Arginine is a relatively exogenous amino acid. Young people should deliver it to the body along with the diet, while adults are able to endogenously produce adequate amounts of arginine. In recent years, the significant effect of arginine on the body has been discovered, so it is worth taking care of its appropriate level. To ensure proper supply, it is worth knowing where arginine is, how it works and whether it should be supplemented?

The occurrence of arginine
The pool of arginine in the body, in addition to endogenous changes and intracellular protein degradation, also affects the supply of amino acids with diet. Especially for its correct level should be taken care of in the case of increased demand of the system – in the case of injuries, disease states and moments of significant burden on the body excess catabolic processes. Along with the progressive aging of the body, the production of endogenous arginine decreases and it is recommended to supplement it with the diet.

The rich source of arginine are products containing animal and vegetable protein soy, beef, pork, turkey, walnuts, cashews, hazelnuts, groundnuts, brazilian, sesame, sunflower, pumpkin seeds, almonds, linseed, chocolate, buckwheat and mackerel. Small amounts are also found in milk proteins. Only half of the arginine supplied with food to the body as a result of digestion is absorbed into the blood, and 40% breaks down in the small intestine.

The action of arginine
Arginine is formed in the urea cycle and is involved in the synthesis of proteins, creatine, urea, proline, polyamines and nitric oxide. The amino acid has a regulatory function and stimulates the secretion of glucagon, insulin, prolactin and growth hormone. The metabolic pathways of arginine vary depending on particular organs and cells.

Arginine affects the proper functioning and protection of the liver. It provides detoxification of the body by converting toxic ammonia into urea in the urea cycle.

Arginine is a substrate in the synthesis of creatine, which is a precursor to the index of normal kidney function – creatinine. Creatine plays a key role in muscle energy, influencing the improvement of oxygen metabolism and lowering the level of lactic acid. In the case of training people, this allows you to increase training loads, increase muscle mass and reduce the amount of fat.

The supply of arginine also influences the production of growth hormone (GH). GH affects the immune system and the central nervous system. Too large amounts of growth hormone negatively affect the body, increase the risk of cancer and reduce the uptake of glucose, which is an energy substrate, especially in endurance sports. The supply of arginine before bedtime stimulates the secretion of GH even more.

Arginine in the vascular endothelium is responsible for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), which stimulates the immune system, reduces inflammation, facilitates wound healing (especially in the case of burns) and dilates blood vessels. In addition, it is involved in the relaxation of smooth muscles, improves blood circulation and helps regenerate damaged muscle fibers. NO deficiency has a significant effect on the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and oxidation of LDL cholesterol molecules.

The amino acid also delays the body’s aging process thanks to its antioxidant properties and its influence on the synthesis of collagen. Arginine is needed for the production of sperm, keeping the right amount of sperm and their motility. In addition, it has a positive effect on intestinal microbiota and improves insulin sensitivity in people with type 2 diabetes, which reduces the risk of developing the disease and its subsequent complications.

The dosage of arginine
Arginine is used in the form of pure, isolated amino acid L-arginine or as synthetic compounds – AAKG (arginine with glutaric acid), hydrogen chloride or L-arginine malate. The best assimilable form is the one closest to the natural one found in food.

Arginine as a drug is used in diseases of the circulatory hypertension, ischemic disease, atherosclerosis, cerebral infarctions and blood clots, as well as in diabetes, glaucoma, infertility in men, burns and infections.

Arginine is very often supplemented by athletes to support the body’s exercise capacity. Unfortunately, there are no unequivocal studies that prove the beneficial effect of arginine supplementation in strength and endurance sports.

The recommended daily dose of arginine should be 5 grams – this is the basic dose, without any side effects. The pre- workout preparation is the most effective . If high doses of arginine are used, gastrointestinal discomfort (nausea, diarrhea, dehydration) may arise.

Contraindications to the use of arginine
Arginine should not be supplemented by people suffering from schizophrenia, pregnant women, nursing mothers, people taking anticoagulants, people with renal insufficiency, liver and bile ducts, digestive and absorption disorders and advanced hypertension.

Each supplementation should be supported by laboratory tests and consultation with a doctor. In addition, there should be a few hours between taking a dietary supplement and a medicine so that interaction does not intervene between them.

Opinions about arginine
Arginine is an amino acid necessary for the proper functioning of the body, while both excess and deficiency is not beneficial to the body. If there is too much arginine in the system, too much nitric oxide is produced, and this completely reverses its effect – instead of lowering blood pressure, it increases and stiffens the blood vessels, instead of making them more elastic. In addition, administration of high doses of arginine may disrupt the balance of other amino acids.

A rational and well-balanced diet allows you to provide the right amount of arginine so that you can feel the positive effect of this amino acid on the body.



Juniper is one of the most traditional spices of Old Polish cuisine. This indispensable addition to venison dishes and marinades for meats has gone a long way to oblivion at the expense of more and more exotic products on our market. In this article, I will try to remind you what this eternally green plant is and why it is worth to use it in your kitchen.

What is juniper?
Berberine 400mg
Juniper is a conifer plant, which is part of the cypress family. This plant, next to pines, is the largest group of coniferous representatives on earth. Despite the large diversity of species (it is assumed that there are from 50 to over 70), only two of them naturally occur in Poland. This plant is grown mainly for ornamental purposes. Very often it occurs under the name of an evergreen shrub. It owes its name to its longevity, as some species can survive for over 100 years. Juniper berries are used as a seasoning for venison dishes, while branches are often used as an ingredient in herbal mixtures for smoking meats and cold meats.

Juniper – properties

Forskolin Diamond

Juniper, however, turns out to be a great addition to dishes for our health. Above all, it is worth mentioning here in this plant oil, whose main source are fruits called pine cones. The composition of juniper oil contains substances called terpenes, among which should be distinguished such as camphene, limonene, pinene and terpineol.


These compounds have a strong warming and microcirculatory effect, which significantly affects the metabolism of tissues and facilitates the removal of unnecessary metabolites in cells. Terpenes also have significant disinfectant and bactericidal properties, whose strength is compared to antibiotics. What’s more, terpenic compounds are characterized by a strong diuretic effect.

In addition to these substances, juniper also has flavonoids and tannins. These are compounds whose activity in our body has been often presented by me in other articles.

In the case of juniper, this is mainly about stimulating properties of the digestive system, which results in faster and more efficient functioning of the intestines and stomach. In addition, they stimulate the liver to produce bile, which helps digest heavy and greasy foods.


Golden Milk, Turmeric Infusion

The use of juniper is conditioned by the way the plant is used. When talking about the external use of the healthy character of an evergreen shrub, one should take into consideration the warming and stimulating effect of congestion. Therefore, juniper is very often used as an ingredient in ointments or oils used to relieve rheumatism, neuralgia and rheumatic diseases. Massage around the airways is a very good solution for respiratory problems and colds. Juniper can also be used for anti-cellulite treatments as well in the case of excessive dandruff.

However, this is not the end of the uses of this plant. Juniper can also be used internally in the form of infusions, tinctures, as a spice that diversifies the taste of dishes, and also in the direct form – we are talking about chewing a pine cone. What causes the use of this plant inside our system? First of all it prevents the effects of overeating and reduces the problems on the part of the digestive system, such as bloating or constipation. In addition, it alleviates the symptoms of bacterial infection in the urinary tract, intensifies the beneficial activity of the liver by increasing bile secretion, stimulates appetite and clears the airways.

It should be remembered that in the case of juniper and other supplements, moderation and conscious consumption are of great importance. During the day it is recommended to chew up to 4 fruits of this plant, and juniper oil can only be used externally. Excessive supply of juniper can lead to irritation of the kidneys and stomach. Extracts from juniper in the form of infusions or tinctures are contraindicated in the case of acute inflammation of the digestive system, serious kidney and liver diseases and for women during pregnancy.


Diet first!

Diet – a term that torments most athletes. What? How? How much? Some people find it difficult to understand that it is enough to eat a healthy diet. Do not clog yourself with sweets. Try to cook yourself instead of eating fast food. Of course, this rule applies to people who train recreationally.

And what about people who are preparing for a competition? And what to eat on the day of the competition? This is not normal training, most likely the body will be subjected to a double effort and we must help him.

The role of diet in training

As in any sport, the diet plays a big role in Street Workout. One of the main ideas of Street Workout is to lead a healthy lifestyle. Healthy lifestyle – I mean meals prepared from healthy products only at home, not eating junk food and sweets. I have been eating a more strict diet for some time. Before that, I ate what was cooked at home by my mother or me.
Of course, the products we eat will depend on our well-being, and most importantly, our regeneration after training.
Two-Per-Day Tablets
Of course, you can ask someone who is experienced in the diet based on natural products, but as I wrote before, I ate what was cooked at home, and also I did not count calories.

If someone has a problem with being overweight, then arranging a diet will allow you to achieve your goal faster.

When I decided to return to the competition and actively participate in them, I had to change the approach to eating a bit. I began to count the number of calories consumed daily. I have reduced the number of fats. The biggest challenge was to determine what to eat before the competition, exactly on the day of the competition. I hate to feel heavy before the start, so before the competition preparing meals is a priority for me.

We start in the morning

You will not fight much without energy. You must know well what products give you the most energy and which are quickly absorbed.

You should also watch what your body reacts best to. For example, I know that I can not eat a lot of carbohydrates. During the performance, the muscles swell quickly. If I have a competition early in the morning, I try to plan the time so that after eating the planned meals to take off, we have 2 to 3 hours of space.
Orange Triad + Greens
In this case, about two bags of rice work well for me with a sweetener or a bit of honey. I do not eat bananas because they lie in my stomach and I feel lethargic. In my case, it may be as well rice wafers with boiled eggs.

Professions around noon – you can sleep

Yes, the first thought of the player, when he learns that the competition starts around noon – I will sleep longer. Healthy sleep is one of the elements that make up the competition. However, remember that too much sleep can harm your well-being. How long would our sleep not be, the obligation to deliver \ fuel \ to the body remains. If the start time of the competition falls around midnight, I try not to limit myself only when it comes to carbohydrates.
In this case, I increase fats, protein and reduce carbohydrates. The principle of eating planned meals 2 hours before the start is. I prepare for example scrambled eggs with onions, tomatoes and ham, 2/3 rice wafers. Then yogurt with a bit of oatmeal, raisins, Italian nuts, lasagna. So far, this meal has worked best.

You start twice?

It is a big challenge for our bodies, both mental, as well as physical. If before the first performance I am still able to with lightness to look after food, it is very tempting in this break, to eat something high-calorie. This is due to that I ate a good few hours ago, and also because of the effort at the first performance.
In this case, before the first performance, I try to eat fats, carbohydrates, and before the other mainly carbohydrates. It is hard for me to talk about the amount of everything because it is an individual matter. I like still cold citruses because they refresh well.


Bamboo powder

Bamboo powder is a bamboo extract, considered by many to be a substance rich in natural antioxidants and supporting the body in slimming. But is it really so effective? I invite you to the article.

What is bamboo powder?

Bamboo extract (phyllostachys heterocycla) is a rich substance in natural antioxidants that inhibit the absorption of glucose from the digestive tract. Bamboo symbolizes longevity in China, and in Japan – purity. Bamboo is used in medicine, in the kitchen and even in the clothing industry as antibacterial threads.

Who should use?

Bamboo extract has been used as an ingredient of dietary supplements used for weight loss. It increases the reduction of body fat and improves body structure when combined with caffeine or other thermogenic substances. Bamboo contains necessary for the biosynthesis of proteins, which in turn is an inherent element of the proper functioning of our bones, hormones and muscles, and even the immune system.

Bamboo powder – action

Bamboo extract has antioxidant and fat burning properties. It is a source of minerals such as calcium, iron, potassium, silicon, sodium, iodine, amino acids and vitamins. Bamboo has a positive effect on the joints, making them elastic and stabilizing. Thanks to the calcium and vitamin D content, it hardens bones. In addition, it has a strengthening effect on the tendon and structure of blood vessels. The teas made from it favorably affect the regulation of digestive processes and metabolism.
Organic silica from Bamboo shoots 150mg
How to dose?

There is no detailed information about the dosage of the bamboo extract. To determine the optimal dose, follow the recommendations of the supplement manufacturer or consult a specialist. The main contraindication to the use of bamboo powder supplements is hypersensitivity to this ingredient.

Digestive System Healthcare

Vegan pyramid of proper nutrition

The vegan diet is currently a very popular nutritional trend. It is a very restrictive version of a vegetarian diet, which consists of eliminating from the menu the meat, fish, eggs, milk and its products, and even honey, which is a product of bees. So how does a vegan pyramid of proper nutrition look like? Is there any risk of deficiency when using this diet? We will also present a few recipes for vegan milk, a drink that is a vegan substitute for standard cow’s milk.

What is veganism?
Veganism is a lifestyle that mainly involves the use of a radical variety of vegetarian diet, that is, which is based on vegetable products. Unlike vegetarianism, veganism completely excludes from the menu not only meat but also milk, cheese, eggs, and honey. However, veganism is not only the use of a meatless diet but also the elimination of animal products from all other aspects of life.

Vegan pyramid of proper nutrition
Despite the exclusion of all animal products from the vegan diet, it is considered a very varied way of feeding. The vegan pyramid indeed deviates from the pyramid of healthy nutrition and physical activity, which is in force in Poland but combines the emphasis on the recommended high consumption of vegetable products.

At the base of the vegan food, the pyramid is, of course, vegetables and fruits. It is recommended to eat mainly raw, as least processed vegetables and fruits. It is also worth paying attention to the fact that they are colored – orange, yellow, green or blue. Then they provide our body with various vitamins and minerals. In the vegan diet, the ratio of fruit to vegetables should be 1 4.

At the next level of the pyramid, there are cereal products, which are a very good source of dietary fiber, iron, magnesium, zinc and B vitamins. Of course, it is best to choose whole grain products, such as whole-grain sourdough bread, oatmeal, buckwheat, millet, all kinds of groats, brown rice, wholemeal pasta. At the next level of the vegan pyramid, instead of dairy, there are vegetable drinks, preferably enriched with vitamin B12, iron, and omega-3 acids. You can prepare them, for example, from soybeans, nuts, coconuts or cereals.

The source of protein in the vegan diet are legume seeds. It should be included in the menu every day to avoid possible protein deficiencies. Legumes are worth eating with the addition of raw vegetables, which are a source of vitamin C. At the penultimate level of the pyramid, there are omega-3 acids. Due to the lack of fish in the vegan diet, it is worth to bet on plant sources of fatty acids, e.g. rapeseed oil, linseed oil, olive oil, linseed, chia seeds or nuts, mainly Italian ones.

At the very top of the vegan food, the pyramid is sugar. He is indeed vegan, therefore the temptation to limit it is large. This does not mean, of course, that it is recommended to eat it. Both those who come to life in the standard Pyramid of healthy nutrition and physical activity, as well as those who are on a vegan diet, should limit to a minimum the consumption of simple sugars, highly processed, fried and fatty foods.

In addition to the above-mentioned permitted products in the vegan diet, hydration is equally important. It is worth consuming water in the amount of about 1.5-2 l / day. Also, you can include all vegan drinks in the diet, such as coffee, tea, natural fruit and vegetable juices.

Some useful tips before starting a vegan diet
If we are considering the transition to veganism, it is worth doing it gradually, systematically, never from day today. It is necessary to eliminate meat, fish, eggs and dairy products from our daily menu, however, each of these products must be eliminated one by one, eg every two weeks we exclude one group of products from the diet. It is also worth learning to replace traditional culinary techniques, such as frying, their healthier counterparts, such as steaming and baking. Thanks to this, the vegan diet will contain more nutrients contained mainly in vegetables and fruits.

Risk of shortages in the vegan diet
Undoubtedly, a diet based on plant-derived products is helpful in the prevention of many diseases and achieving a slim figure. However, to achieve satisfactory results, the vegan diet must be properly balanced. Unfortunately, when eating a vegan diet, the occurrence of nutritional deficiencies is highly likely.

The most common shortages concern:
– proteins – to avoid its deficit, one should consume green leafy vegetables, legume seeds, nuts, seeds, tofu, quinoa and vegetable drinks;

– calcium – to minimize the risk of deficiency of this mineral it is worth to diet full of green leafy vegetables, broccoli, almonds, dried apricots, hazelnuts, tofu, sesame, amaranth, quinoa, and enriched plant drinks;

– iron – to minimize the risk of shortage, one should consume legume seeds, nuts, cereal, green leafy vegetables, beets and beetroot leaven, seeds and parsley;

– omega-3 fatty acids – mainly due to the non-use of marine fish, it is worthwhile that the vegan diet abounds in products such as rapeseed oil, linseed oil, olive oil, hemp seeds, nuts or seaweed.

Health & Beauty Healthcare Strengthen immunity

Glutation – a powerful antioxidant

Glutathione is a naturally occurring substance in the cells of all organisms. Considered a “natural guardian of physiology” due to its detoxification properties. Does it, in addition to the role of the chief antioxidant, affect other processes in our body? If you want to find out, I invite you to the following article.


  1. What is glutathione?

Glutathione is called the most important antioxidant of the human body. The compound is a tripeptide consisting of amino acid residues of compounds such as cysteine, glycine or glutamic acid. It is worth mentioning that glutathione is a substance that occurs naturally in all plant and animal organisms. It is conditioned by the fact that it is unstable outside the body.

Glutathione is present in most food products that are available on store shelves. However, its largest content is found in fruits and vegetables. In order to increase its level in the body, it is worth enriching your previous menu with products such as

– an avocado;

– broccoli;

– brussels sprouts;

– onion;

– Garlic;

– cabbage;

– turmeric;

– asparagus.


  1. Glutation – action

The described tripeptide is primarily an antioxidant. Therefore, its main task is to destroy harmful free radicals and to remove heavy metals such as arsenic, lead or mercury, which get into the body from food and air. Glutation also delays the aging process and the associated consequences – it supports the functioning of the immune system decreasing with age. It is also worth adding that glutathione has a unique feature consisting in the repair of proteins that have been destroyed by free radicals.

In addition to the typical, detoxifying nature, glutathione performs a number of other functions in our body. It participates in the transport of amino acids, is responsible for the production of coenzymes, and is also necessary for the proper functioning and reproduction of lymphocytes. These cells are responsible for the control of pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, glutathione is a compound involved in the conversion of hydrogen peroxide into water, which increases the viability of erythrocytes.

Glutation is also recommended for people who lead an active lifestyle. In addition to cleansing the body, it helps maintain adequate muscle strength and a high level of fitness. The overall effect is to improve performance and to reduce the time needed for regeneration. What’s more, glutathione inhibits the activity of cortisol, which is already often described, which at the same time supports the work and synthesis of testosterone.

Another example of the widespread, pro-health nature of glutathione is its importance in the treatment of cancer. In addition to the mentioned antioxidant properties and the production of protective lymphocytes, it has one more feature – it is a natural protection of the body against the harmful effects of chemo-and radiotherapy.

Cancer cells are not able to produce glutathione in contrast to healthy ones. The reduced concentration of substances in sick cells increases their sensitivity to the effects of oncological treatment. In turn, a high level of glutathione in healthy cells weakens the side effects of anti-cancer drugs (including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or hair loss).


  1. Dosage and side effects of glutathione

Due to the very wide access to glutathione, there is no information on the exact doses of supplementation for humans. There is, however, a belief that the use of two servings of 250 mg per day is enough to supplement the daily requirement for this substance. Numerous studies prove that glutathione should be delivered to the body with other substances enhancing its action. We are talking about previously described vitamins B12, C and E.

The risk of glutathione deficiency is real and at the same time very rare due to the prevalence of this substance in many food products. Low level of glutathione in the blood means the pathological state of our body, which testifies to the problems of the body with the removal of free radicals. The result may be digestive problems, decreased immunity and, over time, functional disorders of the internal organs.


  1. Opinions

In the medical literature one can come across numerous studies confirming the use of glutathione in the treatment of cancer. First one of them was carried out on a group of thirteen patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.


L-glutamine – a compendium of knowledge

Glutamine, is it worth using? Perhaps for many people the answer to this question is not unambiguous, that’s why this article was created. It will dispel all doubts about the appropriateness of using glutamine in body sports – bringing her advantages and action.

  1. What is glutamine?

Glutamine is an endogenous amino acid. It is formed in the body as a result of transformation from glutamic acid. Synthesis occurs in many tissues, but only the lungs, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue can release it into the blood. It is an ingredient of most vegetable and animal proteins. In the human body it accounts for about 70% of the amino acid pool.

Glutamine can occur in three forms

– L-glutamine – a free form that has been synthetically produced. Metabolism of this form is very fast. This is due to the rapid use of it by intestinal bacteria. Consequently, it positively influences the improvement of the digestive process;

– N-acetyl-L-glutamine (NAG) – the combination of glutamine with acetic acid significantly increases the absorption of this form to muscle cells. In this case, a smaller dose is enough to achieve the same result;

– glutamine peptide – is formed by the transformation of gluten obtained from wheat, therefore it can not be used by people allergic to gluten. It is slowly absorbed and thus allows long-term use of glutamine.


  1. L-glutamine effect. What gives you glutamine?

Glutamine is an energy fuel for red blood cells of the intestinal mucosa, liver cells and lymphocytes (immune cells). It prevents the disappearance of intestinal villi, prevents the passage of bacteria. It strengthens the immune system by biosynthesis of immune bodies and macrophages. In addition, it regulates the acid-base balance. Glutamine is found in large amounts in the brain. It improves his work and improves concentration and memory. It also helps to increase the concentration of growth hormone in the blood, which participates in the synthesis processes taking place in the body. What’s more, it helps in burning fat. This is related to the regulation of the level of insulin and glucose in the blood, which is especially important for diabetics.

Among scientists, opinions about glutamine are divided. Researchers at the University of Oxford have shown that glutamine given to marathon runners immediately after the run and again 2 hours later reduces the risk of infection and regulates the activity of immune cells. Only 19% of people consuming glutamine supplements fell ill during the week of running. While in the group of people taking placebo, 51% got sick. Parry-Bollings et al. Believe that glutamine supplements can reduce the risk of infection and promote the growth of muscle mass. Other studies have not confirmed the effect of glutamine on muscle growth.

An experiment was carried out in which strength training people participated. They were divided into two groups – one consuming supplements with glutamine, the other taking placebo. After six weeks, the same muscle mass gain was observed in both groups. However, manufacturers of dietary supplements with glutamine argue that glutamine has an effect on the growth of muscle tissue. It works by saving protein in the body during intense physical exercise. It hydrates the muscles and increases the volume of muscle cells. It reduces the activity of enzymes that lead to the breakdown of muscle proteins and inhibits the activity of stress hormones, including cortisol, the concentration of which increases after intensive training. Hammarqvist et al. Conducted a study in which they examined the effect of glutamine on muscle condition in patients after abdominal surgery.Twenty-two patients took part in the study, 13 of whom received a placebo and 9 of a glutamine supplement. In patients receiving glutamine, significantly lower loss of this amino acid in skeletal muscle, better protein metabolism and increased nitrogen balance were observed.


Glutamine and burns

Glutamine is crucial when it comes to burns. Burn is tissue damage due to high temperature or chemical substances. Most of them are minor burns requiring emergency relief. The problem is burns covering a minimum of 20% of the body surface, known as heavy. In this case, comprehensive treatment is required. Glutamine stimulates the immune system, reduces the number of infectious complications, shortens treatment time and reduces the mortality rate. During burns, intestinal mucosa, kidneys, immune system and liver need significant amounts of glutamine. This demand can not be met by releasing the amino acid from skeletal muscle. Therefore, the European Association of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition recommends supplementation of glutamine in people with burns.Garrel and Zhou in their studies showed a beneficial effect of glutamine on wound healing and shortening the duration of treatment. The positive effect of glutamine on burns has also confirmed the thorough analysis of all published data on this topic by Windle.


Glutamine and the intestines

More and more is being said about the so-called leaky intestinal syndrome. It is an autoimmune disease that contributes to the development of many other diseases, such as thyroid disease – Hashimoto, arthritis or skin problems.

Glutamine as a source of energy for intestinal cells may have particular significance in its inflammatory diseases. It reduces inflammation and oxidative stress, which arises due to the appearance of a leak in the intestinal walls. Van der Hulst et al. In their research proved that glutamine supplementation increases the intestinal integrity in people after surgical trauma. In addition, it has a beneficial effect in the prevention of gastric ulcer. It provides cells of the mucous membrane of the stomach with energy and contributes to their better blood supply through the dilation of blood vessels. Better blood supply to the gastric mucosa positively affects the healing of inflammatory changes.


  1. Glutamine for an athlete

The interest of glutamine among athletes is due to its anabolic properties against skeletal muscles. This amino acid can be transformed into asparagine, arginine and lysine, which are necessary for the construction of collagen proteins. In addition, the administration of glutamine leads to an increase in the proline and hydroxyproline concentrations necessary for these processes.

Glutamine is involved in the synthesis of muscle proteins and supports the removal of ammonia from the body. The anabolic effect (effect on the increase of muscle mass) is associated with the secretion of growth hormone.

Glutamine is also an extremely important factor in maintaining the intra-cardinal balance, as it regulates body temperature, pH, blood pressure, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide and the volume of body fluids.

Glutathione is formed from glutamine. It is a basic antioxidant. Physical activity is associated with an increased level of oxidative stress. Hence the necessity of including antioxidant components that fight free radicals and thus eliminate the problem.

The effect of glutamine on the level of sugar in the blood is also beneficial. Thanks to this, the energy supply to the muscles is constant. Glutamine affects the recovery of glycogen stores in the muscles. The carbohydrate reserve accumulated in this form allows you to increase endurance and prolong the possibility of physical exertion.

In addition to supporting muscle building, glutamine inhibits the breakdown of muscle fibers. Playing sports involves the formation of microdamages of muscle fibers. Glutamine limits this process and allows for faster regeneration.

Physical exercise with a low or moderate degree does not significantly reduce the level of this amino acid. However, very intense and long-lasting activity reduces the synthesis and uptake of glutamine in the body

Particularly recommended is the supplementation of this ingredient in endurance sports (marathon runners, long-distance cyclists). In this case, the process of energy production in the body and the production of neurotransmitters are disrupted.


  1. Dosage of L-glutamine

Glutamine is a relatively endogenous amino acid. It means that the body has the ability to synthesize it from glutamic acid and ammonia. However, in some physiological states, the demand for it increases significantly. In order to prevent shortages it is necessary to supply it with additional supply from the outside. During intense training, stress, injuries, burns, major operations, intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy, its amount in the blood and in the muscles is reduced. This leads to the weakening of the immune system and increases the susceptibility to various infections. Additional supplementation of glutamine can bring beneficial effects.

Many studies have confirmed that glutamine supplementation in situations of chronic stress, certain disease states and during intense workouts is critical to improving health.

There is no specific daily dose of glutamine. The daily requirement of an active person is 0.8-1.2 g per 10 kg body weight. In the case of bodybuilders, this amount may increase to 2 g per 10 kg of body weight. The recommended dose of glutamine is 5-15 g / day. It is best to eat glutamine in the morning on an empty stomach, immediately after training or at bedtime. In patients with burns it is recommended to ingest 0.3 g of glutamine per kg of body weight per day for a minimum of 5 days from the burn. Studies have shown that a six-week dose of 30 g per day improves some cardiovascular risk factors and body composition in people with type 2 diabetes. It should be remembered that glutamine can also be included in protein supplements.


  1. Side effects

To date, no side effects associated with the use of glutamine have been reported. The administration of exogenous glutamine is safe and can be beneficial in many situations, for example chemotherapy and exposure to radiation.

In the case of diabetic patients, the use of glutamine is not recommended. During its metabolism in the liver a large part is converted to glucose. People suffering from epilepsy, allergy to monosodium glutamate, and liver disease should also not supplement this component.


  1. Summary

Glutamine has a number of positive properties on the human body. It is an energy source for lymphocytes, thanks to which it strengthens the body’s immunity. It thus improves overall health. It works great during prolonged stress and intense workouts. It is also important for the condition of the digestive tract, and as you know, health begins in the intestines.



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Bean A., Nutrition in sport. A complete guide, Poznañ 2013, 116-117.

Boelens PG et al., Glutamine alimentation in catabolic state, The Journal of Nutrition 2001, 131 (9), 25695-25775S.

Ciborowska H, ??Rudnicka A, Dietetics. Nutrition of a healthy and sick person, Warsaw 2010, 99.

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Greenfield JR et al., Oral glutamine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects, “The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition” 2009, 89 (1), 106- 113.

Jarosz M., Bu³hak-Jachymczyk B., Norms of human nutrition, Warsaw 2014, 62.

Mansour A. et al., Effect of glutamine supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes, “Nutrition” 2015, 31 (1), 119-126.

Payne A., Barker HM, Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Wroc³aw 2017, 137.

Parry-Billings M. et al., Plasma amino acid concentrations in overtraining syndrome, possible effects on the immune system, “Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise” 1992, 24 (12), 1353-1358.

Rapin JR, Wiernsperger N., Possible Links between Intestinal Permeability and Food Processing and Potential Therapeutic Niche for Glutamine, “Clinics” 2010, 65 (6), 635-643.

Rowicka G., Czajka M., The importance of diet in the prevention and treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, “Medycyna Rodzinna” 2011, 1, 15-18.

Skrzyñska S., Food intervention in patients with severe burns, “Wspó³czesna Dietetyka” 2016, 8.

Welbourne TC, Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995, 61 (5), 1058-1061.

Iwaniak P. et al., Nutritional factors in the diet of pregnant women and their significance for the proper development of their offspring, Trends in human nutrition, edited by Karwowska M., Gustawa W., Kraków 2015, 73-80.

Paw³owska M., Effect of L-alanyl-L-glutamine on the structure and mineralization of femoral piglets, “Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Medicina Veterinaria” 2007, 6 (1), 21-30.


Citrulline malate – a real tamer of fatigue

Citrulline malate is one of the supplements that will directly support our effort in training. It belongs to substances that are used for perseverance. Unlike some of them, it is characterized by high effectiveness and scientifically proven activity. See for yourself what citruline malate is and is a real tamer of fatigue!


Citrulline malate – what is citrulline malate

Citrulline malate is a combination of citrulline, or amino acid and malic acid, into one molecule. Citrulline is a derivative of another amino acid – ornithine. It is not an amino acid that builds muscle, but it has another important role by participating in the urea cycle, where in the course of metabolism it contributes to the neutralization of toxic ammonia. Malic acid is an organic chemical compound, including in apples and rhubarb. It is a by-product of carbohydrate metabolism. Its ionized form (malate) occurs as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). He also participates in energy transformations taking place in every cell. The combination of both mentioned components into one molecule brings significant benefits for athletes and physically active people.

What does citrulline supplementation give you?

Citrulline malate is seen primarily as a supplement increasing the production of nitric oxide. Thus, it improves blood flow to the trained muscle groups. It gives the effect of the so-called muscle pump. However, it is not the only advantage that gives us supplementation with this compound. In addition to the mentioned effect of nitric oxide production, citrulline malate also intensifies the synthesis of creatine, which in combination with malic acid generates significant energy reserves, resulting in greater muscular and aerobic endurance. Scientific research also shows that the use of citrulline malate may reduce the feeling of fatigue. A positive effect on the renal uptake of bicarbonates was also noted, which improved the overall acid-base balance. One of the very interesting studies showed that the use of citrulline malate was associated with a reduction in the severity of muscle pain. So this supplement made the so-called “Sores” were less noticeable. It is worth adding that citrulline malate works synergistically with various forms of arginine. This combination gives even more effective effects of supplementation. As you can see, supplementation with citrulline malate may have wide applications in supporting the generally understood form of sports.

Citrulline malate – dosage

The best time to take citrulline malate is the peri-exercise period. The recommended dose is 4 – 8 grams per day. You can use monopreparations containing only this compound, but also a good solution may be pre-workout stack supplements, which contains not only citrulline, but also arginine, creatine and stimulants of the central nervous system, such as caffeine, but the dose of citrulline will be a bit smaller.

Citrulline malate is a safe component. There are no undesirable side effects other than the “muscle pump” effect, which may interfere with sport disciplines that require high efficiency and precision. It is recommended only caution in the use of this supplement to people with cardiovascular disease or gastrointestinal dysfunctions.

Citrulline malate – side effects

Cytrulin is one of the three amino acids involved in the urea cycle, and therefore it is an essential amino acid in the body. Even taking daily doses of 15 grams does not cause negative reactions on the part of the digestive system. No side effects were found in the studies. However, caution should be exercised when using drugs to lower blood pressure or potency.

Healthcare Senior

Lutein and the aging process

Green leafy vegetables, among others such as spinach and kale are the favorites chosen in particular by people who care about their health. As it turns out, eating them can also affect better behavior of cognitive functions.

A study at the University of Illinois proved the positive relationship between eating foods rich in lutein – spinach, kale, avocado or eggs, and nerve connections.

The analysis included 60 people aged between 25 and 45. Participants who were characterized by high intake of leafy vegetables showed a neuron response at a similar level as the younger group, not like their peers.

Thanks to the above observation, we have another, very important, reason to eat dishes rich in spinach or kale. They contain in addition to a large amount of vitamins, i.e., vit. C, vit. K, vit. E, fiber also compounds with anti-cancer activity and delaying the aging process, as well as improving memory and concentration.

During the aging process, people often experience a decline in both physical and mental activity. However, this process begins much earlier than we think. It becomes extremely important to make the society aware of how much can be achieved by introducing into your diet products whose consumption allows you to stay healthy.

No wonder that since ancient times outstanding personalities have been interested in how food affects health. For years, we have been trying to learn about the properties of various compounds found in specific products to ensure life in great shape. Therefore, it is important to eat the food at the right moment when the chosen substance can bring the most benefits, as in this case lutein.

Lutein is a nutrient that the body is unable to synthesise itself and must be delivered along with the diet. It accumulates in the tissues of the brain, but also the eye.

The experience of Khan and colleagues shows that lutein can play a protective role in the aging process, where the risk of senile dementia increases. In people with higher levels of lutein, neural connections responsible for cognitive functions were better involved.

This research focused on the participants’ attention. The next step in the analysis is also to assess the impact of lutein on science and memory.

Nevertheless, without waiting for further publications, you should boldly enjoy the benefits of nature. The vitamin and mineral bomb in green leafy vegetables will surely give us strength and vitality. And for the warming up of the culinary adventure with kale or spinach we present the recipe for “Holiday Green Cocktail”

1 serving

  • A glass of cow’s milk or vegetable drink (rice, soy, almond, etc.)
  • 2 table spoons of barley flakes
  • A handful of spinach
  • 1 kiwi
  • For the taste of lemon juice


Flakes pour boiling water. Washed spinach, peeled kiwi, combine with the flakes. Add milk, lemon juice and about 150ml of water. All blend to a smooth consistency. You can add more water as you like.



Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Alicia R. Covello, Ginger E. Reeser, Billy R. Hammond, Lisa M. Renzi-Hammond, Naiman A. Khan. The Role of Retinal Carotenoids and Ages on Neuroelectric Indices of Attentional Control. Early to Middle-Aged Adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2017;


Dietary supplement – what does it really mean?

Each of you has certainly met with the term – dietary supplement. But have you ever wondered why a given product is called a dietary supplement? What are supplements and why are they used? The supplementary market brings gigantic profits, and products referred to as dietary supplements are available in every pharmacy and store. I invite you to read this article.

  1. What is a dietary supplement?
  2. Why are they used?
  3. Who decides about what becomes a dietary supplement?
  4. Applications


  1. What is a dietary supplement?

Dietary supplement is a substance, supplement supplementing the diet with essential nutrients for health (belong to this group, among others vitamins, minerals and other exogenous substances) which may be missing in the daily diet of a person. Supplements are in the form of tablets, capsules, powders, lotions and gels. Dietary supplements are products sold in a form that allows easy and precise dosage and are not treated as medicines (sales are carried out by stores and pharmacies)


  1. Why are they used?

Currently, the rapidly changing world and the ever-faster pace of life mean that people have less and less time to look after the diversity of their diet. Too often, they are monotonously and in a hurry. The diet is more and more barren. In order to remedy this, producers of the most needed micro- and macroelements started to produce in the form of dietary supplements. Not without significance is the fact that mass-produced food and often highly processed food is poor in vitamins, minerals and substances with health-promoting effects.

Dietary supplements are used just to restore a wholesome diet full of value. However, it is not allowed to replace a balanced diet with supplements, because nutrients of natural origin are more desirable and valuable for our body than their synthetic counterparts.


  1. Who decides about what becomes a dietary supplement?

From July 31, 2003, European Union countries are obliged to adjust their rights so as to harmonize with the EU regulations regulating the market of dietary supplements. EU law clearly defines which vitamins, minerals and health-promoting substances can be used for the production of supplements and in what form and form they can be made. The European Commission cares for the unification of EU law in member countries.

However, there is a so-called borderland zone, which the European Union has not specified legally, and which include products that meet the criteria for both medicinal products and dietary supplements.


  1. Applications

Dietary supplements are very much needed and in many cases valuable products that complement our diet. We just need to remember that supplements are COMPLETE and we can not replace them with a balanced diet. As in everything, here also the key to health is moderation.