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Healthcare

How are acid (quark) and rennet cheese made?

Cheese is one of the oldest food products made by man.

Its beginnings are connected with the beginning of domestication and breeding of animals. Legends say that the first cheese was made from curdled milk by Mesopotamian shepherds about 10,000 years ago, and the first proof of the production phase of the cheese is the Sumerian bas-relief created 3000 years BC 

There are many legends and stories about the creation and discovery of further technologies and ways of cheese production. The cheeses are made from cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, buffalo milk, camel milk and reindeer milk. Depending on the type of milk, the technological processes used in the production of cheese differ in appearance, taste, smell, consistency and culinary use. So how are the most popular acid and rennet cheeses obtained and what are the rules and technological processes used during their production? 

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Classification of cheeses 

Cheese can be divided according to the following criteria 

• due to raw material used (milk) 

– cow’s milk cheeses, eg Edam, Gouda, Parmesan 

– sheep’s milk cheeses, eg oscypek, bryndza, Roquefort 

– goat’s milk cheeses, eg Fromage de Chevre 

• due to production technology 

– acid cheeses, eg cottage cheese 

– acid-rennet cheeses, eg rural and homogenized cheese 

– rennet cheese, e.g. Brie, Cheddar, Gouda 

– raspberry cheese, e.g. Ricotta 

• due to the texture and type of skin 

– fresh cheese, eg feta, curd, Ricotta 

– soft cheeses, eg Brie, Camembert, bryndza 

– hard cheeses, eg Parmesan 

– cheese, e.g. Munster 

– semi-hard cheeses, eg Gouda, Cheddar 

– blue cheese, for example, Brie, Roquefort 

• due to the period of puberty 

– ripening cheese (blue cheese and so-called yellow cheese) 

– unripened cheese (curd cheese and fresh cheese) 

What determines the variety of types and types of cheese? 

The variety of cheeses depends, among other things, on the type and quality of milk used, the technological processing of milk, curds and cheese, maturation conditions and microflora. 

How are acid cheeses formed? – curd production technology 

Acid cheeses are those in which a curd is naturally formed by the action of lactic acid bacteria. The most well-known representatives of acid cheeses include cottage cheese (fat, semi-fat and skinny curd can be distinguished). The history of its production dates back to 8000 BC, and to this day its popularity is still growing. 

The first stage in the production of curd is pasteurization of milk, and then it is cooled to the temperature of inoculation. Vaccinating is the addition of bacteria that cause the milk to acidify to a pH of 4.5. Sour milk is formed after 8 hours from acidified milk. However, the most aromatic curd may be obtained after about 17 hours of clot formation. Attention should also be paid to the amount of fat in milk. The more it is, the softer and more creamy the end product will be. 

The next step is forming a clot – cutting it into equal cubes and heating. The heated clot shrinks, resulting in grain and whey. Grain is poured into molds, where it drips and is pressed, which ultimately gives shape to the curd. This is how the cheese is packaged ready for distribution. 

How are the acid-rennet cheeses produced? 

Acid-rennet cheeses are cheeses in which the curd is obtained in a similar way as in acid cheeses, but in addition a small addition of rennet, a digestive enzyme found in large quantities in the mucous of calves’ stomachs, is used. The consistency of acid-rennet cheeses is definitely less frequent than that of acid cheeses. It is distinguished here cottage cheese (so-called cottage cheese) and homogenized cheese. 

How are the rennet cheeses produced? 

The rennet cheeses are created by adding rennet to the milk, which coagulates casein, the main milk protein. This creates a clot, which then crumbles, separates the whey, forms and compresses. The pressing of the cheese aims at completely separating the whey and creating the appropriate structure and forming the skin. Then the salt is made cold or wet. 

The next stage and at the same time the longest is maturing, which may last from several days to even several years. During ripening, a series of chemical, physical and microbiological processes take place in the cheese. Each type of cheese has strictly defined maturing conditions (minimum temperature, air humidity, time). Among the rennet cheese, there are soft, hard and semi-hard cheeses. 

Soft rennet cheeses are cheeses in which the maturation takes place from the surface to the inside under the influence of bacteria or mold typical of a given cheese. Soft rennet cheeses include cheese with mold growth (no. Camembert, Brie), with mold hypertrophy (eg Gorgonzola, Rokpol) and soft pomasanka cheese (eg bryndza). Hard cheeses are the largest group of rennet cheeses. They ripen in anaerobic conditions with the participation of lactic acid bacteria enzymes. Here, you can distinguish Swiss (Ementaler, Radamer), Dutch (Edamski, Gouda), Italian (Parmezan), English (Cheddar) cheeses and hard cheeses (eg oscypek, feta). 

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You can read also: Low carb cheese pizza!

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Healthcare

Parmesan – nutritional value and use, where to buy parmesan?

Parmesan is a very hard cheese made from cow’s milk, Parmesan comes from Italy, where it has been used in the kitchen for a long time and is appreciated by its nutritional value. Adding parmesan to the dishes increases, diversifies their palatability and provides protein and calcium in which it abounds. What are the nutritional values ​​of parmesan, how many calories it has found in the kitchen and where to buy parmesan and what is its price.

Parmesan, or Parmigiano Reggiano, is a rennet cheese produced in the limited geographical area of ​​northern Italy, where it has long been used in the kitchen and appreciates its nutritional value. What is the production of parmesan? Parmesan is a very hard cheese made from raw cow’s milk from only Razza Regiana or Vacca Rossa cows are treated with temperature and rennet until the cheese is obtained, in the next stage it is transferred to brine for 23 days, then goes to the ripening room, where it stays for 1 year (we get young cheese, 2 years ( old) or 3 years (very old cheese.) Among other things, the price of parmesan depends on the time of ripening, the sooner the parmesan is matured, the lower the price.The original parmesan has a dark skin and has information about the month of production and the producer’s identification number.

Parmesan is an excellent source of wholesome protein (35.71 g / 100 g), which is a very important building and functional component in the body. It takes part in the regulation of gene expression and metabolic processes, is part of enzymatic systems, participates in cell immunity processes and participates in oxygen transport and in vision processes.

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You should read it: Calcium deficit and its consequences !

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Parmesan is a product that is easily digestible, high in protein, calcium, with possible probiotic and prebiotic effects.

Protein also affects the physiological balance of calcium, and adequate protein supply is associated with normal bone growth in children and maintaining bone mass in older people.

Parmesan is a great source of calcium (1250 mg / 100 g) – 100 g of cheese covers the daily demand for this ingredient in over a hundred percent Calcium participates in the construction and metabolism of bones and teeth. Adequate calcium supply at an early age reduces the risk of osteoporosis at the age of In addition, calcium participates in processes of muscle contractility, conduction of nerve stimuli, and also takes part in blood coagulation and ensures the proper functioning of the heart.

In Parmesan, we also find a large amount of vitamin A (40 μg / 100 g) responsible for proper vision, ensuring the proper condition of the skin, protecting the DNA against damage due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Unfortunately, parmesan is a product with a high sodium content (1714 mg / 100 g), which increases the risk of hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Due to the high sodium content of parmesan should give up people with heart disease and hypertension .

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Check: Calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D – basic information

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Parmesan – where to buy?

The original parmesan has a dark skin, has information about the month of production and the producer’s identification number.There are also imitations of parmesan on the market.Parmesan can be confused with, for example, grana padano cheese.The difference between grana padano and parmesan is milk used for production.In Poland, this type of cheese is often confused with parmesan, despite the fact that both smell and taste quite differently.

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You can read also: Should you eliminate dairy products from your diet?