Parmesan is a well-known Italian cheese. It is very hard and aromatic. It is obtained from cow’s milk treated with rennet and temperature. Real Italian parmesan has a specific cheese scent, and adding it to selected dishes improves their taste and nutritional quality. Under the name Parmesan we can find in stores products that have nothing to do with the valuable Italian cheese. Read the article below and you will certainly know how to buy original high-quality cheese. You will find out what is its history, where it comes from, and what nutritional and health-promoting properties it characterizes.

Parmesan – history
The name Parmesan derives from the place where the production of cheese began – the regions of Italian Parma. Assigning dishes to names associated with their place of origin began just after the fall of the Roman Empire. This technique was a very convenient way to describe food products informing about the main place of their production. The inventors of Parmesan were medieval monks who were engaged in breeding farm animals and fed on what they had managed to prepare themselves. At the time, parmesan was known as Caseum paramensis. The recipe of Parma cheese is over 800 years old.

Currently, it exists under the full name of Conzorzio del Fromaggio Parmigiano-Reggiano, the abbreviation of which is simply Parmesan. To this day, the Parmigiano-Reggiano member is the only name tagged on a real block of Parma cheese.

Parmesan – composition and method of production
Parmesan is somewhat reminiscent of the Moldavian cheese, but it is slightly taller than it. The average size of parmesan cheese is 18-22 cm high, 35-65 cm wide. The pancakes of parmesan cheese are prominent and the sides are slightly convex. Parmesan pulp is yellowish, without discoloration. In most cases, there are no meshes, although there are also specimens with small holes.

The production of Parma cheese is not simple or fast. It requires a subtle approach and a good knowledge of the recipe. It is made from raw cow’s milk. Real parmesan cheese is made from the milk of Razza Reggiana or Vacca Ross cows. Cheeses made from the milk of other cows do not fit into the canon of the original recipe.

Many years passed before the perfect recipe of Parma cheese was developed. A breakthrough in production occurred when pure bacterial strains were introduced into the production of cheeses. It is believed that the presence of an isolated strain of lactic acid bacteria and acid-proteolytic bacteria is necessary for proper ripening of hard rennet cheeses. It is also important to comply with strict hygiene rules from the moment the cow is milked until the final cheese matures. If a bacterial infection occurs at any stage of production, the cheese will not be suitable for consumption.

The smallest amount of milk needed to make 1 medium-sized cheese is about 350-400 liters of milk. Collected milk is poured into the boiler and, after thorough mixing, its acidity is determined in order to calculate the sourdough production needed to produce it. The sourdough must contain the most abundant bacteria that in one day make physical and chemical changes to the milk. After acidifying procedures, the milk is heated to about 33-35 degrees Celsius. Then it is also seasoned with rennet. Milk coagulation under the influence of the enzyme takes about 20-30 minutes. The semi-hard curd is cut with a wooden spatula and then comminuted into a pea-sized seed. Stirring continues until the entire volume of the clot is dry. The whole is set aside for a half-hour break. Then the heating process begins, 1-4 grams of saffron is added to the cheese mass for every 100 liters of milk used. Then, the mass of cheese is pulled out of the boiler using a scarf and formed using a Swiss rim.

The cheese is left to ripen for 15-20 days. At this time, the cheese is moisturized and lubricated with salt so that they have the right taste, the process of sowing may take another 40-50 days. The next step is to wash the cheese and put it away in dry basements at 15 degrees, where they suck up and put on a hard, uniform mass. After this time the cheese is scraped off the outer layer, pressed and rubbed with linseed oil. This action protects the valuable product against damage and mechanical damage. Good quality Parmenan cheese ripen at least 4 years, but the best can mature even several dozen years.

Parmesan – nutritional value and pro-health properties
It is assumed that one portion of parmesan cheese is 5 g. It is an extremely aromatic cheese and is not consumed in large quantities. Parmesan is a high-calorie cheese, in the portion is 20 kcal. This means that 100 g of cheese is about 400 kcal. It is a very good source of protein (40 g / 100 g – for comparison, the same amount is found in 225 g of trout). In addition, it contains a lot of fat (30 g / 100 g) and large amounts of minerals, which include sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus minerals, as well as vitamins A, B2, B6, B12.

Parmesan contains the largest amounts of calcium among all cheeses (1,109 g / 100 g of cheese). It is successfully used in dietotherapy of osteoporosis. It is important, however, to remember that parmesan (despite the high calcium content) also contains a large amount of sodium. As we well know, too much of this macroelement in the diet can have harmful effects on our health. However, if we are connoisseurs of cheeses, we must consume them in reasonable quantities.

Contained in parmesan, phosphorus is essential for the proper functioning of the skeletal system. It supports the development of bones and teeth. It also reduces the risk of kidney stones by acidifying urine. Multicenter studies have proven that the chromium contained in ripening cheeses has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism. Reasonable amounts of rennet cheese in the diet lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. They help regulate blood glucose and reduce tissue requirements for insulin. All these features indicate that parmesan (consumed regularly and in small amounts) can bring benefits in the prevention of civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes.

Recent reports from the world of science indicate that parmesan cheese not only does not cause a faster increase in body weight, and can even inhibit the development of obesity in people with metabolic syndrome.

Parmesan – application in culinary art
The taste of real Parmesan cheese can not be confused with any other. It is distinctive, ripe, the cheese has a characteristic, quite intense smell. Against the background of other rennet cheeses it is distinguished by its constant and very hard consistency.

Starters Parmesan can be an addition to cold dishes such as salads, spreads, starters. Ideally also found as a complement to hot dishes of pasta, sauces, pizzas, casseroles and many, many more. The younger cheese is a dry addition to wines and cold meats. Because of its price and its unique origin, it is not a classic element of the French cheese board.

There is really no reason to not eat parmesan. It is a source of many valuable nutrients. The only limitation that should be introduced when using the benefits of Parma cheese is the preservation of moderation in its consumption. It must be remembered that the portion of this cheese is 5 grams. Therefore, it should not be exceeded. The disadvantage of Parma cheese is its price. For one kilo of such cheese you have to pay an average of 70-150 PLN depending on the producer and the time of ripening. There are, however, very old Parma cheese, the price of which reaches even several thousand euros.



Sesame is a plant that probably does not need to be presented to anyone. Each of us knows how it looks and how it tastes. Most of us sesame is associated with crunchy sweet sesame seeds that can be bought in every kiosk. However, real sesame seed is something more than a sweet, light and fragile candy bar – it’s a health locked in a tiny grain. Spice, which is very inconspicuous, contains in itself the whole gamma of healing and health properties. Why is it worth to introduce sesame into your diet? What is its healing use? Which dishes suits best? You will know the answer to these questions soon.

Sesame – characteristics of the species and curiosities

The Indian Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an annual oil plant. It can also be found under the names kunżut and eastern łogowa. Currently, it is no longer found in the natural environment, and its cultures are huge and completely intended for utility purposes.

The Indian sesame belongs to the family of plant-like plants and reaches a height of even 1.5 m. The leaves are small and their surface is covered with tiny glandular hairs. The flowers are about 3 cm, occur in a variety of colors – from white to red to dark purple, depending on the variety. Sesame fruits ripen in fruit bags. Each of them contains about 80-100 small and extremely aromatic grains. They are flat and dull, and like the flowers they differ in color. They are most often found in cream and black. When the contents of the bag matures, it opens and spills its fruits on the ground.

The source Köhler F., Köhler’s Medizinal-Pflanzen in naturgetreuen Abbildungen mit kurz erläuternder Texte, Gera-Untermhaus 1887.

So far, it has not been determined where the sesame comes from. It is known, however, that the first records of its use date back to over two thousand years BC In ancient Babylon, sesame was considered a spice of gods – it was so special because of its high health and dietary value. It is not known how the sesame spread throughout the globe. It is believed that this was due to the wanderers who traveled the world hundreds of years ago and traded in various goods. However, it was established that the inhabitants of China and India were responsible for breeding the most valuable variety of Indian sesame. In our country, the most popular is white sesame, however, the world top is the sesame black, appreciated because of its nutty sweet taste.

Sesame – nutritional values
Sesame is an oily plant used mainly in the production of edible sesame oil. Therefore, nobody should be surprised by the fact that it is a raw material with an extremely high energy value. In 100 g Indian sesame seeds there are as much as 647 kcal. Although mainly fats 59.9 g / 100 g of product, the seeds also contain considerable amounts of protein – 23.2 g / 100 g. They are therefore a great alternative for people on a vegetarian diet. However, it should be remembered that it is not a full-blown protein. In addition, sesame seeds have a small amount of digestible carbohydrates – 2.1 g / 100 g and higher dietary fiber – 7.9 g / 100 g.

Sesame is a real treasury of nutrients. It contains a lot of unsaturated fatty acids, these are primarily oleic acid and linoleic acid (21.4 g / 100 g). It has a rich group of exogenous amino acids with various therapeutic properties.

Sesame seeds are characterized by a relatively high content of plant phytosterols. We can find about 231-1900 mg of these substances in 100 g of raw material, for comparison, sesame seed oil has on average about 360-473 mg of phytosterols.

When it comes to vitamins, there are not many of them in sesame. However, you can find in it vitamins from group B, eg folic acid, vitamins B2, B3, B6 and B1. The high content of minerals compensates for a small amount of vitamins. Already 100 grams of sesame seeds almost completely cover our daily demand for calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and copper. Particular attention should be paid to vegans who in their diets have a limited supply of calcium necessary for the proper functioning of the skeletal system.

Of course, we do not suggest daily consumption of 100 g sesame seeds. We just want to point out that it is an interesting and very valuable food product.

Sesame – medicinal use
Sesame has been known for centuries as a plant with special medicinal properties. The first mention of his pro-health activity are documented and come from 1150 BC. These records attribute the energy of sunlight to seeds of sesame seeds. Until today, it is not known which pro-health properties were meant by the authors of the text. Boldly, however, it can be said that they meant the beneficial effects of sesame seeds on the functioning of the human body.

The most important active substances present in the sesame are the aforementioned tocopherols. Sesame oil contains large amounts of gamma-tocopherol. The compounds of this group are found in oilseeds, as well as in maize and soy. They are characterized by a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

Sesame of its antioxidant activity is largely due to the presence of sesamol and sesamin. Both of these substances are characterized by resistance to oxidation processes. Research has proven that they have a beneficial effect on the functioning of the nervous system. They reduce the frequency of epilepsy episodes, relieve nervous tension. They can also be used in Alzheimer’s disease, they improve cognitive functions and inhibit neurodegenerative processes.

Sesamol and sesamin also find application in the treatment of certain genetic diseases, such as Huntington’s chorea. They also eliminate the symptoms of oxidative stress in the myocardium, thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

The dietary fiber contained in sesame seeds is characterized by high binding efficiency. As the food moves, it binds all harmful substances, toxins and anti-nutrients to each other. Thanks to this, it improves the detoxification processes of our body. In addition, it supports digestion and helps eliminate the problem of constipation.

Sesame – use in the kitchen
Sesame can be successfully used in everyday dishes, it is quite universal and has a very pleasant expressive taste. It is used to prepare many tasty desserts. One of the most famous sweets, which is prepared from sesame, is halva. In addition, sesame is great as a component of dry Asian cuisine, a component of meat crumbs and addition to sushi. Tahini paste is also made from sesame, which is an essential component of home-made hummus.

In conclusion, sesame is a product worth our attention. It is characterized by high nutritional value and scientifically proven health-promoting effects. Already its small addition to ordinary dishes makes them acquire an exquisite taste. In addition, it significantly increases the nutritional value of meals and supplements the diet with micro and macro elements. It is worth remembering, however, that sesame seeds are known as products that cause strong food allergies. They are on the list of the 12 most allergenic food products.


Dried tomatoes

Tomatoes are at the forefront of the most commonly used vegetables in Europe. Only the potato, onion and lettuce are ahead of them. They owe their popularity to their availability, versatility and low price. Tomatoes can be bought in various forms. The most popular are purees, juices, concentrates, sauces and dried tomatoes. Especially the latter deserve our attention, they are extremely tasty, aromatic and can be an addition to many tasty dishes. They are a great source of lycopene, the properties of which we will tell you today.

Dried tomatoes – nutritional value
Tomatoes are vegetables appreciated almost all over the world. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) came to Europe in the 16th century and it was brought from Central America. The beginnings of cultivating tomatoes on our continent were not easy – due to the intense red color, they were considered a highly poisonous plant and were only cultivated for ornamental purposes. Today, tomatoes are appreciated by consumers and are appreciated for their nutritional, health and dietary properties.

Dried tomatoes are obtained by drying purified and cut fresh tomatoes. Although they look less attractive than raw, they definitely outweigh them with nutritional values, including the content of lycopene. Dried tomatoes usually occur in two forms. The first one is tomatoes dried in oil, the second is dried without oil (in dry form). The observation shows that consumers more often choose tomatoes dried in oil. Such a product in 100 g contains about 213 kcal, including 20 g total carbohydrates (including 6.7 g dietary fiber), 13.3 g fat and 6.67 g protein. However, those dried without the addition of oil in 100 g contain about 257 kcal, including 55 g of carbohydrates (including 13 g of dietary fiber), 3.7 g of fat and 14.8 g of protein. Such disparities result both from the manufacturing method and, type and method of cultivation. When buying dried tomatoes, special attention should be paid to the type of oil that the vegetables are filled with. The best quality tomatoes are cold pressed rapeseed oil and olive oil. It is not recommended to buy tomatoes in a flood of sunflower oil due to the unfavorable ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids, which can increase the inflammation in our body and have a bad effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, tomatoes in raw form in 100 g provide about 18 kcal, including 3.9 g carbohydrates (including 1.2 g dietary fiber), 0.2 g fat and 0.8 g protein.

Dried tomatoes are a real treasury of mineral salts and vitamins. 100 g of dried tomatoes contain as much as 39 mg of vitamin C. An adequate supply of vitamin C ensures beneficial effects of the immune system. Vitamin C also takes part in the collagen synthesis process and reduces the concentration of bad cholesterol. In addition to vitamin C, in dried tomatoes there are also significant amounts of vitamin A, 100 g of the product provides our body with about 833 IU of this vitamin. Proper supply of this compound ensures good skin condition, strengthens the eyesight and regulates the processes of creating new cells. In dried tomatoes we can also find vitamins from group B, including B1, B2, B3 and B6. Their appropriate level plays an important role in the prevention of diseases of the nervous system.

In addition to vitamins, dried tomatoes contain a large amount of necessary for the proper functioning of micro- and macroelements. The most important of these is potassium, which in the body is responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and correct muscle spasms. Both fresh and dried tomatoes are a great source. Apart from potassium, we can also find sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and selenium in them. The amounts of the elements listed above are however small. The healthiest and the tastiest dried tomatoes are those that come from natural crops (eg from our gardens and plots).

What properties do the dried tomatoes have?
Due to the low energy value, tomatoes are included in dietetic food. Conscious consumers who have knowledge about healthy eating use them daily as part of their meals. Over the past dozen or so years, tomatoes have gained a special position in the prevention of cancer. All this is due to lycopene, an organic compound from the carotene group. It exhibits strong pro-health properties, while its absorbability from dried tomatoes is definitely higher than from raw ones. Lycopene has a strong antioxidant effect, therefore it is well suited for the prevention of cardiovascular and cancer diseases. It is worth noting that lycopene scavenges free radicals twice as efficiently as beta-carotene and ten times more efficiently than alpha-tocopherol. Such a high content of lycopene makes real dried superfood tomatoes.

There are numerous scientific studies around the world that are looking for irrefutable evidence that lycopene contained in dried tomatoes has anti-carcinogenic properties. There are studies that showed a positive correlation between lycopene consumption and a decrease in the activity of breast cancer cells. Lycopene is responsible in this case for inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. Proper supply of this component ensures proper DNA synthesis and prevents its damage. Therefore, it is safe to say that currently conducted scientific research gives great hope to oncological patients. Unfortunately, to find unambiguous and indisputable evidence, research should be carried out constantly.

In addition to the potential use in the prevention of cancer, lycopene is also credited with a significant role in the prevention of bone diseases. When we talk about this type of illness, we think about the diet with an increased amount of dairy products, calcium supplementation and vitamin D. Of course, the above-mentioned ingredients are necessary to ensure good bone health, but let’s focus this time on the role of lycopene. Bone system diseases, including osteoporosis, go hand in hand with systemic inflammation and increased oxidative stress. The latter is particularly harmful. It directly affects the inhibition of bone formation and shortens the lifespan of osteoblasts. As mentioned before, lycopene is an extremely powerful antioxidant and it is this feature that makes it a substance extremely helpful in the prevention of bone diseases. , r

How to prepare dried tomatoes yourself?
The purchase of dried tomatoes is an expense of about 10 to 15 PLN for a small jar. Tomatoes bought in the store are quite tasty, but the label often does not provide us with enough information on how to produce them. We do not know if they were dried in the sun or in a drying room. We do not know what crops they come from and whether they meet our requirements. Despite the addition of fruit, seeds or various spices, bought tomatoes sometimes just simply tasteless. So if we want to get dried tomatoes of the highest quality, it is best to prepare them yourself. This is not so difficult, contrary to appearances, and can have a big impact on our health.

The first step is to chop the cherry tomatoes into quarters and remove the seeds with a spoon. The next is to put them on a baking tray lined with baking paper (a sheet skin). You need to gently salt them, then set the oven to about 90 ° C, preferably with the function of thermo-flow. Drying tomatoes at this temperature usually takes about 2 hours. The baking tray is pulled out of the oven only when the tomatoes are already heavily wrinkled. It then translates the dried tomatoes into a bowl, seasoning it according to your taste and arranges tightly in the jar. A few slices of garlic are put into each jar. The last step is pouring the jars into warm, slightly warmed oil and turning the jars upside down. Such a recipe for dried tomatoes is very simple to make and guarantees us the perfect taste for many, many weeks.

Recipes for dishes using dried tomatoes

Below are two ideas for delicious use of dried tomatoes in the kitchen.

Hummus With Dry Potatoes

– 200 g of chickpeas in brine,
– 100 g tahini (sesame paste),
– 3 cloves of garlic,
– lemon juice juice,
– 70 g of dried tomatoes (10 pieces),
– salt,
– pepper,
– 10 g olive oil.

In the bowl, put chickpeas, sesame paste, garlic cloves squeezed through the press, lemon juice and finely chopped dried tomatoes, salt and pepper to taste. The whole blends to a uniform mass. If the mass is too dry, add a small amount of water. Hummus can be served with crunchy or whole grain bread.

Nutritional value in the whole portion

– 1182 kcal,

– 42.2 g protein,

– 71.7 g fats,

– carbohydrates 81.8 g,

– fiber 32.1 g.

Mediterranean baguette

– 80 g wholemeal baguette,
– 40 g mozzarella cheese (half balls),
– 20 g arugula lettuce,
– 70 g of dried tomatoes (10 pieces),
– fresh basil leaves,
– 20 g walnuts (handful),
– 10 g olive oil – for spreading.

Nutritional value in the whole portion

– energy 722,9 kcal,

– 30,3 g protein,

– fats 34.4 g,

– 69.5 g carbohydrates,

– fiber 16.2 g.

Cut the bun in half. We lubricate with olive oil. Dried tomatoes are cut in half. Slices of mozzarella, tomatoes and half of basil leaves are placed on a whole-grain baguette. Place the buns in the oven heated to 180 ° C, bake them until the mozzarella dissolves. After removing from the oven, place the nuts and fresh basil leaves on them.

Dried tomatoes are not only a tasty addition to Mediterranean cuisine. They have health properties that many of us have not heard of yet. Due to the high content of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants should often appear on our tables.


What is hidden in your food?

Did you happen to me that after throwing a half-kilo of minced meat into the pan after frying, a few pieces of it were left in the bottom of the pan? How often when choosing a ham we are guided only by its appearance, this appetizing, flawless lighting? The choice of meat should not be limited to an affordable price, because it often does not go hand in hand with quality, and the producers cheat us, sell meat products, in which the meat is the least composed. In the case of meat, instead of quantity, it is worth focusing on quality.

You are what your food was eating

First of all, we have to pay attention to animal breeding. Without this, there is no question of good quality meat. The conditions under which animals are kept and what they are fed can have a direct impact on the composition of the meat. Studies show that the meat of grass-fed animals compared to grain-fed animals has a slightly smaller amount of myristic and palmitic acids belonging to saturated fatty acids.


Animals crowded in cages that have never seen the sun often get sick, so it happens that they are given antibiotics and vaccines containing harmful substances that accumulate in their adipose tissue. If you do not want to eat meat that will hurt more than it helps, choose from proven farms where animals are grown organically and have access to fresh air and natural feed.

What is hidden in meat products?

Manufacturers do everything to make meat products, such as hams, sausages, sausages or pates, produce as cheaply as possible, i.e. with a reduced content of meat, so they fill them with other substances. Unfortunately, mainly due to these additives processed meat was on the list of factors causing cancer according to the WHO. In the process of traditional smoking of meat products during wood burning, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced, which together with smoking smoke get into the meat. The most toxic are benzo (a) pyrene. These compounds have pronounced chronic toxicity. They are dangerous because they cause neoplastic changes in various tissues. Many of them are also responsible for mutations of genetic material. These compounds are also present in grilled meat. Therefore, we should limit to the minimum the consumption of smoked and grilled meat.

Preservatives and other ingredients

It’s best to prepare the sausages yourself. We can cook good-quality loin in herbs or bake in marinade. However, if we go to the store, pay attention to the composition and appearance of the ham. Often the meat content does not exceed 50%.

The meat contains preservatives whose task is to protect against the development of microorganisms. Preservatives include sodium, potassium, sodium (potassium) and potassium nitrate, and sodium nitrite. Potentially carcinogenic substances, however, include sodium nitrite (E250), which in combination with amino acid degradation products leads to the formation of nitrosamines that have carcinogenic properties. Consumption of sodium nitrate (III) may be particularly dangerous in infants as it may result in anemia. Meat products also contain thickeners, e.g. phosphates. A diet rich in meat products may therefore contain too high doses of phosphorus and cause disturbance of the calcium-phosphate economy, which may increase the likelihood of osteoporosis in the future. The emulsifiers, antioxidants, stabilizers and acidity regulators contained in the meat are considered safe substances.

Mechanically separated meat (MSM)

MOM is the main ingredient of not only nuggets available in fast food restaurants, but also sausages, pates, sausages and canned meat.

MOM is a crushed raw meat and fat mass. The product is obtained by removing meat from tissues adhering to the bones after their separation from the carcass or from poultry carcases using mechanical means, which leads to the loss or modification of the muscle fiber structure. The meat and bone mass is squeezed through special cylindrical sieves, on which larger bones remain. A mass is formed containing meat, fat, cartilage, tendons, skin and connective tissue, which is then pressed into a uniform mass. Products containing a high content of MSM in their composition are characterized by a lower nutritional value. In such products, the content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol is higher, while lower proteins. These products also contain larger amounts of preservatives, because the resulting meat-fat mass is unstable.

How to become an informed consumer?

These rules will protect you from the wrong choice

– avoid meat from mass rearing;

– buy meat only from reliable sellers or from organic sources;

– try not to buy meat products, but if you like them, pay attention to the composition of the meat content, the number of preservatives, the processing process;

– limit smoked products;

– bake pates and ham at home;

– do not buy products with mechanically separated meat and those in which the meat content is less than 80%.




Although watermelon is not a fruit of Polish origin, it is extremely popular with us. It owes its popularity to the sweet taste and the fact that it perfectly quenches thirst. The increase in the consumption of watermelons is noted in particular during the summer. That’s when we feel like it. In addition to the sweet flesh of watermelons for food and medicinal purposes, you can also use their seeds and a thick fleshy skin. Have you ever wondered what nutritional and health properties these fruits characterize?

Watermelon – a few words about the species
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a plant of the cucurbits family. It comes from the areas of South Africa, where you can meet her in both wild and breeding. The first mention of the cultivation of watermelon appeared about 1500 BC. In our lands, this fruit appeared in the fourteenth century thanks to the Teutonic Order.

Currently, the demand for watermelon fruit is very large. To meet the demand for these sweet fruits, large watermelon plantations began to be established in countries such as Spain, Portugal, Italy, Croatia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, China, and many, many others. The climate of our country is not conducive to the cultivation of watermelons, but it does not mean that we can not grow these fruits from us. A dozen or so enterprises in our country produce watermelons in large greenhouses, however, native crops are less sweet and juicy than fruits from southern Europe and Africa.

Watermelon is characterized by a creeping stem, which in favorable climatic conditions can reach a length of up to 6 meters. The large leaves of the plant are equipped with a mustache. Flowers in appearance resemble pumpkin flowers, grow individually, most often are found in yellow or light green. One mature plant produces up to 30 female flowers and up to 400 male flowers during flowering. The fruits of watermelon are massive berries with a characteristic sweet red flesh (mesocarp). There are also varieties with orange, white and yellow flesh. At the end of the growing season, the plant sets up seeds, the color of which, similarly to the color of the fruit, varies depending on the variety.

Watermelon – nutritional values Prenatal Multi Gummies
The English name of watermelon, or watermelon, perfectly describes its properties. This fruit consists of more than 90% water. This property means that watermelon is not the best source of nutrients. However, it can be classified as a low energy food. In 100 grams of watermelon, there is about 37 kcal (for comparison, pineapple has 54 kcal / 100 g, apple 47 kcal / 100 g, and orange 44 kcal / 100 g).

Watermelon – health properties of the flesh, pips, and shells
The health properties of watermelons outweigh its nutritional value. The minerals and antioxidant compounds contained in them have a strong antioxidant effect. The cardioprotective effect is attributed to them. The carotenoids contained in the watermelon, responsible for the red-orange color of the flesh, are very strong antioxidants. The most active compound with such properties in the watermelon is lycopene. This substance prevents the adverse oxygen metabolism of cholesterol, it also has a strong anti-teratogenic effect. It is a powerful scavenger of free radicals that lead to chemical and mechanical damage to the walls of blood vessels. Watermelons reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, reduce the risk of heart attack, atherosclerosis, and stroke.

In addition to antioxidant compounds, citrulline also occurs in watermelons. This substance is an ornithine derivative belonging to the group of endogenous amino acids. Citrulline was first isolated from watermelon fruit. This substance is appreciated primarily by athletes. However, this amino acid does not affect building muscle mass. It is used to increase the efficiency of the urea cycle in which ammonia is neutralized. Also, citrulline has scientifically proven anti-catabolic activity, which means increased protection of muscle tissue against its destruction or breakdown. It was also shown that citrulline reduces the intensity of the so-called soreness.

The high content of water in watermelons affects its diuretic and detoxicating effects. The consumption of watermelon is recommended for those who are feverish and dehydrated. Both the juice and pulp of the watermelon perfectly hydrate the body and provide the electrolytes and carbohydrates necessary for proper functioning. Watermelons also reduce the intensity of unpleasant ailments that occur the day after consuming excessive amounts of alcohol.

In addition to juice and flesh, healing properties are attributed to both its pips and thick, fleshy shell. Small seeds of watermelon deserve special attention, in their composition, they contain about 30% protein and 50% fat, moreover, they have a higher concentration of healing substances than pulp and watermelon juice. Scientific research carried out all over the world has proven that watermelon seeds have antibacterial and antifungal activity, are helpful in case of infections and gastrointestinal infections, as well as reduce the intensity of diarrhea. They have a soothing effect in catarrh of the respiratory system and alleviate the symptoms of skin diseases. Recent scientific studies have provided evidence of the effective action of watermelon seed extract in the treatment of bacterial, viral and fungal infections (including E. coli, among others). Other studies have shown that watermelon seeds have strong anti-inflammatory properties and also support the treatment of prostate diseases. In turn, watermelon shell is an excellent source of dietary fiber, in its white part contains the largest part of the aforementioned citrulline.

Watermelon – interesting facts
Currently, there are over 1,200 varieties of watermelons in the world, they are bred in more than 100 countries, and the world’s largest watermelon suppliers are China, Turkey, Brazil, Iran, and Egypt.

During the communist era, Polish authorities did not recognize imported products from abroad. The watermelon, however, was liked so much that it was not banned from its import. The authorities, however, tried to change its name to another, less exotic. The name, however, was not accepted by consumers and continued to use the name watermelon.

The Guinness World Record in the category of the largest watermelon in the world was beaten in 1990 by farmer Bill Carson from the United States. He managed to grow a real giant – the watermelon from his plantation weighed 118 kg.

Watermelon – recipes for tasty dishes and desserts
Although watermelon is an extremely sweet fruit, it can become a component of many interesting dishes (not necessarily desserts). We have prepared a few tasty recipes for dry dishes and desserts and cocktails with his participation. Try to cook them in your kitchens. You will find that you can use watermelon in many interesting ways, and in each of the scenes, it will taste different. Always, however, delicious.

Salad with watermelon, avocado, and grilled chicken breast
Ingredients for 1 serving
– 2 handfuls of fresh spinach,
– one handful of rocket salad,
– ½ avocado,
– 100 g chicken breasts,
– 100 g of watermelon,
– 1 tablespoon of pine nuts,
– ½ lime juice,
– 1 clove of garlic,
– olive oil,
– pepper, salt, red pepper powder,
– thickened balsamic vinegar.

A method of preparing
Let’s rinse lettuce and spinach in cold water, gently dry. Cut the avocado from the skin, cut into slices – sprinkle them with lime juice to keep their nice green color. Wash the chicken breast, cut into slices. Marinate for approx. 20 minutes in a marinade with a few drops of balsamic vinegar, oil pressed by a garlic press, sweet peppers, pepper, and salt. During this time, cut the watermelon into cubes and roast pine nuts in a frying pan. The chicken breast meat is grilled in a grill pan. When it’s ready, mix all the ingredients, sprinkle lightly with olive oil and pour in thick balsamic vinegar.

The salad is ready to eat!

A refreshing watermelon and mint smoothie
Ingredients for 2 servings
– 500 g of watermelon,
– 100 g raspberries,
– 100 ml of carbonated water,
– 10 mint leaves,
– ½ lemon juice,
– 1 tablespoon of xylitol (optional),
– a few ice cubes.

A method of preparing
Wash all the fruits, cut the watermelon into slices, clean the seeds. Place fruit in a high container, pour water, squeeze juice from half a lemon. Put a few ice cubes and mint leaves. The whole blends to obtain a homogeneous mass. If the whole thing seems too sour, add a tablespoon of xylitol, mix thoroughly.

A simple protein cheesecake with watermelon
Ingredients for 6 servings
– 500 g of lean curd cheese,
– 200 g of natural yogurt,
– 500 g of watermelon,
– 10 tablespoons of xylitol/honey,
– 1 tablespoon of vanillin sugar,
– 4 tablespoons of gelatin food/agar.

A method of preparing
Cottage cheese is blended with natural yogurt, xylitol, vanillin sugar, and diced watermelon. We pour gelatine with a few tablespoons of cold water, wait a few minutes for it to swell, and mix with the watermelon mass. Set aside in a cool place for several hours and wait until it is concentrated. The cheesecake can be served with fresh raspberry fruit, raspberry leaves or vanilla ice cream.


12 healthy products that are not healthy

We attach more and more importance to what we put into the basket. That’s good, because healthy eating starts in the store. Unfortunately, we choose often guided by advertising slogans, which should be treated with skepticism. Seemingly healthy products tend to be a tricky food trap, so a careful and conscious choice is an important link in creating the right eating habits. Here is a list of 12 healthy products that, as it turns out, are not healthy at all.


  1. Healthy products “fat free”

Fat-free products often seem less tasty because fat is responsible for picking up the taste of the products. In order to increase the clarity, the producers have to add in excess the amount of sugar, flour, salt and thickeners. Unfortunately, it increases their calorific value. “Fat free” products have more carbohydrates, which can affect a balanced diet. It should also be remembered that animal fats are the basis for the synthesis of hormones, and vitamins A, D, E and K will be assimilated only in their presence. Therefore, non-fat products are not at all healthy.

At the same time, rich fat products containing high-calorie fats are high-calorie. Keep healthy, because excessive calories will be deposited in the form of adipose tissue regardless of the nutritional value of this fat for the body.


  1. Protein bars – power bars

Protein bars are products that are perceived as a healthier alternative to sweets and a quick snack that supplies proteins. Unfortunately, some producers in the pursuit of fast profit, cut production costs and create bars at the lowest cost. As a result, some of them contain a large amount of sugar, fillers and artificial ingredients. We therefore receive a product of dubious quality. Often the source of carbohydrates in protein bars is glucose-fructose syrup, which is widely recognized as the main cause of obesity. In turn, among fats, trans fat fats are often predominant, which can lead to heart disease, so it is better to avoid them. When buying a protein bar, we advise you to analyze the composition, because it may turn out that the bar contains more sugar than proteins!


  1. Isotonic drinks

Most isotonic beverages contain a very large amount of artificial colors and preservatives. It is worth remembering that you do not have to use them for a short workout. They become a necessity during a long-lasting, dynamic effort or during hot weather, when the body is intensely sweating and is exposed to loss of electrolytes. Then you can make a natural isotonic composed of water, honey, lemon and table salt.


  1. Wheat bread

Wheat bread is very tricky. This white flour is only short-lived due to its low fiber content. It quickly raises blood sugar levels, but glucose levels fall as fast as we feel as a sudden reduction in well-being. It is much wiser to choose wheat bread from wholemeal flour. It is good to pay attention to the composition, because bread called whole grains has only a small addition of wholemeal flour. The bread can also contain conditioners, preservatives and even aromas and dyes, making bread made of light flour faithfully imitate the appearance of dark bread.

  1. Breakfast cereals

Both corn and breakfast cereals for children in the form of “balls”, “pillows” are highly processed products with an incredible amount of sugar in the composition. Popular Granola flakes are real caloric bombs rich in trans fat, which they owe their crunchiness to. In addition, they contain artificial flavors that give flavor and aroma. It does not sound healthy, right?


  1. Yoghurts

Yoghurts are a seemingly ideal source of probiotics and calcium. Unfortunately, fruit yoghurts contain large amounts of sweeteners, artificial colors and modified starch, which acts as a thickener. Fruit yoghurts may contain traces of fruit. It is worth knowing that the determinant of good yogurt is the presence of lactic bacteria. If they are not in stock, you can have serious doubts about the rightness of choice


  1. Consuming only egg whites

By consuming only egg whites, you deprive your body of many benefits. Egg yolk contains a lot of vitamins and minerals. They contain the cholesterol necessary for the synthesis of testosterone, which affects the building of muscle mass. It’s a good cholesterol that helps avoid atherosclerotic lesions. In addition, they are a natural source of leucine stimulating the production of growth hormones. Choline contained in it limits the deposition of fats in the liver. It is also a natural source of vitamin D, omega-3 and omega-6, vitamins B6 and B12, riboflavin, folic acid and many others.

Eating only egg whites is not as healthy as it seems. While your test results are normal, and in the immediate family there is no tendency to atherosclerotic changes, the whole egg is an ideal source of ingredients necessary for proper regeneration.


  1. Dried fruits

Unfortunately, dried fruits are healthy products only if we choose them sensibly. Most of them are preserved with sulfur dioxide under the designation E220. Sulfates can cause headaches, nausea, and even breathing difficulties in asthmatics. In addition, products with their addition lose B12. Dried fruits such as cranberry are sweetened to break its natural acidity. They do not belong to healthy products that can be consumed without restrictions.


  1. Fruit drinks

Fruit drinks are treacherous. They are a source of vitamins and minerals, but most of them lack the flesh. Due to the low content of fiber they saturate for a short time, and they do not quench their thirst, making it much easier to drink a larger amount, which increases the calorie intake. May contain additional sugar and other sweeteners


  1. Fish

Marine fish due to the content of omega acids, proteins, vitamins and micronutrients is an inseparable element of a healthy diet. However, they should not be consumed more than twice a week. Due to high environmental pollution, they can accumulate heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and mercury. Too much intake of marine fish can cause eye, hearing and speech disturbances as well as lack of coordination and muscle weaknes


  1. Margarine

When buying margarine, please pay attention to whether it has trans fatty acids. Soft margarines for spreading bread may contain them, and their excess in the diet can lead to heart disease. Due to the progress of technology, manufacturers are increasingly labeling their products as free of these fats, but this increases the final price.


  1. Rice wafers

It may be surprising that rice wafers are not such a healthy replacement for bread. They have a low fat content and are low in calories, but they do not provide any nutrients or fiber. They can, however, contain sweeteners, artificial flavors to improve the taste.


“Best to eat BEFORE” and “eat TO” – How to read expiration dates on packages?

What should be on the packaging and how to read the expiration dates on the labels?” What’s the difference between the terms “best to eat” and “eat to”? It’s good to know that food labeling is determined by the relevant European Union regulations.

Every food producer has the obligation to inform the end consumer about the durability of a given food product, how it is stored and how to prepare for safe consumption.” This obligation results from Regulation 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the European Council of October 25, 2011. It is important for the consumer the ability to understand the information given on the labels of food products so that their consumption is safe for health.


The durability of a food product is determined by many factors, including chemical composition, microflora, packaging method, specific storage conditions, and two different terms on product packaging.


“Please eat until …” – the so-called shelf life date The indicated date specifies the date after which the food product is unusable and therefore can not be consumed.This term can usually be found on the least durable meat products. , ready-to-eat food, chilled ready-to-eat food, milk or non-sterilized milk products. “Best before …” or “The best before the end …” – the so-called date of minimum durability, to which the product is stored correctly retains its properties Manufacturers do not have to indicate the date of minimum durability of products such as fresh fruit and vegetables, salt, solid sugar, vinegar, bakery and confectionery products, beverages with an alcoholic strength of 10% by volume and more.


Why do we store meat on the upper shelves and eggs in the fridge door?

If necessary, the label of the food product should contain information about its correct storage, so as to preserve its safety and health quality – color, taste, smell and nutritional value. Products that require refrigeration storage should be kept in the fridge – remembering However, the temperature in the fridge varies depending on the specific place, for example, raw meat and fish require lower temperatures, so it is worth placing them at the lowest level, milk, dairy products, meats, butter, and all products that, according to Manufacturer’s declaration should be kept in the fridge after opening, it should be stored on its middle or upper shelves, and in the bottom drawer of the fridge – vegetables and fruits. Eggs require little cooling, hence they are usually stored on the fridge door, and frozen food for obvious reasons goes to the freezerOther products for which the manufacturer did not specify special storage conditions should be placed outside the refrigerator – however in a relatively cold (optimally + 18 ° C), dry and dark place.If you purchase a product that has been vacuum packed or using packaging gases, it is worth paying attention to the tightness of the packaging.This type of packaging is designed to extend the shelf life of the food, and the shelf-life date in this case applies when the packaging is intact.For your own safety, the consumer should not buy products with damaged packaging.


How to deal with snacking?

Hunger attacks are rarely associated with real body needs for nutrients. They have a lot in common with brain chemistry, pleasure and self-rewarding.

You can have a violent desire for something sweet or salty, crunchy or creamy, and indulging such whims will ruin every diet and healthy eating style. How to prevent this?

  1. Ice cream

People who often craving for food have a higher BMI. This is not surprising, because many people go for high-calorie snacks, such as ice cream. One serving of vanilla ice cream may contain 230 kcal (due to the fat and sugar content).

A sensible output of fruit sorbet, self-mixed fruit with ice cubes and a drop of skim milk – more than half the calories less than traditional ice cream.


  1. Potato chips

The combination of salty taste and crispness … tempting! But a small pack of chips can add 150 kcal to your diet, and a large one close to 1000!

Reasonable output of crispy raw celery or carrot dipped in hummus – fewer calories, crunching pleasure and a portion of valuable nutrients.


  1. Chocolate

Instead of one cube, do you eat a chocolate bar or reach for chocolate bars? fatally

Mars bar – 300 kcal

Milky Way bar – 107 kcal

Twix bar – 240 kcal

Baton Bounty – 132 kcal

Baton Prince Polo (small) – 110 kcal

Baton Prince Polo (normal) – 220 kcal

Snickers bar (small) – 298 kcal

Baton Princess – 205 kcal

White chocolate 100 g – 530 kcal

Dessert chocolate 100 g – 531 kcal

Coffee chocolate 100 g – 526 kcal

Milk chocolate 100 g – 549 kcal

Milk chocolate with hazelnuts 100 g – 539 kcal

Stuffed chocolate 100 g – 450 kcal

A reasonable option is to eat a cube or two dark chocolate – eat less fat and absorb valuable ingredients for health.


  1. Popcorn

Memory plays a big role in the onset of hunger pangs. Does the thought of going to the cinema make you want to eat popcorn? Well … Popcorn is not a bad snack, but the addition of butter can make its bucket, depending on its size, can contain from 400 to 1200 kcal.

A reasonable output portion of plain popcorn.


  1. Picnic food

Outdoor events are often accompanied by fast food booths. Sometimes it’s hard to resist the smells coming from them, which can result in absorbing extra calories.

Reasonable output of the corn on the cob with a little butter – only 150 kcal, or … taken from home


  1. Donuts

People who are on a slimming diet often dream of donuts, which are a symbol of high-calorie food. And denying all the pleasures resulting from eating, which one has an appetite, usually ends with a fiasco of the diet. Therefore, it is better to buy a donut, slowly chew its two bites, and throw the rest away or give back to a friend who does not complain about the figure. The only problem is that the donuts do not contain any ingredients valuable for health.

A reasonable output of a wholegrain muffin with apple sauce or a bit of low-sugar jam.


  1. Red meat

Lunch without meat is not dinner? Okay, but choose the type of meat that will contain as little fat as possible. A traditional steak can be “worth 700 calories, and if you do not lose fat even more.

Reasonable exit lean lean beef or veal – for example, bits or thin pork chop without breadcrumbs.


  1. Pizza

A sensible output of homemade pizza, from wholemeal flour, with vegetables and skimmed cheese.


  1. Pasta

Who does not like Italian paste ?! Unfortunately, most of the restaurants serve white pasta, free of 80% fiber. Delicious sauces added to pasta also do not usually bend low calorie … A large portion of fettucine pasta can be “worth 800-1200 kcal.

A reasonable output of pasta on wholemeal pasta with a vegetable-based sauce.


  1. French fries

When eating at a restaurant, do you order french fries? And you know that in this way you increase the calorie of the dinner by 300-500 kcal?

Reasonable exit order meat with salads, lots of salads! If you have a strong will, order a small portion of fries and eat only a few of them.


  1. Nuts

It’s healthy, just a caloric snack. When you reach for it in front of the TV or during a party, you will easily lose control over how much you eat it. A bowl of roasted nuts is up to 800 kcal.

A reasonable option to avoid nuts in sugar or toppings. Bet on the nuts that you have to first extract – you will take your hands and head and eat less nuts.


  1. Coffee

Coffee with syrup and a portion of appetizing cream can “cost you 400 kcal. The coffee itself is low in calories. These additions make her an enemy of a slim figure.

Reasonable exit coffee with a minimal amount of sugar and cream, or with skimmed milk.


  1. Afternoon hunger pangs

A vending machine with chocolate bars calls you around 15 o’clock? Donuts in the pastry shop until you squeak, buy and eat them? It’s a signal that you’ve probably lost your blood sugar. Unfortunately, sweet snacks will raise it for a short time, and another appetite will appear faster than you would like.

A sensible way out, reach for a snack containing protein and fiber – it will saturate you for longer. A bowl of beans, a slice of ham with wholemeal bread are good ideas.


  1. Calming the nerves

This is a typical example of snacking that has nothing to do with hunger. It bears the name of emotional food, because food allows you to master stress and pleasure by drowning out negative emotions.

A sensible way out is to learn simple relaxation techniques, go for a walk, practice yoga regularly, do not expose yourself unnecessarily to stress.


  1. Improving well-being

Food for improving mood is a typical affliction of women. However, drowning your sorrow with food will not eliminate your problems. It can only temporarily drown them out, and if food to improve your mood gets you in the blood, you’ll soon get another reason to be sad – overweight.

A reasonable exit search for relief outside the fridge! Meet friends, talk to someone over the phone, listen to your favorite music.


How do you control your diet?

Distinguish a real hunger from an imagined one. When you are hungry, eat something nutritious and valuable. When you feel like eating something and are not hungry, find a job that will replace food, diverting attention away from food.

Walk. Regular movement helps control the appetite for sweets. Just 15 minutes’ walk to avoid an unnecessary snack.

Be consistent. If you do not get used to sweet or fat snacks, they will stop you “walking” on your head at any opportunity. Usually, it usually takes several weeks to recover, but it’s worth trying.

Instead of denying yourself anything you like, control the portions that get into your mouth. You really do not have to eat a whole piece of cake, a whole packet of nuts, or a chocolate bar! Just take a little bit and enjoy the taste of your favorite food instead of suffering, refusing yourself a whole portion.


Skipping meals during a strict diet – what is it threatening?

Is it allowed to completely let go of one of the meals in the diet? Can you eat a meal at a different time than planned? What to do in the case of a family meeting, when the food fills up the whole table? Read this article and you will get answers to these questions.

The only effective way to build muscle mass and to reduce body fat is to consume the calculated amount of calories throughout the day. To calculate the caloric balance for your own body, read the topic ‘Laying a cultist diet’. Regular consumption of a fixed amount of calories is necessary for the effects to be visible from week to week. However, what to do when we know from above that we will not be able to eat a meal at a given time? Can you let it go, or is it better to move to another time? The following are ways to do in such situations.


Complete skipped meal.

Skipping the meal completely during both reduction and mass building is the worst possible solution. In the case of building muscle mass, it is perfectly understandable, but also when reducing it is not a good solution.

When building muscle mass, you should consume a calorie surplus. This means that to gain weight you need to consume more calories than the body needs. In this case, omitting any meal will result in failure to meet the required caloric pool. Frequent skipping of meals may have the opposite effect from the intended one.

It would seem that during the reduction of body fat, skipping a meal should be something quite normal, allowing you to lose unnecessary kilograms faster. However, it is not! In order to maintain the worked musculature, the body must receive the required caloric pool, so as not to cause loss of muscle tissue. In addition, in order to burn body fat, the body should receive a calorific pool at a constant level. Consuming a constant pool of calories (in this case a negative balance), you tune your body to fat burning. For example, if one day you eat 2600kcal, the next 2000kcal (it would seem that less = better), and the next back 2600kcal, can lead to the so-called. “Disorder of the body”. At this point, your own body does not know whether it should burn body fat. When receiving the original one,higher caloric pot, the body does not know whether it is only a return to the diet or the moment when the diet ends, and the period of building muscle mass begins.


What if I can not eat a meal at a given time?

The restrictive diet in the form of many meals consumed at fixed times during the day is always considered the best solution, both during mass building and reduction. Such food allows for the constant supply of muscle cells with the necessary macroelements. However, is it a good solution to move a meal or break it down to other meals? If you maintain a calorific pot during the day, small deviations should not affect the result you want to achieve.

If you know from the top of the line that you will not have time to eat a meal at a given time, there are several ways to avoid downtime. A good solution at this moment will be the consumption of a meal in the form of a carbohydrateprotein shah, eg a gainer (preparation and consumption = 2 minutes).


Effective gainers – Check prices

However, there are situations in which there is no time to eat. In this case, change the meal plan during the day. In order to deliver the required daily caloric intake to your body, you should eat this meal at a different time (on the same day) or spread the calories from this meal to other meals. In other words, eat the larger remaining meals.

“A big party is going to be going on, there will be plenty of food!”

Family meeting, party with friends, a banquet at work – each of these meetings gives you the opportunity to consume more calories than usual. What will be the best solution in this case? Do not eat at all? Eat how much? Or maybe he would eat as usual, how would it be an ordinary meal? It all depends on the effect you want to achieve.

If this is a one-off deviation from the diet, it should not be a significant result (especially if you are in the period of building muscle mass). If you are on a reduction, treat this meal as a form of CHEAT MEAL (a meal that is not included in the calorific pot), but eat in moderation (as much as in other meals – do not overdo it). Keep other meals during the day as usual.



Remember that the basis is to keep the calorific pool constant. However, deviations from the diet in the form of a meal consumed at a different time or distributed in installments will not prevent you from achieving the planned results. One-off deviations from the diet in the form of a calorie surplus should also not affect the effect.

If your goal is a competitive form, you must control yourself fully. If, however, training at the gym is your passion, hobby – do not bother with one-off deviations. We are all human!


What is under the symbol E – harmless or harmful substance?

According to Polish law, the information on the composition of the product must be placed on the packaging. Unfortunately, the client is often completely unintelligible, because it largely consists of the symbols E – they are international markings of substances added to food. These symbols are associated only with artificial dyes and preservatives, although it does not have to be that way. So what is hidden under the mysterious symbols of E? Which are harmless and which make food simply harmful?

Print a cheat sheet with sybastances that you’d better avoid. Wear it in your wallet and use it when shopping!


These symbols can be grouped as follows

E100-E199 are dyes and pigments

E200-E269 preservatives

E270-E399 antioxidants, stabilizers

E400-E499 thickening agents

above E500-additives difficult to classify


Additives in food products

Additives harmless

E-100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 111, 122, 126, 130, 132, 140, 151, 152, 160.

E-161, 162, 163, 170, 174, 175, 180, 181, 201, 202, 203, 236, 237.

E-238, 260, 261, 262, 263, 270, 280, 281, 282, 290, 300, 304, 305, 306.

E-307, 308, 309, 322, 325, 326, 327, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337.

E-382, 400, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 408, 410, 411, 413, 414, 420, 421.

E-422, 440, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475,


Additives suspicious

E-125, 141, 150, 153, 171, 172, 173, 240, 241, 477.


Additives causing disorders

– intestinal disorders – E-220, 221, 222, 223, 224.

– digestive disorders – E-338, 339, 340, 341, 407, 450, 461, 463, 466.

skin diseases – E-230, 231, 231, 233.

– destroying B12 – E-200.

– causing diseases of the circulatory system – E-250, 251, 252.


Dangerous additives

E-102, 110, 120, 124, 127, 311, 312,

Carcinogenic additives

E-123, 131, 142, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 239, 330,


Explanation of some symbols E


Turmeric (curcumin). A natural, vegetable, yellow dye from runners of the Curcuma longa plant. Consumed in large quantities may cause excessive secretion of bile. He is considered harmless.



Tartrazine. Synthetic yellow azo dye. May cause allergies. In particular, people who react allergic to aspirin (acetylsalylic acid) and asthma are at risk. Side effects difficulty in breathing, skin rash and vision problems. Its consumption is not recommended.



Quinoline yellow. Synthetic greenish-yellow dye. May cause allergies. In the rat test, after the administration of pure quinoline, liver cancer was observed.



Orange yellow. Synthetic orange azo dye. May cause allergies. In animal tests at high doses, kidney tumors have been found.



Cochineal. Natural, animal red dye. Derived from insects Dactylpius coccus cacti.



Amaranth. Synthetic red azo dye. Allowed to be used only for coloring wines for aperitifs, alcohols and eggs. In animal tests, its effect on calcium deposition in the kidneys was found. Prohibited for use in the US because there is a suspicion that it is carcinogenic. Its consumption is not recommended.



Erythrosine. Synthetic red dye. Allowed to be used only for cocktail or candied cherries, fruit salads with the addition of cherries. It can release iodine and impair thyroid function. In animal tests, cases of neoplastic thyroid lesions were found. People with thyroid problems should avoid foodstuffs colored with this substance. It is not recommended to eat.