon sauce
It is a dish that will not take more than 20 minutes to prepare, it is delicious light and thanks to its chili note very expressive.

Ingredients 2 servings
– 400 g fillet of halibut,
– 150 g of fresh spinach,
– 1 lemon,
– ½ garlic head,
– 6 teaspoons of butter (82% fat content),
– 1 or 2 small chili peppers (depending on preferences),
– 1 tablespoon of rapeseed oil,
– salt and pepper spices.

A method of preparing
We cut the chili pepper in half and get rid of the seeds, peel the garlic and cut into thin slices. Fry both vegetables in a well-heated pan on rapeseed oil – on low heat so that they do not burn (this can spoil our entire efforts). Put the washed spinach in the pan, add a pinch of salt and mix thoroughly. In the meantime, we prepare fish, seasoning it only with salt and pepper. Fry the fish delicately in butter, then reduce the heat and cook for a while undercover. After preparing the fish, we lecture it on previously prepared spinach. We sprinkle everything gently with lemon juice and decorate the dish with a grilled slice of lemon. The dish is ready to serve.

Halibut is a demanding fish – delicious, very valuable and healthy, and at the same time hard to reach and relatively expensive. However, it is worth to prepare it once in a while in your kitchen. Its taste will surely appeal to you. We encourage you to try our recipes. Remember that eating fish is a very important element of a healthy and varied diet.


Mackerel and smoked mackerel – calories, nutritional values ​​and curiosities

Mackerel is one of the fish that Poles reach especially often. We especially like smoked mackerel – not smoked, it is not so popular. It is worth eating mackerel because it has many valuable nutritional values. In addition, it has a relatively affordable price, which means that almost everyone can buy it. 

What are the differences in nutritional values ​​between the nutritional values ​​of smoked mackerel and raw mackerel? When is it worth reaching for a mackerel and what can you do with it? 


Here you can find vitamins and minerals – CLICK 


Fresh mackerel and smoked mackerel – nutritional and healing properties 

In 100 grams of fresh mackerel we find an average of 189 calories (calories) – the calorific value depends on the age, season, spawning period, migration. Maybe for some it is a lot, but it is worth knowing that caloric mackerel comes from a large content of healthy fats. Mackerel like every fish contains a set of exogenous amino acids, so it is a source of full-value protein. Mackerel is rich in omega-3 acids that greatly affect the work of the brain and the entire nervous system. These are fatty acids, which we should reach as often as possible. Man should absorb both omega-3 and omega-6, unfortunately in the diet of modern man the latter prevail, which is not beneficial to our health. The more we should reach for more products rich in omega-3 acids to ensure the balance of fatty acids. These are found in oily fish, and mackerel belongs to one of the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids. 

In mackerel you can also find valuable and in very large quantities of vitamins – D3 and B12. 100 grams of fresh mackerel fills the daily demand for vitamin D3 in more than 100%, and for vitamin B12 in over 300%! We should reach for the mackerel, especially during autumn and winter, when the sun is much less and thus we do not absorb so much vitamin D3. Mackerel also contains quite large amounts of other vitamins from the B group – B1, B2, B3, B5 and B6. There is also a lot of choline in mackerel. 

Mackerel is also very rich in selenium.

This extraordinary element is essential for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. There are more and more people with thyroid disease, and research shows a correlation between selenium deficiency and the emergence of, for example, hypothyroidism. We recommend mackerel food to all those who have problems with the endocrine system. In mackerel you will also find a lot of phosphorus, magnesium and some potassium and zinc. Thanks to this mackerel has a positive effect on the heart, strengthens bones, prevents their demineralization and positively affects the sodium-potassium balance. Mackerel as a sea fish contains large quantities of precious iodine 

– iodine deficiency in children decreases learning ability, slows down growth and physical development during puberty. In adults, it can impair reproductive functions, make it difficult to maintain a pregnancy, lead to thyroid insufficiency and, as a consequence, to inhibit the function of many organs and life processes of the body. 

In smoked mackerel we find more calories – 100 grams of fish is about 200 calories (kcal) – here, as in the case of fresh mackerel it is dependent on many factors. Smoking is a method of food preservation by means of smoke and also temperature. Smoking has a huge impact on the amount of water in the products. During smoking, not only the water content is reduced but also chemical and physicochemical changes. As a result of smoking and water loss, the ingredients get thicker. Depending on the type of fish smoking – whether cold, hot or hot, there is a greater or lesser loss of vitamins and minerals. Smoked mackerel contains much more sodium than raw mackerel, due to the compaction of ingredients but above all by the addition of brine. Salting preserves fish, so their durability is definitely higher. To the products during smoking, also substances prolonging its durability (formaldehyde and phenols) penetrate. Smoke smoke kills the microflora in the fish and stops the spoilage. Generally, the content of vitamins and minerals in smoked mackerel is similar or even higher (due to the compaction effect of ingredients) to the value of fresh mackerel, however, as already stated, this quantity depends on the method of smoking. It is also worth knowing that the amount of precious omega-3 acids can also be high in fish, just like in raw fish. Although omega-3 acids are very sensitive to temperature, the content of acids is also largely dependent on the method of smoking and temperature. 

Comparison of calories and nutritional values ​​of fresh and smoked mackerel 

The values ​​per 100 g of the product 

Ingredient Mackerel smoked mackerel 

Calories (energy value) 189 kcal / 791 kJ 

200 kcal / 837 kJ 

Protein 19.08 g 

Total fat 11.91 g 

Omega-3 fatty acids 2.304 g 

Omega-6 fatty acids 0.324 g 

Carbohydrates 0 g 

Mackerel? Yes but … 

Although you must certainly appreciate the health-related properties of mackerel, you should pay attention to a few things. First of all, the potential content of heavy metals – including mercury. Secondly, the fish is characterized by a large number of purines, which consumed in excess can cause arthritis. Thirdly (this applies only to smoked fish) mackerel smoked by the traditional method may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) – the same compounds are also released when smoking cigarettes, in traditional smoked fish there may also be nitrosamines and dioxins. Currently, industrially smoke aromas are used more and more often instead of traditional smoking, which are made of purified smoke, which largely deprives it of harmful compounds. It is worth noting that smoked fish also contains a lot of sodium, which is important information for people with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The last issue is allergenicity. Fish are among the most common food allergens, both in adults and children – the main identified fish allergen is parvalbumin. Mackerel and especially smoked mackerel may contain large doses of histamine (resulting from the transformation from the histidine amino acid), which may cause poisoning. 

Mackerel – use in the kitchen 

Mackerel can be fried – although due to the omega-3 content it is not recommended to bake and stew. As it is a fatty fish, it is great for grilling. Fish is also a popular ingredient in salads, pastes, stuffing, sauces, soups and casseroles.  


You can read also: Omega 3 more important than we thought


The importance of selenium and iodine to Hashimoto’s disease

Hashimoto’s disease is the name of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis – an autoimmune disease in which the patient’s immune system attacks his own tissues. This leads to the destruction of the thyroid gland and disorders of its work, contributing to the abnormal production of hormones and the development of hypothyroidism. 

The occurrence of Hashimoto’s disease depends on genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Among the environmental factors such as infections, cytokine therapies, lithium salts and the use of certain drugs, there is also an excess of iodine and selenium deficiency. So what is the significance of these elements in the functioning of the immune system and the work of the thyroid gland? 


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The importance of selenium in Hashimoto’s disease 

Selenium deficiency may lead to abnormal immune cells. Selenium sources in the diet are meat, cereals, milk products and fish as well as Brazilian nuts. In the system selenium occurs in the form of selenocysteine ​​- an amino acid responsible for the enzymatic activity of selenoproteins. Selenoproteins protect thyroid cells from oxidative stress. Selenium participates in the production of selenoenzymes, which participate in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. This element is a powerful antioxidant that protects the thyroid against the harmful effects of oxidized forms of iodine. Therefore, selenium deficiency leads to damage to thyroid cells and decrease of thyroid hormone production. triiodothyronine. 

The importance of iodine in Hashimoto’s disease 

Iodine is a basic component that is part of the thyroid hormone. When thyroxine (thyroid hormone) breaks down, iodine (around 20%) is re-used in the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency results in inadequate amount of hormones produced, which contributes to the emergence of thyroid gland. Iodine is an element that is widespread in nature especially in the vicinity of salty water clusters. The sources of iodine in the diet include sea fish, seafood, eggs, meat and meats, turnips, kohlrabi. Excess iodine has been recognized as an environmental factor that affects the development of Hashimoto’s disease. During the oxidation of iodine, free radicals are formed which, leading to oxidative stress, damage thyroid cells. Among people with Hashimoto’s disease, excess iodine and additional supplementation may accelerate the autoimmune course of the disease. Numerous studies indicate an increase in the incidence of Hashimoto’s disease in coastal states (Scandinavia, Great Britain) as well as in countries where the consumption of products rich in iodine is very high (Japan). 

Demand for selenium and iodine 


Demand for selenium according to Dietary Reference Intakes determined by the American National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board. 

* 1 Recommended daily intake (RDA) – a value that satisfies the needs of more than 97.5% of the healthy population in each age group, both sexes. This value is estimated by statistical methods. 

* 2 Maximum level of intake (UL) – a value that does not cause harmful effects in healthy people, as stated in the studies under medical supervision. 

* 3 Recommended Daily Intake (AI) – the probable level of daily intake calculated from observations or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of intake of individual nutrients. The AI ​​value is given when it is not possible to estimate the RDA. 

As shown by the study, the amount of selenium intake in Poland is 40 μg and is the lowest in Europe. The optimal concentration of selenium in the blood serum is 100-120 μg, while the average serum concentration of selenium in Poland is 70 μg. 


The iodine demand according to the Dietary Reference Intakes determined by the American National Academy of Sciences, Food and Nutrition Board. 

* 1 Recommended daily intake (RDA) – a value that satisfies the needs of more than 97.5% of the healthy population in each age group, both sexes. This value is estimated by statistical methods. 

* 2 Maximum level of intake (UL) – a value that does not cause harmful effects in healthy people, as stated in the studies under medical supervision. 

* 3 Recommended Daily Intake (AI) – the probable level of daily intake calculated from observations or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of intake of individual nutrients. The AI ​​value is given when it is not possible to estimate the RDA. 

Excess iodine can be caused by too high intake of marine products (fish, seafood, sea algae). Among people with autoimmune diseases , iodine intake even at a safe dose for the entire population may result in negative symptoms. 

Appropriate concentration of selenium and iodine in blood serum can ensure proper immune response and improve thyroid gland function among people affected by Hashimoto’s disease. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the supply of selenium and iodine along with diet and dietary supplements. 


You can read also: Selenium in thyroid diseases


Herring – calories, nutritional values ​​and curiosities

Baltic herring is one of the most popular marine fish species available in Poland. Baltic herring is a subspecies of herring (oceanic) herring (Latin: Clupea harengus). Herring is a small fish whose body is elongated and covered with large scales. The spine’s back is darker than the silver torso and has a gray or dark green color. This species inhabits the water from the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean to the Baltic Sea. 


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Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) is also called a salad. This fish is a highly valued fish on tables in Polish homes – it is tasty, relatively cheap, and at the same time has many valuable nutritional values. Why, then, this species of sea fish owes its popularity and what made it permanently inscribed on the list of traditional Polish dishes? 

Herring – nutritional and healing properties 

Herring is a source of wholesome protein (over 15 g / 100 g). They belong to fatty fish, and the fat content in 100 grams is over 10 g. However, the majority of fat in herring meat are health-oriented polyunsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, which are responsible for the proper functioning of the circulatory system, including lowering levels of bad LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, and have antiatherosclerotic activity. The omega-3 fatty acids are also responsible for the body’s proper immunity, optimal state of cell membranes, support the nervous system and strengthen the bones and muscles. Recent studies also suggest that omega-3s slow the aging of cells. Herring is a source of vitamins A, D and E. Vitamin A corresponds to min. for correct vision, proper condition of the epidermis and proper functioning of the immune system. Vitamin D supports the proper functioning of the skeletal system, facilitates the absorption of calcium, participates in the proper functioning of the calcium-phosphate system and prevents depression. In 100 g herrings you can find a high content of vitamin D. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that has anti-atherosclerotic effects. It eliminates free radicals and prevents the polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation. Herring is also rich in vitamins from the group B – in vitamin B2, PP, B6 and especially in vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 participates in hematopoietic processes (a deficiency of vitamin B12 increases the risk of megaloblastic anemia). Herring is a good source of macro- and micronutrients such as potassium, precious iodine, selenium, copper, zinc and phosphorus. Although herrings are classified as fatty fish, their calorific value is about 187 kcal (calories). 

Calories and nutritional values ​​- raw herring 

Ingredient Content in 100 g 

Calories (energy value) 187 kcal / 784 kJ 

Protein 16.5 g 

Total fat 13.6 g 

Carbohydrates 0 g 

Dietary fiber 0 g 

Vitamin B3 (PP) 4.35 mg 

Calcium 34 mg 

Magnesium 27 mg 

Phosphorus 200 mg 

Potassium 317 mg 

Sodium 90 mg 

Zinc 1.18 mg 

Cholesterol 58 mg 

Herring – use in the kitchen 

Herring is used and is prepared in many ways. It can be fried (this method of treatment is not recommended, as we lose valuable omega-3 acids), baked, marinated and eaten raw. Also available as smoked fish – so-called pickling (smoked in hot smoke) or kiper (smoked in cold smoke). It is used as an addition to salads, couscous, pastes and as an appetizer in the form of tartare with egg or onion. In a marinade of vinegar, oil, onion, mustard and bay leaves, it is known as Bismarck. Marinated in vinegar and salt, and then rolled with the addition of pickled (pickled) or pickled cucumbers and onion in the middle is known as rolmops. Often it is also found in combination with cream, oil or vinegar. Herring is one of the twelve obligatory dishes on the Christmas Eve table. It is served most often in the form of fillets in oil with the addition of onions and dried fruits (eg raisins, cranberries, dried plums or nuts). Herring blends well with spicy spices, mustard, black pepper, bay leaf, English herb, cloves and raisins. It also works perfectly in the form of fillets in cream and as an addition to herring salad in combination with egg, mayonnaise and pickled cucumbers. Increasingly, herring is also served in a fried form with potatoes and salad. On the market herring is available in fresh, frozen form but also in processed form, among others, as preserves (with tomato sauce, oil or cream), ready-made fish salads or herring corks. 


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Allergy to fish – sources, symptoms and treatments

Fish are a healthy product, however, like some vegetables and fruits, they can cause allergies. An allergic reaction is caused in children and adults by parvalbumin – a protein found in fish. Fish allergy is the most common in countries where fish is a basic element of regional cuisine. Fish allergy occurs in about 2% of the population. 


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The main symptoms of fish allergies include gastrointestinal problems, asthma, urticaria and Quincke’s edema. In some cases, anaphylactic reaction may occur. Symptoms of fish allergies may occur a few minutes after eating fish, or only after about 24-48 hours. Employees of fish processing plants, because of their constant exposure to fish dust and fumes, are at risk of catching fish allergies. Allergy to fish is most often caused by parvalbumin (around 95%). Due to the similar amino acid sequence in parvalbumin in various fish species, the allergy can be sensitized to many species of fish. 

Causes of allergies to fish 

Allergy can be caused by both freshwater and marine fish. The most sensitizing fish include cod, herring, sprat, eel, carp, perch. People who are allergic react to both fried and boiled fish. Heat treatment, even the most advanced in terms of the processing temperature achieved, such as frying, grilling or baking do not cause the breakdown of parvalbumin. Parvalbumin is found in white muscle tissue. Therefore, the least sensitizing fish are dark meat, including fish saw, salmon and tuna. 

Symptoms of fish allergies 

Symptoms of fish allergies can be associated with skin changes such as redness and urticaria. Occasionally swelling of the face or lips appears. On the day after the day of consumption of fish, the atopic dermatitis may become more severe 

. Gastrointestinal symptoms accompanying allergies to fish include vomiting and nausea and diarrhea. Gastric complaints can have a very sharp course and show a strong diarrhea with an admixture of blood. The syndrome of these symptoms is referred to as intestinal inflammation due to food-derived proteins (FPIES). Both asthma, wheezing, breathing problems, cough and rhinitis in the course of fish allergy appear relatively rarely compared to other symptoms. Dyspnoea more often testify to Quince’s edema. 

Undesirable reactions to fish are not always the result of allergies to fish. The reaction may be a pseudo allergy – then the immune system does not take part in the reaction. Some fish species contain a lot of histamine can also trigger the release of histamine in the body, which manifests, for example, urticaria, intestinal cramps, or swelling. Pseudo allergic reactions may also be caused by the presence of heavy metals or a bacterial infection resulting from too long or improper fish storage and. When eating fish, one should also be aware of the allergy to the parasite from the cluster of nematodes – Anisakis simplex. 

Symptoms of allergy in children 

In the youngest patients, a fish allergy can be manifested by vomiting, intense rehydration, diarrhea, colic and abdominal distension. Impaired nutritional status associated with allergy is manifested by slowing down the rate of growth and inhibition of weight gain. Symptoms of respiratory allergies include sapka, runny nose, difficulty in breathing and wheezing in the chest. Fish allergy can also cause atopic dermatitis (so-called protein blemish), swelling of the lips and urticaria. Children are like adults who are exposed to anaphylactic shock. 

Dangerous anaphylactic shock 

In people with severe allergies, the intake of fish can lead to a dangerous symptom – anaphylactic reaction. After just a few minutes from eating fish food, the allergic person may develop dyspnoea, circulatory problems, loss of consciousness, collapse and apnea. In the event of anaphylactic shock symptoms, an ambulance should be called immediately. 

Diagnosis of fish allergies 

Fish allergy can develop at every stage of life. Food allergy of childhood to fish disappears with age in few children and adolescents. An allergic reaction often arises in adolescents who for years have eaten fish and have not been accompanied by any symptoms. In 40% of cases, fish allergy becomes active only in adulthood. The diagnosis can be confirmed by various diagnostic methods, such as the prick skin test and the study of specific IgE antibodies in blood serum. If, after the above tests, there are still doubts about the allergy to the fish, a provocative test is carried out. If after the oral challenge test the result is positive, the patient is given an elimination diet. A negative result of an oral provocation test suggests that additional tests be performed on the content of toxins and parasites. 

Treatment of fish allergies 

The basic method of treatment of fish allergies is to avoid consuming fish species, on which allergy has been confirmed by research. Even the fumes created during fish cooking may show allergy symptoms. Cutlery that has been in contact with fish may also cause allergy symptoms. Accidental contamination of fish with other products is declared by producers – the packaging is placed on the label (it may contain traces of fish). 

In the event of allergic symptoms to the fish, you can use antiallergics. The allergy should have a first aid kit prescribed by a doctor. Sick people should inform people in their immediate environment about their allergies and possible symptoms. Avoid fish products and products that could contain fish and fish products, surimi and dietary supplements (omega-3 acids derived from fish) containing fish oil. For people who are highly sensitized, it is recommended to completely opt out of visiting the restaurant. 

Unfortunately, the attempts of immunotherapy with regard to fish allergies taken in the past have not brought the intended results. They were also not safe enough. Since 2009, studies have been underway to develop a vaccine for subcutaneous immunotherapy in fish allergy under the direction of Ronald van Ree as part of the Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy project. The project also involves the Department of Immunology, Rheumatology and Allergy Medical University of Lodz, which in 2015 began to study the effectiveness and safety of the developed vaccine (A. Drewnik, ML Kowalski, Allergy to fish, in Allergy Asthma Immunology 2016, 21, pp. 88-95). 

Reducing the risk of allergy 

In order to reduce the risk of allergies in children, the child can be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, and for the following months continue breastfeeding combined with the introduction of complementary foods. Children belonging to the group of increased risk of allergy (occurrence of allergic disease in parents or siblings) should be fed in the first half-year of life with breast milk and protein hydrolysates – special mixtures that reduce the risk of allergy. 

There is no scientific evidence that delayed introduction of potentially allergenic foods – fish and seafood – reduces the risk of allergy. Similarly, the elimination diet during pregnancy also does not reduce the risk of allergy in the child, and may lead to nutritional deficiencies in the mother, so it is even a threat to the health of the child. There is also no evidence that the elimination diet during lactation prevents the occurrence of allergies in the child. 


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Fish – basic information

The chemical composition of fish muscles in terms of quantity and quality is different. It is influenced by many factors, such as species, age, feeding place and type of food, as well as the time and manner of fishing and many factors related to transport, preparation for marketing, etc. 

Muscle fish, occurring in the domestic trade, contain on average 

– water-50-85%, 

– protein-10-25%, 

– fat-0.2-54%, 

– mineral salts – 0.5-5.6%, 

– carbohydrates-0.1-0.4%, 

– vitamins A, B and D. 

Fish proteins are characterized by a very high bioavailability in the human body – about 97%. 

Fish fats have a low melting point and high bioavailability, which is about 92%. They are primarily a source of vitamins A, B and D. 

Fat content in fish muscles is a criterion for dividing fish into three groups 

1) fatty fish containing more than 5% fat (including cesta, halibut, salmon, trout, mackerel, sprat, herring, eel, sardine), 

2) medium-fatty fish, containing 1-5% fat (including barbell, redfish, crucian carp, bream, tench, roach, trout, whitefish, mumps), 

3) lean fish containing up to 1% fat (including cod, hake, perch, zander, pike). 

The content of vitamins in mg / 100g of edible fish parts is e.g. 

– cod-vitamin d (in liver fat) -100; vitamins A- 1000; vitamin B1 -80; Vitamin B2 – 100; vitamin PP-1500; 

– broker – vitamin D (in liver fat) – 750; vitamins A- 1000. 

Due to its nutritional value, such as nutrient properties, absorption by the body and caloricity, fish should be consumed in larger quantities than currently in Poland. 

Fish belong to products of short durability, they are easily spoiled, therefore cooling or freezing is necessary to prolong their durability. 


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Commodity characteristics of selected fish species. 

The herring families include herring, sprat, sardine, sardinella; Herring and sprat have the greatest economic importance. 

Herring from the Baltic Sea reaches a different length, usually 20 cm, and in the North Sea – 35 cm. Herring in Poland is a commonly processed raw material, subjected to salting, smoking and marinating. Compared with North Sea herring, Baltic herring is of lower quality. 

Sardine – a species far sea, warm water, 20-25 cm long; is a raw material for canning in olive oil. 

The salmonid family includes salmon, sea trout, brown trout, rainbow trout, whitefish, whitefish. Meat from this family is very much appreciated because it is extremely tasty. 

Salmon weight is up to 15kg, and body length varies from 75 to 150cm. In trade, salmon is most often offered in a fresh, chilled or frozen state, mainly as a luxury gastronomic raw material, as well as for processing (smoked, canned). 

Carp ropes include ropes, carp, barbel, crucian carp, bream, pig and others. They are freshwater fish; most species are valued for utility reasons. Among the fish of this family, carp is the most popular fish traditionally eaten on the eve of Christmas. He lives both in wild water areas and is also bred; these species differ from each other. Carp is valued for its tasty and medium-fat meat. Preparations 

of this fish are produced sporadically. 

The representative of the eel family is eel. The length of males reaches 51 cm, and females up to 2 m; the average body weight is 0.5-1.0 kg. The eel has white and very greasy tasty meat. 

Cod, hake and other fish belong to the cod. There are both Baltic and deep-sea species; they have an important utility meaning due to the white, lean and tasty meat. 

To okonowatych, include zander and perch. They are freshwater fish with tasty white and lean meat. 

The most important representative of a mackerel family is a broker. It reaches up to 60 cm and body weight up to 1.6 kg. It belongs to oily fish, with very tasty meat. It is a valuable raw material used in processing. 

Depending on the method of preparing the fish raw material for marketing, the fish is divided into fresh and frozen, fish and other products. 

Fresh fish are caught fish and killed, fit for consumption that have not been fixed or have been fixed by cooling; ice pouring is most often used. 

Dreamed fish are those that have been stripped of life due to strangulation, and killed fish are fish without life in a mechanical way. 

Fresh fish should be chilled to a temperature of +5 to -1 C in the depth of the body. 

Frozen fish are those whose temperature in the depth of the body is not higher than -8 degrees C, frozen by fast method, i.e. the fish body temperature decrease to -9 degrees C occurred in no more than 2 hours. 

Selling fresh and frozen fish requires stores to be equipped with adequate refrigeration equipment in order to preserve the so-called cold chain. 

Fish products. 

Salted, smoked and marinated fish. 

Salted fish are fish or parts thereof fixed by the action of sodium chloride (table salt). 

In the domestic trade there are wet salted fish (in brine). Most often salted sledzie, which during this process acquire a characteristic taste and smell. Salting with the addition of spices is also used; herring obtained in this way is called spicy. Due to the development of refrigeration, the importance of salting as a method of fixing is reduced. 

Smoked fish are fish or parts thereof prepared for immediate consumption as a result of smoke. 

There is a distinction between hot smoking, which takes place at a temperature of 120-140 degrees C, and cold smoked at 30 degrees Celsius. Salmon smoke is smoked with cold smoke, which is fixed with smoke and acquires specific sensory characteristics. 

Marinated fish are those obtained from fish or parts thereof which have been treated with a solution of salt and vinegar with spices. 

Due to the way they are prepared, cold, boiled and fried marinades stand out. Cold pickles are obtained by marinating fresh or salted fish, pickled marinades – by marinating boiled or steamed fish, fried marinades are obtained by frying fish and then marinating. 


Canned fish. 

Fish preserves are products in airtight packaging, subjected to thermal sterilization or other processes, causing the destruction of microorganisms to such an extent that their development is impossible, irrespective of the temperature at which these canned food is to be stored; they are suitable for direct consumption. 

The rules for the production of canned fish, as well as the requirements for packaging, marking and storage, are the same as, for example, canned meat. 

Canned fish is a very large assortment group, which results from the variety of raw material, various pre-treatment methods and various types of applied inundation and additives. 

The canned fish in the market are divided depending on how they are prepared, canned in own sauce, in oil, in tomato sauce, fish and vegetable sauce, fish pate and others. 

Fish preserves are fish products fixed mainly by salting and possibly with the use of permitted additives, sealed in airtight packaging, not subjected to sterilization. 

The use of benzoic acid and its sodium salt or sorbic acid or its sodium, potassium or calcium salt may be added in a total amount not exceeding 0.1 g per 100 g of product, calculated on the corresponding acid, in order to prolong the preservation of the preserves. 

Fish preserves are usually packed in metal cans, Twist-Off jars, plastic packaging or other, acceptable by sanitary authorities for use. Canned food should be stored in rooms with a temperature of 0-5 degrees C and relative humidity of up to 80%; without sudden changes in temperature and humidity. 



The caviar is called sturgeon fish roe – black caviar. 

The rats are separated from the connective tissue and then the salt, so that it becomes glassy, ​​swollen and has a desirable taste. 

Caviar contains in its composition about 50% water, 26-33% protein, 16-19% fat and 4-7% mineral salts. 

In more general terms, caviar is also called spawn of other salmonids (red caviar), cod fish (Norwegian caviar). 


Sales counseling. 

Customers who buy fish are most often interested in their freshness and culinary possibilities. You have to be able to answer, among others for questions 

– Which fish will be the best for baking and which is suitable for frying? 

– Which fish are very bony? 

– Which fish are greasy and which are lean? 

You should also inform customers about the high nutritional value of fish, and that they are easily digestible and contain many valuable nutrients. Sea fish provide a large amount of iodine and other minerals. However, fish consumption, despite the high content of nutrients, should not be dominant in the diet, due to the simultaneous accumulation of toxic environmental pollutants such as mercury, lead, cadmium, polychlorinated diphenyls. Consuming so they should not be enough to use valuable nutrients, and do not allow toxic chemicals to enter the system. Especially with small amounts of fish should be given carefully to children. 

Due to the possibility of very rapid spoiling of fresh fish, they are usually stored in a frozen state. You need to pay attention to the need to keep them in this state during the journey home, if they are to be kept in the home freezer. You can also inform that the fish can be baked, and if they are portioned, then also fry in a frozen state. 



Characteristics of commodities and the use of seafood. 

In recent years, there are more and more imported products in the domestic trade, known as seafood, “frutti di mare,” or “seafood.” They are very appreciated because of their sensory properties. 

Seafood is edible sea or freshwater frameless animals, mainly crustaceans and molluscs. 

They deserve attention from sea animals 

– cephalopods (squid), 

– crustaceans (crabs, crawfish, lobsters, shrimps), 

– mussels (oysters). 

Of freshwater animals, crayfish is the most important. 

Land snails and sea animals without shells (calamari, octopus), as well as edible frogs, are prepared in a similar way. A characteristic feature of some crustaceans is that when they are put into boiling water they immediately change the color of the armor. Shellfish change their color to orange-red. Under the influence of elevated temperature, carotenoid pigments, previously associated with protein molecules, are released. 

Meat of edible invertebrates is valued because of its properties (soft and compact). Often, however, it is largely contaminated with microorganisms from the waters in which they live. The dishes prepared from them are impermanent. 


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Mackerel from a can

Worth knowing

Mackerel from European fisheries is not threatened with extinction. The number of herds, despite numerous catches, remains stable and does not cause degradation of the marine environment. Therefore, buy mackerels from this source without worries.


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In stores you will also find mackerel in cans – in tomato sauce, in oil, in a homemade sauce or a salad with mackerel. The nutritional value varies depending on the type of supplement. However, the nutritional value of the fish itself after drainage is comparable in each form. Mackerel from the can has a reduced nutritional value compared to fresh mackerel, this is due to the processing it is subjected to before preservation, mainly high temperature. Loss of unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals follows. Mackerel from the can is less caloric than fresh or smoked, contains less fat, but at the same time almost half of the less valuable DHA (mackerel vs mackerel 1.4 g vs 0.8 g). A similar trend is noticeable in the content of minerals, only in canned fish we find more sodium and phosphorus compared to fresh fish. 

Much less in mackerel from the can we find also vitamins – the content of vitamin D or vitamin B6 drops by about half as compared to fresh mackerel. In addition, there is a risk that the substance that is used to protect the plate from corrosion – bisphenol A, can penetrate the fish. Research shows that bisphenol A is not indifferent to health, it can contribute to the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease or abortions. Therefore, it is worth choosing fresh mackerel, and canned mackerel (similarly to other canned products) to be added to the diet on an occasional basis. 


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It will be useful to you 

Mackerel – culinary uses 

Mackerel is a fish that works great as an addition to salads, sandwiches, pastes, but also as the main dinner dish. You can prepare pasta based on smoked mackerel with the addition of hard-boiled eggs, pickled cucumbers and onions, cottage cheese or natural tofu. The simplest version of the paste with the addition of tomatoes will also work. When preparing salads with smoked mackerel, you can also use various products – it perfectly blends with peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, a mix of salads and eggs. An interesting combination is mackerel, egg, arugula and boiled beets. You can also prepare salads with smoked mackerel with the addition of rice or pasta. 

Fresh mackerel is great as a main course, you can serve it in a garlic-lemon marinade, dried tomatoes or stewed vegetables. 

Recipe for mackerel baked in aluminum foil with marinade 

fresh mackerel (1 piece) 

1 clove of garlic 

1 tablespoon of olive oil 

lemon juice 


Sauté the marinade with garlic, olive oil, chopped parsley. From the fish, cut off the head, cleanse, wash, make incisions on both sides within a few centimeters, inside and outside. Arrange the fish on aluminum foil, rub the fish marinade on the outside and fill in the cuts, wrap in foil, leave in the fridge for a few hours. Bake at 180 degrees C for 30 minutes. Before serving, sprinkle with lemon juice. Serve with any grits or rice and salad. 






Mackerel nutritional value of fresh, smoked and canned mackerel

Due to the significant addition of salt and the resulting cancer-causing compounds, it is better to choose fresh mackerel and prepare it in a baked form in aluminum foil or steamed. 

Mackerel belongs to fatty fish, thanks to which it is a good source of beneficial omega-3 acids and vitamin D. In addition, in mackerel we find a large amount of selenium. However, despite the health benefits of nutrients due to the tendency to accumulate mercury compounds mackerel is not recommended for pregnant and lactating women. 


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Mackerel is a popular fish in Poland, it is often used as an addition to sandwiches, salads, pastes or a component of dinner dishes. Most often, we buy smoked mackerel, less often in a can. It is harder to get a fresh mackerel – and this has the most nutritional value and health properties. Mackerel lives in the waters from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. The meat of this fish is cream-colored with dark muscle hypertrophy. Mackerel is a fatty fish rich in unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, but it tends to accumulate harmful methylmercury, which is why it is inadvisable for pregnant and nursing women. 

Mackerel a source of protein 

Mackerel is a source of wholesome protein (18.6 g / 100 g). It is worth replacing it with red meat and poultry. Mackerel contains exogenous amino acids (including leucine, isoleucine, lysine) that must be delivered to the body with food. 


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Mackerel and fatty acids 

Mackerel is a fatty fish, it contains 14 grams of fat in 100 grams of meat. In this fish there is a lot of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which determines the health benefits of mackerel. Omega-3 acids normalize triglyceride levels in the blood, have a protective effect on the heart and blood vessels. By incorporating them into red blood cells, they improve their flexibility, thus increasing the blood supply to the body. They also stimulate the production of nitric oxide, which has an effect on the blood vessels, which improves blood flow, helping to reduce blood pressure. 

Mackerel rich with selenium and vitamin D 


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Mackerel is a wealth of minerals. The meat of this fish is particularly valued due to the high content of selenium, in 100 g it contains 44.1 μg of selenium, which covers 80% of the daily adult’s needs for this element. Selenium improves the body’s immunity and protects the red blood cells from free radicals. 

In addition, mackerel is a source of phosphorus and potassium as well as vitamin D and vitamin A, which has a beneficial effect on the skin. Phosphorus and vitamin D have a beneficial effect on bones and teeth, so they should be consumed by children. Vitamin D takes part in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body and bone mineralization. Facilitates the absorption of calcium and transport to the bone, thus affecting their proper functioning, which is why it is especially important for women who have an increased risk of bone loss. 

In addition, vitamin D has an immunomodulatory effect. It suppresses pro-inflammatory processes in the body, preventing the occurrence of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory bowel diseases. Vitamin D also reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. 


Mackerel not for pregnant and lactating women 

Mackerel belongs to fish not recommended for pregnant and lactating women due to the high tendency to accumulate mercury compounds. For 1 g of fresh weight this fish has 0.072 μg of methylmercury that easily crosses the blood-placenta barrier and into the breast milk of the nursing mother. Methylmercury causes damage to the central nervous system by accumulating in the fetal blood and brain. There was a 30% higher content of methylmercury in fetal blood cells compared to maternal blood cells. For this reason, in 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that mackerel be completely eliminated from the diet by pregnant women and breastfeeding women. 


Mackerel and histamine content 

In addition to valuable nutrients in mackerel, there are also compounds that can be dangerous to health. The histamine contained in mackerel may cause sensitization, manifested by dyspnoea, nausea and edema. Especially high level of histamine is in smoked mackerel, because the smoking process significantly increases its concentration. For this reason, smoked mackerel is not recommended for people with histamine intolerance. In addition, mackerel is a source of purines that, if eaten in excess, can cause arthritis. 

Mackerel fresh or smoked? 

Mackerel is most often eaten in smoked form. However, this method of treatment is not indifferent to health. During the smoking process, compounds hazardous to the PAH organism (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are produced that have carcinogenic properties. In addition, smoked mackerel is not indicated for people with hypertension due to the high sodium content. In addition, during smoking, the fish loses B vitamins, which reduces its nutritional value. 

In the case of smoked mackerel, the content of omega-3 fatty acids is higher, but it should be remembered that these quantities are given in terms of the mass of the finished product. 100 g of smoked mackerel has not been prepared with 100 g of fresh mackerel, hence a much higher content of omega-3 fatty acids. In addition, the omega-3 content depends on the smoking technique – cold smoked mackerel does not lose these acids.

In spite of the potentially higher content of omega-3 in smoked mackerel due to the significant addition of salt and the dangerous compounds created during smoking, it is better to choose mackerel fresh and prepare it in a baked form in aluminum foil or steamed. 


Tuna in pieces in King Oscar sunflower oil

Tuna is a real star among fish. Popularity owes to the characteristic taste and practical use in the kitchen. Tuna is also famous for its excellent nutritional values. To all fans of this specialty, the King Oscar company dedicates a unique delicacy in its offer. Tasty, aromatic and healthy Tuna in pieces in pure sunflower oil, available in 185 g of packaging, encourages the implementation of interesting recipes and a conscious diet.

King Oscar, as a modern enterprise, adheres to the principles of shared responsibility for the ecosystem. Sustainable fishing and compliance with stringent industry standards are key to tuna fishing. During their lifetime, dolphins are exposed to danger, for which tunas are a favorite delicacy. According to the best, dolphin-friendly practices, tuna mining is carried out, which are found in King Oscar branded products.

Tuna – fish with character

The torpedoed body, sharp-headed with the moon, was indented by the fin. This is the tuna-predatory fish of the mackerel family that is most commonly found in tropical Atlantic and Pacific waters. The tribe includes several species from a small bonito to a giant – bluefin tuna.

Check also: Krill oil vs fish oil: which is better for you?


The best-quality yellowfin tuna was used to produce the King Oscar brand, which catches in the wild, in the waters surrounding Ecuador, Thailand and the remote island of Mauritius. Slices of tuna meat with an extremely compact consistency, immersed in the best quality, pure sunflower oil. This combination of ingredients will provide an interesting taste experience and a huge spectrum of culinary possibilities. Salads, pizza, stuffed potatoes, sandwiches, pasta, casseroles, fish pastes – you can exchange a lot of delicious dishes, which you will surely be inspired by Tuna in sunflower oil brand King Oscar. It is worth noting that the packaging of the product is equipped with a key that facilitates opening. This will improve the work in the kitchen and allow the consumption of delicious fish wherever you feel like it.

Tuna – healthy from nature

Our health depends to a large extent on the way we eat. That is why it is important to choose the right food items from which we prepare meals. King Oscar encourages the introduction of as much seafood as possible, including tuna, a treasury of valuable nutrients. It is not without significance that athletes usually reach for this fish. Tuna meat contains little fat and is the best source of complete protein, which should be regularly supplied with a meal, especially by people who care for the line. In 100 g portions of tuna in pieces in sunflower oil brand King Oscar we find 25 g of protein, containing essential amino acids and a small amount of saturated fat. In addition, tuna is rich in unsaturated fatty acids Omega 3. Their consumption may reduce the risk of memory and concentration disorders and protects the body during the increased risk of infection, especially in autumn and winter. What’s more, tuna meat is rich in vitamins B, D, E and minerals such as potassium and selenium. Vitamins B6, B 12 necessary for the formation of red blood cells are important for the functioning of nerve cells. Vitamin D improves calcium absorption, it is recommended mainly during periods of intensive growth and development. Natural oxidants – vitamin E and selenium protect the body against free radicals and support the immune system.

King Oscar is a company with a multigenerational tradition. For over 100 years, it has been offering the best quality sea food to people all over the world. From tuna in sunflower oil, which we find in a 185 gram, round package with the image of King Oscar II, King Oscar is particularly proud. So let’s check why …

Recipe for tuna baked under cheese

Ingredients \ n1 tin Tuna in oil King Oscar (fillets or pieces), drained \ n250g penne noodles \ n30 dkg cheese (choose one that easily melts) \ n1 / 2 red peppers \ n1 / 2 yellow peppers \ n1 can of green peas \ n1 can of corn \ n1 red onion \ n1 clove of garlic \ n1 teaspoon of fresh parsley or spring onion \ nSol, oregano

Preparation \ nPlease prepare pasta according to the recipe on the packaging. Drain the water. Cut paprika into thin slices. Cut the onion into cubes. Mix pasta with all vegetables and add freshly crushed or dried garlic. Add tuna in King Oscar oil and transfer to a casserole. Bake in the oven at 180 ° for 15 minutes. or in a microwave. Serving for 2 people.

King Oscar has been a recognized producer of seafood food for over 100 years. In 1902, King Oscar II granted a special permit to place his image on unique Norwegian sardines. This is how the King Oscar brand was created – a perfect combination of Norwegian tradition and the highest quality. King Oscar exports its products all over the world, including exotic destinations such as Singapore, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.