FODMAP diet helpful in irritable bowel syndrome

FODMAP is a diet developed by a research team from Monash University, which allows you to function normally with people with irritable bowel syndrome and excessive growth of bacterial flora in the small intestine in other disease entities.See the principles of FODMAP diet – the list of prohibited products and an example menu.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of the many diseases of the digestive tract characterized by bacterial growth, which in this case affects the jejunum with microflora living in the large intestine.Symptoms are burdensome and include diarrhea digestive disorders, alternating constipation, bloating, abdominal pain and impaired absorption of food.This disease is difficult to diagnose and treat and may lead to serious nutritional deficiencies and bowel dysfunction.  FODMAP is a way of feeding that improves the comfort of gut and patients’ life.

What is the FODMAP diet?

FODMAP is a diet developed by a research team from Monash University – Professor Peter Gibson, director of Gastroenterology, The Alfred Hospital and Monash University, and Dr. Jane Muir – which allows normal functioning for people with sensitive bowel syndrome and excessive bacterial flora in other disease entities.The diet assumes a very low intake of products containing fructose, lactose, fructans, polyhydric alcohols and artificial sweeteners, which not only are easily fermented, but also by the osmotic properties increase the amount of water in the intestinal lumen.These substances ferment under the influence of bacteria that live there, which in turn causes increased production of carbon dioxide and methane, which in turn leads to flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhea.


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The name FODMAP is a compilation of the first letters of the words Fermentable Oligosacharides, Disacharides, Monosacharides And Polyols.They are compounds that in unchanged form migrate to the large intestine and become a breeding ground for bacteria, carrying out their rapid fermentation and giving symptoms of IBS. In people who suffer from sugar intolerance, as well as SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth), the fermentation takes place in the small intestine with the participation of bacteria that normally live in the large intestine.Such pathological phenomena disturb the proper digestion of nutrients, but also cause their impaired absorption and gradual damage to the lining of the intestines.This leads to symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

SIBO is increasingly associated with the occurrence of IBS – studies show that bacterial overgrowth often occurs in patients with irritable bowel.In many studies and tests, it was observed that the elimination of foods containing large amounts of the aforementioned substances brings about 75% improvement in well-being.people with IBS.

FODMAP diet rules

The FODMAP diet consists of two phases.The first one lasts about 6-8 weeks and consists in avoiding products rich in FODMAP (depending on the state of health and individual tolerance, you can afford a small amount of such products in this phase).The second phase is much longer and depends on the reaction of the person to the products introduced back into the diet.New foods should be introduced one by one, once every few days, observing the reaction (which may be caused by substances other than FODMAP found in a given food).You should not prolong the use of the diet, because the elimination of many vegetables and fruits can lead to shortages of fiber, vitamins and minerals.You can return to the first phase whenever you feel an exacerbation of unpleasant symptoms.


Read also: Macrobiotic diet


Where are FODMAP located?List of prohibited products

Below is a list of food products that are prohibited in the first phase of the FODMAP diet.It is often updated at http // / fodmap-diet / fodmap-food-list /.

Although some FODMAPs are allowed in the table, the components present in them that provoke IBS should always be taken into account.It is an insoluble fiber, a large amount of fat, acids such as fruit and caffeine.The effect and mode of action of the diet will depend on the intestinal disease unit and on the individual tolerance.

High FODMAP products are those that should be avoided, or at least – to limit their consumption.The list includes products of various origins, including a large number of vegetables and fruits, as well as cereal and dairy products.

Vegetables garlic, onions, artichokes, Jerusalem artichokes, asparagus, avocado, beans, beetroot, Brussels sprouts, broad beans, cauliflower, peas, dill, green peppers, lentils, leek, peas, soy, spring onions (white part).

Fruit apples, peaches, apricots, blackberries, cherries, lychees, nectarines, pears, plums (also dried), watermelon.

Cereal products products containing wheat and rye, including bread, pasta, flour, cereals, bran, cereals, cakes, biscuits, biscuits, crackers, biscuits, tortillas.

Sweets and sweeteners fructose, glucose-fructose syrup, honey, isomalt, sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, xylitol.

Milk products cow’s and goat milk, yoghurts, cottage cheese, cream, ice-cream.

Beverages beverages sweetened with glucose-fructose syrup, beverages sweetened with fructose, beverages sweetened with other sweeteners mentioned above, high FODMAP fruit juices, beer, sweet wines.

Prebiotics FOS, fructooligosaccharides, inulin, oligofructose.


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FODMAP diet – practical tips

Before buying, read the product composition carefully so that you do not buy those rich in FODMAP. Dairy products are valuable for health – if you do not have allergies to milk proteins, choose those that are low in lactose (eg low lactose dairy products, yellow cheeses) and divide them into all meals throughout the day.To avoid constipation, you should choose products rich in fiber, and poor in FODMAP – such as porridge, and drink plenty of water.

FODMAP will not alleviate the symptoms of intestinal diseases for everyone.Always in the case of weight loss, diarrhea, bloating, constipation, deeper diagnostics are necessary to avoid harm.Particular attention must be paid to people with celiac disease.Not all of the products listed below are safe for them.Before purchasing, check the food labels (pulls below).

FODMAP diet – an example menu

breakfast 454 kcal

Sandwiches from gluten-free bread with hard cheese and tomato sprinkled with sprouts, orange juice.Ingredients 2 slices of gluten-free bread, each 40 g, two slices of cheese, about 40 g, slices of tomato 60 g, juice 200 ml, freshly squeezed.


II breakfast 173 kcal

Chocolate and banana mousse.Ingredients natural yogurt without lactose – 150 g (half a glass), banana 120 g, 3 tablespoons of cocoa without sugar. Mix all ingredients.


Lunch 450 kcal

Grilled fish with potato, carrot and salad with vinaigrette.Preparation of 100 g of white skinless fish should be rubbed with spices, drizzle with olive oil and lemon juice, and grilled like potato and sliced ​​carrot.Eat salad with sprinkled lemon juice, olive oil, sprinkled with fresh herbs.


Afternoon tea 160 kcal

Fruit salad made of kiwi, two mandarins and half banana slices.The whole is drizzled with orange juice.


 Supper 304 kcal

Pepper stuffed with tomatoes.Ingredients: large green pepper 230 g, turkey breast 80 g, brown rice 30 g (2 tablespoons), chopped spinach leaves (handful), a pinch of oregano and thyme, 5 g (spoon) olive oil, 3 g parsley, pepper, canned tomatoes 240 g (1 cup).Preparation Clean the inside of the pepper after detaching the heel, fill it with stuffing of minced meat, spinach, herbs and spices;put into a pot, pour 2 tablespoons of water and simmer about 20 minutes.Put into a casserole.Stew tomatoes in a can, sprinkle with basil, put on top of peppers, bake 5 minutes at 250 degrees C. Sprinkle with parmesan cheese.


What products to avoid in the FODMAP diet – a handbag list

Excess fructose honey, apples, mango, pear, watermelon, high-fructose corn syrup and food products containing it.

Fructans artichokes, garlic (in large quantities), leek, onion, spring onion (white part), shallots, wheat (in large quantities), rye (in large quantities), barley (in large quantities), inulin, fructooligosaccharides, oligosaccharides.

Lactose milk, ice cream, cream, biscuits, biscuits, milk desserts, condensed milk, powdered milk, yogurt, soft cheeses (eg ricotta, marscarpone), cream.

Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) beans, lentils, chickpeas.

Polyols apples, apricots, avocados, cherries, nectarines, pears, plums, mushrooms, sorbitol (420), mannitol (421), xylitol (967), maltitol (965) and isomalt (953).



FODMAP and irritable bowel syndrome

Persecute abdominal pain persecutes you? Are your intestines crazy? You have terrible flatulence with which you can not cope, because they appear even after healthy products? Friends are looking with interest on your stomach, and you know what they mean on the head \ pregnancy, probably exaggerating with beers \. None of these things. Maybe this is irritable bowel syndrome?


IBS – what disease is it and how to fight it?


IBS – irritable bowel syndrome, i.e. irritable or hypersensitive bowel syndrome, is a chronic intestinal disease manifested by abdominal pain and discomfort resulting from the feeling of intestinal overflow, bloating, nausea, constipation or diarrhea.

IBS more often affects the beautiful sex. About 10% of the adult population suffers from it. This common condition greatly worsens the quality of life, therefore it is extremely important to do everything possible to improve your well-being.

The diagnosis of IBS is extremely difficult because the symptoms coincide with the clinical symptoms of other diseases. If you suspect that you may be in 10% of people who have Irritable Bowel Syndrome, be sure to consult your concerns with your doctor and dietitian. After diagnosing the disease, they will suggest what should be done to relieve the symptoms of IBS, because, according to the current state of knowledge, complete cure of IBS is not possible, but symptomatic treatment gives very good results.


What is FODMAP?


FODMAP is an abbreviation (fermentableoligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) which, when translated into Polish, means easily fermenting oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols. FODMAP are carbohydrates and polyols that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and then quickly fermented in the small or large intestine. FODMAP which you probably know is fructose, lactose, fructans and polyhydric alcohols (i.e., sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol), they can exacerbate IBS symptoms, therefore a low-intake diet is effective.

Why do products containing large amounts of FODMAP cause IBS aggravation?


Products abundant in FODMAP pass unchanged from food intestines and through their osmotic effects cause the accumulation of liquids in its light, which for the susceptible people manifests itself in the stomach. The food then passes into the large intestine, where it undergoes bacterial fermentation resulting in the formation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen, followed by hydrogen sulphide and methane. These gases along with the accelerated intestinal motility lead to a feeling of great discomfort. Diarrhea, constipation, bloating, gases and pain in the abdominal cavity are typical symptoms that are not easy to remedy, and people who at least once experienced them in their lives know how severely they can impede functioning.

The first step towards happy intestines


You already know what IBS and FODMAP are. In the next article I will delve into the subject of low FODMAP diet. Here, on the other hand, I would like to move other important elements of the lifestyle that will ease the symptoms of this disease.


  1. Physical activity – it is important to choose sports that you enjoy doing. Physical activity is aimed at the release of endorphins, improvement of well-being, and at the same time will have a positive effect on the condition, nervous system and blood circulation


  1. Relax – IBS is often a stressful lifestyle, so it’s important to look after your body holistically. In addition to diet and sport, you must take care of your state of mind. Relaxation techniques, currently popular fitnessbody & mind classes (yoga, pilates, tai-chi) that allow you to cut yourself off from everyday problems give fantastic results. A calm mind will calm the intestines, which is the best reward for people with IBS.

Low FODMAP diet – elimination phase

FODMAP diet – very fashionable, but above all helpful for people with irritable bowel syndrome. Who is it recommended for? What should be avoided during the elimination phase and what is the phase at all? You will find the answer in the following article for these and many other questions. I invite you to read.


For who low FODMAP diet?


This diet can be extremely helpful for people diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. The benefits of its use can also be applied to athletes who suffer from gastrointestinal discomforts or training in sports competitions, but this is a topic for a separate article. Symptoms of IBS often coincide with the symptoms of other more serious diseases such as gut cancer, so before the doctor diagnoses IBS must first rule out all other diseases. Only then can you work towards reducing the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and here the low FODMAP diet comes in for help.


The FODMAP dietary phases


The low FODMAP diet consists of 3 stages. The first is the phase of elimination, the second reintroduction, the third is the implementation of acquired knowledge in life, i.e. planning the menu so that the intestines are “happy and calm”. Each of the stages requires a detailed discussion, which is why in this article I would like to discuss the subject of Phase I. In the following I will discuss the next stages of the diet.


Phase I – elimination of high FODMAP products

It is a rest time for the intestines. For 4-8 weeks (because this is how long this phase lasts) you should exclude from the diet all products that may potentially increase the symptoms of IBS. Thanks to this, the intestines as well as the mind relax. People with IBS at the time feel much better. They leave the fear of ailments that usually meet them after eating a meal. This time is the preparation for Phase II, where high FODMAP products are introduced in turn.

During the first phase of the diet you need to eliminate a number of products, which is a high risk of food deficiency. That is why it is extremely important to follow it under the supervision of a nutritionist. Thanks to this, the risk of possible deficiencies of vitamins or minerals will be reduced to a minimum.

Like any elimination diet phase FODMAP diet can not be permanent. It should last four weeks. If the improvement of well-being does not occur, i.e. intestinal problems will continue, it should be extended to 8 weeks, but not longer.

What should be avoided?

In the low FODMAP diet you should avoid products that contain large amounts of monosaccharides (fructose), disaccharides (lactose), oligosaccharides (fructans, fructooligosaccharides, i.e. FOS and galactooligosaccharides, i.e. GOS), and polyols.

What foods can we find large amounts of these ingredients in? For simplicity, I will save them using the division into food groups.




Milk products

– yogurt, kefir, buttermilk, cow’s and goat’s milk, cream, ice cream, cottage cheese, mascarpone cheese and ricotta


– very ripe bananas, dates, mangoes, nectarines, peaches, watermelons, apricots, plums, figs, apples, pears, papaya, cherries, cherries, most dried fruits, canned fruits

Grain products

– wheat bread, rye bread, mixed bread;

– wheat flour, rye flour, barley;

– flakes of wheat, rye, barley, instant oats, granola;

– wheat and spelled pasta;

– pearl barley, barley, couscous;

– cereal bars, cereal biscuits, flavored rice wafers


– lentils above 1/4 cup, chickpeas, beans, peas, soy


– cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, kale, mushrooms, asparagus, onions, garlic, green peas, sweetcorn, beets, sugar snap peas, leek, chicory, brussels sprouts

Nuts and seeds

– cashews, pistachios, almond flour, tahini,

– pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds (more than one handful per meal)


– tea / coffee with milk with lactose or soy, strong tea, fennel tea, apple juice, orange juice, tropical fruit juice, coconut water, rum

– soy vegetable oatmeal, coconut milk UHT


– honey, agave syrup, birch sugar or xylitol, all sweeteners and food products containing in its composition sorbitol, maltitol, mannitol, sweetened alcohols (the packaging usually lacks information about the sweetener so it is better not to risk), glucose-fructose syrup (we find it’s mostly sweet and sugary drinks – you should read labels and it’s best not to buy highly processed foods).


What’s next?

You already know what to avoid in your menu to improve your well-being and comfort of life. I realize that these products are not enough, the more it is worth to consult a dietitian in order to choose a well-balanced diet. In the next article, I will present a list of safe products, which are worth reaching in the elimination phase. Low FODMAP diet is very extensive and to start the elimination phase, you should prepare yourself well by getting the right knowledge and supplying the fridge. Therefore, I invite you to read the next article remaining in this subject next week.


Low FODMAP diet – what to eat and in what quantities?

In the last article I wrote about what should be avoided by using the FODMAP diet to relieve the symptoms of IBS. You probably wonder what products will be safe for the intestines and should be included in your diet? The elimination phase of the low FODMAP diet is not easy, but thanks to this article I hope that it will not be difficult for you.

Food recommended in the low FODMAP diet by groups of food products


Milk products

– lactose-free products – milk, yogurt, cheese

– yellow cheese, camembert, brie, parmesan, feta, mozzarella, cottage cheese


– oranges, mandarins, grapes, kiwi, lemons, limes, pineapple, strawberries, green bananas (max. average art), raspberries (max. 90g), blueberries and blueberries (max. 60g), ripe bananas (yellow ones with black dots) max.1 / 4 of the average piece)

Grain products

– gluten-free bread without wheat, wholemeal wheat bread, spelled leavened bread (max.3 slices), millet wafers, corn and rice wafers (max 4 pieces)

– buckwheat, millet, maize, potato, rice, and spelled flour

– buckwheat groats not roasted (max.27g boiled), millet, maize

– white, brown, wild, red, basmati, quinoa rice

– gluten-free pasta without wheat, corn, buckwheat, cooked wheat noodles (max. 74g)

– mountain oatmeal (max.50g), rice


– chickpeas (max.2 tablespoons boiled), lentils from a can (max.1 / 2 cup well washed) or boiled (max.23g)

– tofu, tempeh

Meat and eggs

– beef, pork, chicken, turkey, lamb, fish and molluscs

– eggs


– cucumber, squash, eggplant, radishes, red pepper, chard, cherry tomatoes (max.200g), fresh tomatoes (max.250g),

– root celery, carrot, parsley, parsnip, pumpkin, potatoes

– spinach, kale, chives, lettuce, okra, arugula, chicory, seaweed

– Chinese cabbage, white and red cabbage (max.140g)

– zucchini (max.70g), green pepper (max.100g), turnip (max.100g), green beans (max.120g), cherry tomatoes

– beetroot (max.20g), avocado (max.20g), broccoli (max.47g), maize (max.1 / 2 flasks)

Nuts, seeds and seeds

– peanuts, macadamia, pecans, brazilian, Italian, pine, almonds (max.10 items), hazelnuts (max.15g)

– peanut butter, coconut flakes (max 18 g), almond flour (max.24g)

– poppy seeds, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds, chia beverages

– water, green tea, white, mint, weak black, coffee

– soy beverage from soy protein, rice, almond, hemp, canned coconut milk

– cranberry juice, tomato juice, vegetable juices (without vegetables that are prohibited)


– maple syrup, sugar, aspartame, saccharin, stevia powder

– dark chocolate (max. 90g)

Moderation and variety

Moderately in the hypersensitive bowel syndrome is even more important than in a healthy person. When using a diet based on products with a low amount of fructose, lactose or other disturbing intestinal calm components, it is important that even those potentially safe should not eat in excess. Consuming too much low FODMAP product in one meal it is easy to exceed the safe FODMAP limit.

Another important rule of the diet is a variety. A colorful, medium-sized plate, containing various types of vegetables, some cereal products, healthy fats and the addition of a source of protein will guarantee comfort after a meal and a slender waist.

The skill of preparing dishes is also important in ZJD. Cooking in water, steaming, stewing without the addition of fat or burning in the sleeve will make the dishes easily digestible which is crucial in all diseases of the digestive organs.


Monitoring the body’s response

Compliance with the rules of the elimination phase is a big step, but not the last. In addition to planning a menu so that it is poor in mono-, di- and oligosaccharides and polyols, you should monitor the reactions of your body. The best solution is to keep a diary in which, in addition to the menu, there will be room to save your mood after each meal. In this way, catching component or quantitative errors or combining gastrointestinal symptoms with stressors will be child’s play.

What if IBS still does not give up?

After 8 weeks of elimination phase, they still go crazy? Despite the efforts made and the strict adherence to the menu excluding products rich in fructose, lactose, polyols and other FODMAP relief is you unfamiliar? It is possible that IBS was a misdiagnosis. As you already know, these ailments can be the cause of other diseases. Richer with the experience of using the low FODMAP diet, you must focus on in-depth research and diagnosis towards other diseases. Remember that health is the greatest value in life, so let’s do it!


Low FODMAP diet – reintroduction

Are you after 4-8 weeks of the elimination phase of the low FODMAP diet? Intestinal discomfort that you have previously been sleeping with your eyelids stopped? In that case, the time has finally come to extend the diet, and how to do it you will learn from our article.


Reintroduction – what is it?

Reintoduction is the time after the elimination phase in which products with a large amount of FODMAP are introduced. The purpose of this action is to check the body’s response, and thus tolerance to specific FODMAP. This phase lasts an average of 10 weeks, a good weekday for every product that contains the given FODMAP. For testing at this time is fructose, sorbitol, mannitol, lactose (unless you are on a plant diet then you can omit it), two types of cereal products containing fructans, two types of vegetables also abundant in fructans, fructans from fruits and GOS (galacto-oligosaccharides) .


Why expand your diet?

Phase I diet low FODMAP, which is the elimination diet time, is a transitional period. The diet excluding a large group of food products is fraught with food shortage, so it can not be used for more than 8 weeks. In addition, thanks to reintroduction, people suffering from irritable bowel syndrome find out what heightens their unpleasant IBS symptoms and their menu and health gains a lot.


What can I expect?

On the one hand, it is a long-awaited time, because finally you can return to the forbidden food elimination time. On the other hand, we do not know how the body reacts. It may turn out that the product causes intestinal rebellion and the return of the hated and already slightly forgotten symptoms of IBS. Then you should return for a few days to the elimination phase before testing the next FODMAP. Let’s not be bad, though. It may turn out that a given group of products does not irritate the intestines and soon after reintroduction, it can be permanently included in the menu.

Eat, record and control

This is an interesting but demanding time. In order to get to know your body as well as possible, you should keep a diary where, in addition to the menu, there are observations of the intestinal reaction to a given product. Such notes will allow to detect any nuances that may be crucial in further dietary treatment.


Re-introduction step by step

  1. To properly check the organism’s tolerance on a given FODMAP, eg fructose, a product should be introduced that contains only this one type of FODMAP. This means that good honey for the fructose test will be for example honey because it does not contain other FODMAPs, e.g. lactose or sorbitol. An apple is a bad “tester” because it contains fructose and sorbitol, which could mislead you.
  2. Each FODMAP should be entered separately so that the observations are not falsified. First a product rich in fructose, then sorbitol, then mannitol, etc.
  3. Each FODMAP should be tested for one week using three provocations at that time and four days of the elimination phase. The first – a small amount of eg a teaspoon of honey (fructose), the second – the average amount of eg 2 teaspoons of honey and the third – a large amount of eg 3 teaspoons each day for a different meal). Three days of provocation can be set to follow each other. If the intestines are not “crazed” it means that most likely the FODMAP is safe for you. However, if the IBS symptoms have worsened, stop the challenge and return to the elimination phase and start testing another FODMAP from Monday.
  4. Remember that after every three provocations given FODMAP use 2-3 days of strict diet according to the rules of the elimination phase. This is the time necessary to mute the body and prepare for a new type of FODMAP. If the last FODMAP exacerbated the symptoms of IBS, extend the elimination phase by further days so that before your next attempt your body had a minimum of 2 days of calm, i.e. a condition without IBS symptoms.
  5. No matter if you have already served FODMAP or not, DO NOT go to the end of the reintroduction phase. This could distort further observations. Relax, you’ll bounce back later)
  6. Do not eat too large FODMAP portions. In practice, this means that you should not eat more product than you would do every day. Have you never eaten more than a tablespoon of honey at once? In this case, do not exceed this portion during the test.


I hope that thanks to the above instructions, the implementation of the second phase of the low FODMAPw life diet will be easier for you. Remember not to be discouraged and be patient. The low FODMAP diet is not a lifelong diet. It is a tool helpful in detecting products that harm your body, which translates into a better life comfort in the future.