The World Health Organization (WHO) has placed red meat on the top of the list of carcinogenic substances with cigarettes and asbestos. The keyword in this report, however, is the processed expression. Yes, processed meat and ready-made dishes are not good for our health. I guess no one deludes that hot dogs or burgers from chains have more advantages than disadvantages. Even the hams liked by Poles hit this list – and we thought that only American bacon is bad. However, if we buy meat from a trusted seller who acquires them from an organic farm – in which cows are grazed on the grass – and we can make homemade steaks, hams, patties or even burgers ourselves, we can enjoy the advantages of beef without fear. The whole report refers more to chemical additives and preservatives than to meat itself.

The advantages of beef

Beef Protein

The value of beef is often assessed by color, consistency, smell and the amount of visible fat. Immediately after slaughter, the muscle tissue of bovine meat is unfit for consumption. It is hard, rubbery and above all ill-digested by the human body, and the nutritional value is low due to poor digestibility. Beef meat should mature before it can be eaten. This process takes place when the meat is stored at a temperature higher than the freezing temperature. The changes occurring at that time, both in the structure and in the properties, make the meat change its properties and is suitable for consumption as culinary meat. In 2012, the consumption of beef by one Pole amounted to approx. 2.1 kg per year, while in 2000, approx. 10.7 kg per year, as we can see it is a significant difference.

Beef meat is characterized by a high content of easily digestible protein for us. Its values ​​depend to a large extent on the amount of intramuscular connective tissue as well as race and age of the animal. The connective tissue of the animal consists mainly of collagen and less elastin. Beef meat has relatively low-fat content compared to other meat from slaughter animals. By eating 100 g of beef sirloin, we will provide 20.5 g of protein and 3.5 g of fat. It is worth mentioning that beef is a good source of vitamins A, E, cobalamin, thiamine, pyridoxine. It contains easily absorbable iron, so it is worth using them in the therapy of anemia. Beef meat is also a source of creatine. Creatine is designed to increase exercise capacity during training, so if we are very physically active, let’s introduce it to your menu.

Beef is oily?

The amount of fat in beef depends to a large extent on its type. For example, beef popular in Poland, such as brisket, contains 15.7 grams of fat in 100g, for comparison 100 grams of beef sirloin will provide 3.5 grams of fat. So we see a significant difference. In beef, we find mainly saturated fats (44%) and monounsaturated fats (46%), in a smaller amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Beyond Bone Broth

This ratio of fatty acids is not the most favorable for us, therefore it is recommended to use appropriate strategies that can improve this ratio. Such strategies involve changing the quality of fodder animals for slaughter. After the consumption of beef, we will also provide CLA, i.e. conjugated linoleic acid. It has a positive effect on human health and has an anti-carcinogenic effect. The amount of CLA in beef meat can also be increased by modifying the composition of animal feed.
Beef Liver
Beef liver – health itself

Beef liver, which is part of offal, we often treat as a slaughterhouse by-product. However, it can be a valuable resource that provides a lot of nutritional value. It contains large amounts of vitamins A and B12. Vitamin A is essential in visual processes, has antioxidant effects, promotes the ability to regenerate cells, protects the epithelium. The liver due to the high content of vitamin A is not recommended for consumption by pregnant women. The second main vitamin component of the liver, vitamin B12, is responsible for the normal state of the nervous system and erythropoiesis, i.e. the production of red blood cells. Its deficiency leads to anemia. It is worth to introduce it to your menu in case of problems with morphology.


Do you use milk thistle? Your liver will be relieved!

Milk thistle and liver 

Milk thistle is used primarily to relieve liver disease. Its seeds contain effective silymarin, which you can buy in the form of tablets also in the pharmacy. Silymarin stimulates the formation of proteins in the liver, and thus accelerates the regeneration of the so-called hepatocytes – liver cells. Thanks to this, it strengthens the natural ability of this organ to rebuild. 


Here you can find supplements supporting your health – CLICK


Milk thistle lowers the concentration of bilirubin and prevents the development of cholelithiasis. 

This plant is used as an auxiliary in liver steatosis, poisoning, and also during long-term medication. Silymarin allows to reduce the concentration of liver enzymes and relieve this organ. 

Other properties of milk thistle 

Thistle seeds also show other pro-health properties. The silymarin in them is a strong, natural antioxidant. This means that the cells of the whole organism are protected from oxidative stress and protect cells against damage caused by free oxygen radicals. This also reduces the severity of inflammation. It has also been shown that this plant is used in the treatment of psoriasis and acne. Regularly used reduces the severity of skin changes and delays the recurrence of the disease. 

Thistle seeds are extremely rich in dietary fiber. Their 100 g contains as much as 45 g of vegetable fiber (other term for fiber). As a result, this plant improves the work of the intestines and may contribute to lowering cholesterol in the blood. 

How to take milk thistle? 

The most popular form of milk thistle is tablets. However, we encourage you to put it into the diet in the form of ground or whole grains. Use a milk thistle 

in seeds as an addition to bread, 

ground as a batter or pancake ingredient, 

in seeds as a salad finish, 

ground in the form of healthy breadcrumbs, 

ground or in seeds as a component of porridge or millet. 

You will notice the beneficial effect of the milk thistle after one month of use. Only 1-2 teaspoons a day! 

Nutritional value of milk thistle 

A spoon of ground milk thistle (5 g) provides 

15 kcal, 

1.7 g of protein, 

0.6 g fat, 

0.3 g carbohydrates, 

1.3 g dietary fiber. ]

A teaspoon of milk thistle seeds (7 g) is 

19 kcal, 

1.8 g of protein, 

0.5 g fat, 

0.5 g carbohydrates, 

3.2 g dietary fiber. 


You can read also: Ensure your liver’s longevity!


Lemon juice medicine for the liver?

Excessive alcohol consumption (over 40-80 g / day for men and over 20-40 g / day for women) can cause serious liver damage. The enzymatic antioxidant barrier is formed by enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). 


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Consumption of alcohol causes the formation of large amounts of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide anion radical (O2- •), hydroxyl radical (OH •), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). They cause damage to most of the cells they come into contact with. The study looked at the effect of lemon juice on chronic alcoholic liver damage in mice. Biochemical indicators, hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triglyceride content, antioxidant enzyme activity and structural changes were assessed. What is the meaning of peroxidation? She is primarily responsible for the rest of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are part of phospholipids, which are the basic building blocks of biological membranes. Disorders of cellular metabolism can lead to permanent changes in the structure of DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids and sugars, which results in the loss of their biological functions and, subsequently, the development of disease processes. 

The results of the study showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced ALAT / ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) and AspAT / AST (Aspartate Aminotransferase), hepatic triglycerides, and liver lipid peroxidation levels. Changes in the liver have largely improved thanks to the administration of lemon juice. These findings suggest that lemon juice has the effect of reducing alcohol-induced liver damage in mice. The protective effects may be related to the antioxidant activity of lemon juice (scavenging of free radicals). In conclusion, I would add that mice were given alcohol along with 10 mL of juice per kg of body weight, so it is a small dose considering the taste of lemon. 


You can read also: Attention! These fruits are calorie bombs!


PFC – toxic substances in food packaging

The main sources of PFC in food are popcorn packaging from microwave and paper wrappers for sandwiches and fries from fast food premises.

PFC or perfluorinated organic compounds are substances often used in the production of paper food packaging, includingfries in fast food premises.PFCs have the ability to penetrate food products and accumulate in the human body.They can be very dangerous to health.It is related to, among otherswith elevated cholesterol levels, impaired thyroid function, liver damage and cancer.

PFC or perfluorinated organic compounds are substances with water, fat and stain resistant properties.They are widely used in industry and are very often used in the production of paper food packaging.PFCs have the ability to penetrate food products and accumulate in the human body, which they get into with food, but also from other sources, such as water and air.Organic fluoride compounds can be very dangerous to health.It is related to, among otherswith elevated cholesterol levels, impaired thyroid function, liver damage and cancer.


Here you can find supplements that support the process of detoxification – CLICK


What are PFCs?

PFC, i.e. perfluorinated organic compounds, is a group of chemical substances with hydrophobic and oleophobic properties, thanks to which they are resistant to water and fat and do not decompose under their influence.PFCs are used very widely in many industries.You can find them, among others:

  • in packaging resistant to fat, e.g. pizza, popcorn, French fries, burgers,
  • in cleaning and personal hygiene products,
  • in dental floss,
  • in impregnants for footwear and clothing, waterproof fabrics,
  • in stain-resistant products for furniture and carpets,
  • in teflon pans as a component of the protective surface to prevent sticking,
  • in cosmetics as an emulsifier,
  • in hydrogels applied to open wounds.

Some of the compounds belonging to PFC are considered harmful and withdrawn from use in industry, however, instead of them fluorinated substances are still produced with the same properties that are not thoroughly tested.At the beginning of 2017, the FDA approved another 20 perfluorinated organic compounds for use especially in paper food packaging.


Read also: Aluminium foil – why is it worth avoiding it?


Threats associated with the use of PFC

PFCs are very persistent compounds, which almost do not break down, get into water, air and soil, and their concentration in the environment is constantly increasing.More and more scientific research indicates their toxicity and threats to human health resulting from contact with perfluorinated compounds, which are commonly found in the blood of the examined persons, easily accumulate in tissues and are removed even after several years.PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid) are among the most studied and most commonly found

PFC penetrates the body with food through the digestive system, but also through the respiratory system and skin (eg from waterproof fabrics).They are not metabolized in the body and in the largest amounts accumulate in the liver.They are excreted only through the urinary system.Research in experimental animals suggests that the consequences of PFC exposure include liver enlargement, hepatic cell dysfunction, abnormal fat and protein metabolism, and changes in the hormone economy.It has been proven that small amounts of PFC on the order of fractions of millimoles cause a significant increase in peroxide ions with a strong oxidizing effect.

PFCs are poorly studied compounds, and the final verification of their effects on the human body requires more detailed analysis.


You can read also: PQQ and liver health


L-glutamine – a compendium of knowledge

Glutamine, is it worth using? Perhaps for many people the answer to this question is not unambiguous, that’s why this article was created. It will dispel all doubts about the appropriateness of using glutamine in body sports – bringing her advantages and action.

  1. What is glutamine?

Glutamine is an endogenous amino acid. It is formed in the body as a result of transformation from glutamic acid. Synthesis occurs in many tissues, but only the lungs, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue can release it into the blood. It is an ingredient of most vegetable and animal proteins. In the human body it accounts for about 70% of the amino acid pool.

Glutamine can occur in three forms

– L-glutamine – a free form that has been synthetically produced. Metabolism of this form is very fast. This is due to the rapid use of it by intestinal bacteria. Consequently, it positively influences the improvement of the digestive process;

– N-acetyl-L-glutamine (NAG) – the combination of glutamine with acetic acid significantly increases the absorption of this form to muscle cells. In this case, a smaller dose is enough to achieve the same result;

– glutamine peptide – is formed by the transformation of gluten obtained from wheat, therefore it can not be used by people allergic to gluten. It is slowly absorbed and thus allows long-term use of glutamine.


  1. L-glutamine effect. What gives you glutamine?

Glutamine is an energy fuel for red blood cells of the intestinal mucosa, liver cells and lymphocytes (immune cells). It prevents the disappearance of intestinal villi, prevents the passage of bacteria. It strengthens the immune system by biosynthesis of immune bodies and macrophages. In addition, it regulates the acid-base balance. Glutamine is found in large amounts in the brain. It improves his work and improves concentration and memory. It also helps to increase the concentration of growth hormone in the blood, which participates in the synthesis processes taking place in the body. What’s more, it helps in burning fat. This is related to the regulation of the level of insulin and glucose in the blood, which is especially important for diabetics.

Among scientists, opinions about glutamine are divided. Researchers at the University of Oxford have shown that glutamine given to marathon runners immediately after the run and again 2 hours later reduces the risk of infection and regulates the activity of immune cells. Only 19% of people consuming glutamine supplements fell ill during the week of running. While in the group of people taking placebo, 51% got sick. Parry-Bollings et al. Believe that glutamine supplements can reduce the risk of infection and promote the growth of muscle mass. Other studies have not confirmed the effect of glutamine on muscle growth.

An experiment was carried out in which strength training people participated. They were divided into two groups – one consuming supplements with glutamine, the other taking placebo. After six weeks, the same muscle mass gain was observed in both groups. However, manufacturers of dietary supplements with glutamine argue that glutamine has an effect on the growth of muscle tissue. It works by saving protein in the body during intense physical exercise. It hydrates the muscles and increases the volume of muscle cells. It reduces the activity of enzymes that lead to the breakdown of muscle proteins and inhibits the activity of stress hormones, including cortisol, the concentration of which increases after intensive training. Hammarqvist et al. Conducted a study in which they examined the effect of glutamine on muscle condition in patients after abdominal surgery.Twenty-two patients took part in the study, 13 of whom received a placebo and 9 of a glutamine supplement. In patients receiving glutamine, significantly lower loss of this amino acid in skeletal muscle, better protein metabolism and increased nitrogen balance were observed.


Glutamine and burns

Glutamine is crucial when it comes to burns. Burn is tissue damage due to high temperature or chemical substances. Most of them are minor burns requiring emergency relief. The problem is burns covering a minimum of 20% of the body surface, known as heavy. In this case, comprehensive treatment is required. Glutamine stimulates the immune system, reduces the number of infectious complications, shortens treatment time and reduces the mortality rate. During burns, intestinal mucosa, kidneys, immune system and liver need significant amounts of glutamine. This demand can not be met by releasing the amino acid from skeletal muscle. Therefore, the European Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommends supplementation of glutamine in people with burns.Garrel and Zhou in their studies showed a beneficial effect of glutamine on wound healing and shortening the duration of treatment. The positive effect of glutamine on burns has also confirmed the thorough analysis of all published data on this topic by Windle.


Glutamine and the intestines

More and more is being said about the so-called leaky intestinal syndrome. It is an autoimmune disease that contributes to the development of many other diseases, such as thyroid disease – Hashimoto, arthritis or skin problems.

Glutamine as a source of energy for intestinal cells may have particular significance in its inflammatory diseases. It reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, which arises due to the appearance of a leak in the intestinal walls. Van der Hulst et al. In their research proved that glutamine supplementation increases the intestinal integrity in people after surgical trauma. In addition, it has a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric ulcer. It provides cells of the mucous membrane of the stomach with energy and contributes to their better blood supply through the dilation of blood vessels. Better blood supply to the gastric mucosa positively affects the healing of inflammatory changes.


  1. Glutamine for an athlete

The interest of glutamine among athletes is due to its anabolic properties against skeletal muscles. This amino acid can be transformed into asparagine, arginine and lysine, which are necessary for the construction of collagen proteins. In addition, the administration of glutamine leads to an increase in the proline and hydroxyproline concentrations necessary for these processes.

Glutamine is involved in the synthesis of muscle proteins and supports the removal of ammonia from the body. The anabolic effect (effect on the increase of muscle mass) is associated with the secretion of growth hormone.

Glutamine is also an extremely important factor in maintaining the intra-cardinal balance, as it regulates body temperature, pH, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide and the volume of body fluids.

Glutathione is formed from glutamine. It is a basic antioxidant. Physical activity is associated with an increased level of oxidative stress. Hence the necessity of including antioxidant components that fight free radicals and thus eliminate the problem.

The effect of glutamine on the level of sugar in the blood is also beneficial. Thanks to this, the energy supply to the muscles is constant. Glutamine affects the recovery of glycogen stores in the muscles. The carbohydrate reserve accumulated in this form allows you to increase endurance and prolong the possibility of physical exertion.

In addition to supporting muscle building, glutamine inhibits the breakdown of muscle fibers. Playing sports involves the formation of microdamages of muscle fibers. Glutamine limits this process and allows for faster regeneration.

Physical exercise with a low or moderate degree does not significantly reduce the level of this amino acid. However, very intense and long-lasting activity reduces the synthesis and uptake of glutamine in the body

Particularly recommended is the supplementation of this ingredient in endurance sports (marathon runners, long-distance cyclists). In this case, the process of energy production in the body and the production of neurotransmitters are disrupted.


  1. Dosage of L-glutamine

Glutamine is a relatively endogenous amino acid. It means that the body has the ability to synthesize it from glutamic acid and ammonia. However, in some physiological states, the demand for it increases significantly. In order to prevent shortages it is necessary to supply it with additional supply from the outside. During intense training, stress, injuries, burns, major operations, intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy, its amount in the blood and in the muscles is reduced. This leads to the weakening of the immune system and increases the susceptibility to various infections. Additional supplementation of glutamine can bring beneficial effects.

Many studies have confirmed that glutamine supplementation in situations of chronic stress, certain disease states and during intense workouts is critical to improving health.

There is no specific daily dose of glutamine. The daily requirement of an active person is 0.8-1.2 g per 10 kg body weight. In the case of bodybuilders, this amount may increase to 2 g per 10 kg of body weight. The recommended dose of glutamine is 5-15 g / day. It is best to eat glutamine in the morning on an empty stomach, immediately after training or at bedtime. In patients with burns it is recommended to ingest 0.3 g of glutamine per kg of body weight per day for a minimum of 5 days from the burn. Studies have shown that a six-week dose of 30 g per day improves some cardiovascular risk factors and body composition in people with type 2 diabetes. It should be remembered that glutamine can also be included in protein supplements.


  1. Side effects

To date, no side effects associated with the use of glutamine have been reported. The administration of exogenous glutamine is safe and can be beneficial in many situations, for example chemotherapy and exposure to radiation.

In the case of diabetic patients, the use of glutamine is not recommended. During its metabolism in the liver a large part is converted to glucose. People suffering from epilepsy, allergy to monosodium glutamate, and liver disease should also not supplement this component.


  1. Summary

Glutamine has a number of positive properties on the human body. It is an energy source for lymphocytes, thanks to which it strengthens the body’s immunity. It thus improves overall health. It works great during prolonged stress and intense workouts. It is also important for the condition of the digestive tract, and as you know, health begins in the intestines.



Albrecht J. et al., Roles of glutamine in neurotransmission, “Neuron Glia Biology” 2010, 6 (4), 263-276.

Bean A., Nutrition in sport. A complete guide, Poznañ 2013, 116-117.

Boelens PG et al., Glutamine alimentation in catabolic state, The Journal of Nutrition 2001, 131 (9), 25695-25775S.

Ciborowska H, ??Rudnicka A, Dietetics. Nutrition of a healthy and sick person, Warsaw 2010, 99.

Ciok J., Nutrition in the pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, “Nowa Medycyna” 1999, 10.

Greenfield JR et al., Oral glutamine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects, “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition” 2009, 89 (1), 106- 113.

Jarosz M., Bu³hak-Jachymczyk B., Norms of human nutrition, Warsaw 2014, 62.

Mansour A. et al., Effect of glutamine supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes, “Nutrition” 2015, 31 (1), 119-126.

Payne A., Barker HM, Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Wroc³aw 2017, 137.

Parry-Billings M. et al., Plasma amino acid concentrations in overtraining syndrome, possible effects on the immune system, “Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise” 1992, 24 (12), 1353-1358.

Rapin JR, Wiernsperger N., Possible Links between Intestinal Permeability and Food Processing and Potential Therapeutic Niche for Glutamine, “Clinics” 2010, 65 (6), 635-643.

Rowicka G., Czajka M., The importance of diet in the prevention and treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, “Medycyna Rodzinna” 2011, 1, 15-18.

Skrzyñska S., Food intervention in patients with severe burns, “Wspó³czesna Dietetyka” 2016, 8.

Welbourne TC, Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995, 61 (5), 1058-1061.

Iwaniak P. et al., Nutritional factors in the diet of pregnant women and their significance for the proper development of their offspring, Trends in human nutrition, edited by Karwowska M., Gustawa W., Kraków 2015, 73-80.

Paw³owska M., Effect of L-alanyl-L-glutamine on the structure and mineralization of femoral piglets, “Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Medicina Veterinaria” 2007, 6 (1), 21-30.

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How to take care over liver?

The liver is a multitasking gland located under the lower part of the chest on the right side of the body. We rarely think about the liver as an important element of our digestive system. Meanwhile, virtually everything we eat goes through the liver.

The liver has many functions, including cleaning the blood of harmful substances produced by the body, produces a tidal flow called bile, which helps us digest fats, and also stores carbohydrates in the form of glycogen.

The liver is for us an indispensable body that requires care and treatment in order to maintain health and proper functioning. On the one hand, it is an organ quite easily attacked by a number of diseases such as cirrhosis and fatty liver. On the other hand, it is an extremely resistant organ, and even if two thirds of its surface is destroyed it will continue to work.

In view of the above, people very often do not realize that their liver condition is bad and requires treatment. Often, long years of functioning with increasing cirrhosis or fatty liver, while the early detection of abnormalities is the most important part of effective treatment.

In today’s article you will learn how the abnormal functioning of the liver manifests itself.

Although the only reliable way to check the health of the liver is proper research, it is worth learning how to recognize and properly read the signals that this organ sends in situations where it is overloaded with work.

  1. Digestive problems

Vomiting, nausea, unexpectedly occurring motion sickness or abdominal pain may be indicative of an early phase of liver damage. Especially if you additionally observe migraines, dizziness and depression. The above mentioned symptoms may indicate that the liver is unable to effectively remove toxins from the body.

In addition, as a result of dysfunction, the liver is unable to produce the right amount of bile. This in turn leads to increased fat intolerance in the diet, which can be manifested by diarrhea, bloating in the lower abdomen, symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

One of the most pronounced symptoms indicating a severe liver condition is bleeding from the intestines.

  1. Changed color of urine and / or faeces

In the case of urine, all colors from light orange to dark brown may indicate a high concentration of bilirubin in the blood, which is a frequent product of catabolic processes in the body. The liver is responsible for the removal of bilirubin. Changes in the color of the urine may indicate liver dysfunction.

Deficiency / lack of bile can also lead to changes in the color of feces. It then turns gray, pale yellow or even clayey. If we observe such symptoms for more than a few days, we should arrange an appointment with a doctor.

  1. Lack of appetite and sudden weight loss

When bile shortages due to abnormal liver function, digestion becomes cumbersome. The food consumed is not completely and properly digested. The body is then burdened. We observe a continuous loss of appetite and weight loss.

  1. Water retention

Damaged liver contributes to the collection of fluid in the abdomen.

In addition, many diseases in the early stages contribute to liver dysfunction and fluid retention. Often swellings are visible on the feet and ankles.

This happens, inter alia, in lymphatic disease, in kidney diseases, hormonal disorders.

  1. Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes

This disease is manifested by yellowing of the whites of the eyes, fingertips, tongue and skin. Most often it is associated with an increased level of bilirubin in the blood. However, it may be associated with the development of other diseases affecting the pancreas or gallbladder.

  1. Itchy skin

Another of the symptoms of liver damage is the increased sensitivity of the skin. Strongly itchy skin lasting a few days and lack of visible improvement may indicate liver problems. Especially if at the same time we observe the formation of inexplicable bruises on the skin, redness of the skin.

  1. The feeling of constant fatigue

The feeling of constant fatigue, drowsiness is another symptom of liver damage. The body loses strength trying to repair the liver’s disability.

Despite the feeling of tiredness and lack of strength, we may have sleep problems. We can not fall asleep or wake up in the night several times.

  1. General breakdown

Lack of willingness to take any activities and bad mood are non-specific symptoms and can be associated with many problems. Nevertheless, it is worth paying attention to them.

In some cases, menstrual disorders, problems with libido, gynecomastia, and loss of pubic and axillary hair also appear.

In conclusion, if you are following at least two of the symptoms listed above, you should go to the doctor to find the reason for this. In addition to paying attention to the symptoms listed above, the liver should be examined from time to time to check if it functions properly.