Health & Beauty Healthcare


Olive already settled in Polish homes permanently. This is probably due to the Mediterranean diet, which is considered the healthiest in the world. Despite the consumption of large amounts of fat by the inhabitants of Mediterranean countries, the percentage of people with cardiovascular diseases is negligible. All this thanks to monounsaturated omega-9 vegetable fats, which predominate in olive oil.
Olive Leaf Extract 500mg

The best olive oil
The choice on the market is huge – everyone who regularly shopping in the supermarket knows this. We usually choose the cheapest because we think that each oil is the same. However, the method of obtaining it is evidence of quality and health properties. Cheap oil is most often obtained by chemical extraction and refining of olive pomace left over from the first pressing. In other words – it is a waste product after what is most valuable. Carefully read the labels and choose extra virgin oil, i.e. from the first pressing. You can also look for unfiltered oil, which contains 30% more antioxidants. Olive oil should be sold in a dark bottle to protect against the sun, which affects the rancidity of fat. It does not have to be stored in the fridge.

Olive Leaf 300mg

Precious oil
About 55-83% of olive oil is oleic acid, which as a substitute for saturated fats can play a protective role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and heart disease. There have been many studies on the consumption of olive oil and its effect on atherosclerosis. Oleic acid helps to reduce cholesterol and prevents lipid oxidation in LDL lipoprotein particles. Therefore, it counteracts the formation of inflammation, which is the main cause of atherosclerotic plaque formation. At the same time, it reduces the concentration of this fraction in the blood and increases the concentration of HDL fraction, which counteracts the accumulation of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries.

The phytosterols contained in it are also responsible for such properties of the oil. Many years of research show that the daily consumption of phytosterols can prevent the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the blood vessels. In the daily diet, the largest part should be occupied by β-sitosterol, which in comparison with other phytosterols is found in the most abundant oil. Oleuropein is also an important substance for the cardiac system – it lowers blood pressure, dilates blood vessels and has a diastolic effect.

Olive oil – not just for the heart
Vitamin E and polyphenols (found only in extra virgin olive oil) contained in olive oil as antioxidants inhibit the production of free radicals, which can affect the formation of tumors by damage to the genetic material of cells. Many epidemiological studies confirm the lower incidence of cancer of various organs, mainly the large intestine, in people who used the Mediterranean diet based on olive oil.

However, squalene in olive oil shows antibacterial properties, helps in detoxifying liver functions and supports pancreatic regeneration, which reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes. Squalene works by binding oxygen molecules, thereby delivering it to the cells, also improves the transfer of information between cells and improves flexibility skin.
EFAs Olive Oil


Equilibrium of omega acids

Olive oil is a rich source of omega-9 – oleic acid. As mentioned earlier, it plays a very important role in the prevention of ischemic heart disease. For this reason, the Mediterranean diet is recommended as an element of cardiovascular disease prevention.

For the proper functioning of our body, also very important are polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 acids, which must be delivered with food. They play an important role, among others in the functioning of the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Due to the low content of omega-3 fatty acids in olive oil, it is important to include in your daily diet products that contain them, such as fatty fish, nuts or other oils (rapeseed oil and linseed oil).

The oil itself should be used primarily in the cold, eg add to salads or lightly chilled soup. This will ensure the stability of fatty acids and their beneficial effects on health. Frying and too strong heating oxidizes fat and turns it into a strong carcinogen. It is permissible to fry in low heat and a small amount of oil. You can also add a little water to the pan, which will slow down the healing process.

Healthcare Strengthen immunity

How to avoid lack of immunity during intensive trainings

Physical activity has a significant impact on the functioning of the immune system. Prolonged, high-intensity workouts can adversely affect the immune system. They help to reduce the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) and lead to the so-called immunosuppression induced by physical exercise. During it, the immune system is compromised, it opens the immunological window for microorganisms. Such a change can take up to 72 hours. Also, there are inadequate post-workout regeneration, poor diet, an insufficient amount of vitamins and minerals, increased oxidative stress, fatigue, insufficient sleep. All this can affect the frequent breaks in physical training caused by a cold. If you often catch an infection or are in a preparatory period, you should pay special attention to several elements.

 Carbohydrates during physical activity

All PancreasCarbohydrates consumed during physical activity can affect the reduction of metabolic stress, contribute to the maintenance of blood glucose. The use of a carbohydrate-rich diet and their introduction during prolonged training (30-60 g / h), reduces the level of circulating stress hormones (including adrenaline and cortisol), anti-inflammatory cytokines (eg interleukin 6 and 10) and delays the appearance of fatigue.
Hydratation of the body

Taking fluids during the activity prevents dehydration of the body (disrupting the fluid balance contributes to an increase in the concentration of stress hormones). Also, it influences the secretion of saliva, which in its composition contains antimicrobial proteins, including immunoglobulin A (IgA), lysozyme, amylase, lactoferrin, and defensin. Salivation during exercise is reduced. In combination with dehydration, there is reduced secretion of antimicrobial proteins. Regular intake of liquids in the amount of 100-250 ml every 20 minutes prevents the development of the presented situation.


ProbioBalance Woman Balance 20 mld.Probiotics are live bacterial cultures that, given in an appropriate amount, have a beneficial effect on the health of the host. The clinical benefits of probiotics result from the change in the intestinal microflora and increase the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Also, they affect the modification of the secretion of macrophages and lymphocytes and the increased expression of antimicrobial peptides. Support for probiotic supplements should be considered in people who have recurrent or persistent colds of the upper respiratory tract (URTI). URI includes colds, tracheitis, laryngitis, as well as symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat and headaches.

Probiotics can be found in food products such as buttermilk, kefir, fermented vegetables – pickled cucumbers, cabbage, and in the form of tablets or soluble sachets. Most studies suggest the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation in the amount of 10¹º, i.e. about 10 billion. Some preparations available on the market in 2015 contain 25-50 billion bacteria per dose. Research and clinical experience by the Australian Institute of Sport have shown that most athletes safely tolerate a dose in 35-50 billion bacteria of commercial products. Lower doses can benefit individuals. Probiotics for active people should contain bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus or/and Bifidobacterium.

Vitamin D

The discovery of the VDR receptor for vitamin D in most human extracellular cells has signaled its effect on other systems, including the immune system. He participates in many immunological processes, including in the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, the production of antibodies, as well as the regulation of the immune response. It is available in some foods such as eggs, milk, cheese. We can get it in the form of dietary supplements and completely for free through skin synthesis. In Poland, due to geographical locations, supplementation with vitamin D is required from September to the end of April for children and adolescents (1-18 years) in the amount of 600-1000 (IU) per day, for adults 800-2000 IU per day, for athletes 1000 -2000 IU per day. The permissible upper dose of vitamin D for an adult with normal body weight is 4000 IU per day.

Omega-3 acids

Vitamin D3Fatty acids affect the modulation of the immune system in several ways. Some of them produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g. fatty acids from the omega-6 family, contribute to the development of inflammation. Antagonistic anti-inflammatory action (reducing the number of cytokines) shows omega-3 acids. They should pay for your special attention. Physical effort increases the formation of inflammatory mediators, which is why acid supplementation is not only recommended during the period of increased infection. The recommended dose is DHA + EPA omega-3 – 650 mg, including DHA 350 mg.

Apart from supplementation with omega-3 acids, it is very important to maintain an appropriate ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 in the diet – it should be 31 (in the standard Polish diet it is 201). To keep the right proportion, enter sea fish and vegetable oils (rapeseed, linseed oil, olive oil) into your diet, and limit the consumption of processed foods, sweets, grape seed oil.


Glutamine 1400 Mega CapsGlutamine is an amino acid whose reception is worth considering among athletes in the infectious period (fall and spring). It is an energy substrate for lymphocytes, erythrocytes and bone marrow cells. Also, it is worth mentioning that consumed after training can reduce the feeling of discomfort (especially important for people who have a problem with eating a meal right after training). Nevertheless, despite its advantages, 100% of the effectiveness of glutamine has not been demonstrated to support the immune system after exercise. Only a few researchers emphasize its positive impact on URTI. Suggested doses are 0.1 g / kg BW or 5-10 g.


Cod – nutritional values and health properties

Cod is a source of wholesome protein and acids from the omega-3 family that have a beneficial effect on the heart.In addition, cod is a treasury of vitamins and microelements, which have, inter alia, a stimulating effect on the immune system.

Cod belongs to sea fish, it is also found in the Baltic, but the one available on the Polish market comes mainly from the Arctic seas.This fish, despite seasonality, is available throughout the year.Cod meat has a white color and few bones and a delicate fishy smell.Cod can be prepared in many ways.Check what nutritional value the cod has and what dishes you can prepare from it.

Cod source of protein

Cod contains 18 g of wholesome protein per 100 g of meat, which is why it can be treated as an alternative to red meat and poultry.It provides exogenous amino acids, i.e. those that can not be produced by the body.In the cod we find lysine (1.64 g per 100 g), leucine (1.45 g per 100 g), valine (0.92 g per 100 g), isoleucine (0.82 g per 100 g) and threonine (0 , 78 g per 100 g).


Check also: Protein, protein, how much should we consume per day?


Cod is a wealth of unsaturated fatty acids

Cod belongs to the lean fish, 100 g of meat contains only 82 kcal, so it is recommended for people on a diet.The undoubted advantage of cod is the low content of saturated fatty acids, while the high acids of the omega-3 family (0.2 g per 100 g of meat), which are important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.In addition, cod contains low cholesterol, only 45 mg per 100 g.


Read also: Krill oil vs fish oil: which is better for you?


Cod contains vitamins and minerals

Cod is a rich source of selenium, 100 g of cod meat has 33.1 μg of selenium, which means it covers almost half of the daily adult’s needs for this element.In addition, the fish has a high content of phosphorus (203 mg), vitamin B12 (0.91 μg), vitamin A (12 μg) and vitamin D3 (0.9 μg).

Cod for whom is it indicated?

Cod due to the nutritional content of high quality protein, fatty acids from the omega-3 family, low cholesterol content, low calorie content and high content of phosphorus, selenium and vitamins A and D3 should be a diet component of both healthy and pregnant women (Atlantic cod characterized by low mercury contamination), children and the sick.

Due to the high content of omega-3 fatty acids, cod can be used in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and hypertension

Fish Oil 1000mg

Omega-3s normalize triglycerides in the blood and have a protective effect on the heart and blood vessels, also have anti-inflammatory effects, therefore they should be included in the diet of people with gout or degenerative diseases of the joints.In addition, selenium and vitamin D3, in which cod is rich, increase immunity.

In addition, cod is a good source of potassium electrolyte responsible in the body for the proper functioning of muscles, regulating mineral metabolism, involved in the regulation of blood pressure and kidney function.Cod is recommended for people exposed to potassium deficiencies, such as people on a reduction diet, taking laxatives, diuretics, lowering blood pressure, struggling with diarrhea or vomiting.


You can read also: The role and qualities of fat in the diet


Vitamin D – a vitamin of life

Vitamin D is called the vitamin of life, because it is crucial in the functioning of many organs of our body and without it it is impossible to preserve health. Despite the fact that it can be obtained from food and the sun through synthesis in the skin, up to 90% of the population of our continent suffers from too low a level of this vitamin in the body.

Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency does not hurt and does not give specific symptoms so that we are not able to detect shortages with the “naked eye”. Bearing in mind that almost all of us have deficiencies of this vitamin, especially in autumn and winter, it is worth considering whether we certainly do not feel the symptoms of this deficit, but we do not associate them with a deficiency.

  • Chronic fatigue,
  • Worsening of mood,
  • Frequent infections,
  • Weight gain,
  • Recurrent injuries.

Do you know it? These ailments tease us especially in autumn because these are some of the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency.

You are not the only ones

Vitamin D deficiencies are among the most common in the world. This problem affects about a billion people! And the consequences can be really dangerous


  • Osteomalacia manifested by bone pain resulting from abnormal bone mineralization,
  • Osteoporosis which affects more and more elderly women,
  • Rickets in children,
  • Depression,
  • Increased risk of developing civilization diseases, which is suggested by the latest research.

Is the sun enough for us?

Unfortunately, as much as 90% of Europeans have too low levels of vitamin D in the body. To put it too low, I mean the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below 30 nanograms per milliliter. In our latitude, due to the large distance from the equator, unfortunately, we are not able to fully use vitamin D. In autumn and winter, the angle of incidence of light does not allow for skin synthesis, while stocks that we can get in the summer end up in 2-3 months.

In which products will we find the vitamin of life?

Of course, vitamin D can be obtained from food products, but in order to cover the body’s needs, we would have to eat unimaginably large amounts of egg yolks, butter or milk which would not be healthy, because then we would lead to deficiencies of other vitamins, while replanting with cholesterol. And vitamin D from fish? As much as possible, several hundred grams of wild sea fish a day will help to provide a large dose of vitamin D. Let’s think only if we know where to buy wild sea fish, can we afford it and would we be able to eat every day from 500 to 700grams of fish a day, how is it how long? Consuming such large amounts of fish, unfortunately, we would supply too much heavy metals to our tissues. It is better to reach for the source of this vitamin which is not burdened with the consequences for health.

Supplementation? For whom?

In many countries, including Poland, there are official recommendations for taking vitamin D supplements in autumn and winter for everyone. Regardless of sex, age or type of diet, everyone should take a vitamin D supplement to be healthy. The doses of the recommended supplement differ, however, in the case of infants, children, adults, the elderly or obese.

What doses of a vitamin D supplement should we take?

The doses of supplements are usually given in IU or international units (IU) or mcg or micrograms. The converter looks like 1 mcg = 40 IU

Recommended doses of vitamin D supplement in Poland per day

  • 400 IU for newborns and infants up to 6 months old
  • 400 to 600 IU (depending on the amount of modified milk that can be a source of vitamin D) for infants from 6 months to 1 year of age
  • 600 – 1000 IU from September to April for children and youth aged 1-18 years
  • 800-2000 IU, depending on body weight, from September to April for adults (> 18 years old) with normal body weight
  • 800-2000 IU, year-round for people over 65 years of age

800-2000 IU, throughout the year for people working without access to the sun in the hours of 10-15, which are not able to stay in the sun for up to 15 minutes with exposed legs and forearms

  • Up to two times higher doses due to the accumulation of vitamin D in adipose tissue for obese people – according to the doctor’s instructions.

Benefits of living vitamins

In addition to reducing the risk of the aforementioned diseases, thanks to regular care of the adequate supply of vitamin D, we can gain a number of health benefits. Studies indicate that the risk of any invasive cancer (excluding skin cancer) in women with a concentration of 25 (OH) D in the serum> 40ng / ml was 67% lower than in women with vitamin D deficiency. There are also indications that the essential role of vitamin A D in combating bacteria and viruses and preventing both acute and chronic inflammation, as well as autoimmune diseases. It was also noticed that various forms of neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dementia or cognitive decline are much less common in people who are properly provided with vitamin D. In turn, people who are already ill may also benefit from supplementation – a milder course of the disease,longer survival. Clearly, optimal supply of vitamin D and availability of 25 (OH) D seems to be crucial not only to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fractures, and the diseases mentioned above, but also in the case of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and infectious diseases including tuberculosis and influenza.

Can vitamin D be overdosed?

Excess vitamin D in the body, although it does not occur often can have serious consequences. Therefore, UL has been established, ie the upper tolerable level of vitamin D intake which, depending on the age and amount of adipose tissue, is very diverse. For adult and elderly people with normal body weight and children> 10 years and adolescents, it is 4000 IU per day, for obese people up to 10,000 IU, and for children <10 years 2000 IU per day. This means that doses below UL are safe and we should not exceed them on our own. Remember, not always more is better!

Supplementation with doses higher than the acceptable limit is associated with the risk of hypercalcaemia (ie increased blood calcium levels). This is a dangerous phenomenon because it does not cause any symptoms, and if it lasts for a long time it may promote the formation of kidney stones and cause calcification of the blood vessels. Other serious consequences of overdose include nausea, weakness, impaired psychiatric functions, and even kidney failure and arrhythmias.

In summary, the dose of vitamin D is best to consult a doctor who will determine it after conducting an interview and / or blood laboratory tests and will take into account possible factors or disorders that disrupt the assimilation of the supplement.

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Solar vitamin D – building blocks of bones

The basic building block of bones in our body is calcium. Vitamin D is responsible for its release mechanism – a group of fat-soluble chemical compounds. You will learn about other benefits of using this vitamin thanks to our article.

  1. What’s under the letter D?
  2. Who is the vitamin intended for?
  3. Desirable and undesirable activities
  4. Dosage


  1. What’s under the letter D?

Vitamin D is a group of steroid chemical compounds that are fat soluble. Numerous physiological effects of this substance have a major impact on the calcium-phosphate economy. It is also considered to be one of the 24 macronutrients that are necessary for human life. Very often you can see the term “solar vitamin”. It is conditioned by the process of its formation, which occurs in the skin through the action of sunlight.


  1. Who is the vitamin intended for?

Vitamin D is used primarily in the prevention of postural defects and diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The indications include rickets, scoliosis, osteoporosis and post-traumatic conditions. Stimulation of resorption processes by vitamin D results in the release of more and more calcium from the skeleton.

Dr. Shalamar Sibley from the University of Minnesota in the United States of America encourages the use of a solar vitamin during the fight against overweight. It turns out that people with normal levels of vitamin D burn fat excess much faster than people with its deficiency. Other uses of vitamin D include: prophylaxis of circulatory diseases, neurological diseases, diabetes, caries and increase of strength and muscle mass.


  1. Desirable and undesirable activities

Systematic use of vitamin D brings a lot of good human body. It is mentioned here, among others

– improving the functioning of well-being and cognitive activities;

– improvement of the bone system;

– reducing the risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetes or multiple sclerosis;

– increase in testosterone level;

– acceleration of metabolism and help in fat burning.

Among the side effects of vitamin D supplementation are heart and central nervous system disorders, which are caused by excessive calcium in the tissues.


  1. Dosage

The recommended daily dose of vitamin D is between 400 and 800 IU, except that this value is too low for adults. In the US, the top safe dose of the solar vitamin is 2,000 IU per day, and in Canada, 4,000 IU. The studies confirm that the maximum safe dose is 10,000 IU. Moderate supplementation in doses from 1,000 to 2,000 IU is sufficient to meet most of the population’s needs.

The basic contraindication to the use of vitamin D is its excessive concentration in the body. An excess of this vitamin concentration in addition to the previously mentioned disorders may also lead to hypercalcemia.

Deficiency of vitamin D results primarily in osteomalacia and osteo-aeurysm, conjunctivitis, inflammation of the skin, deformities of the body, degeneration of the skeletal system or some cancers – the ovary, colon, colon, bladder or breast.

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Vitamin D3

Vitamin D3 has been described in many publications. In recent years its deficiencies were constantly discussed, which are currently taking the size of epidemy, causing many long-term side-effects. It was concluded that the most effective way of increasing its concentration is supplementation. However, it turns our that this procedure requires proper support. Those who decide to supplement deficiencies of vitamin D should reach for supplements with vitamin D3 and K2.



The answer can be found in our article.

Vitamin D3 – the sunshine vitamin

For a few years, the majority of European countries have been fighting with the considerable lack of sun, not only in the period of winter months, but also during summer. Therefore, we more and more often hear about vitamin D3 deficiencies, which is synthesized in the deeper layers of skin, as a result of body exposure to sunrays.


Vitamin D3 influences almost 3000 genes, which play a key role in the human body. Moreover, it prevents many diseases, increases immunity and helps to maintain optimal state of health.


It was scientifically proven that maintaining its proper concentration decreases the risk of 16 kinds of cancer, including cancer of pancreas, lungs, ovary, prostate and skin. Daily supplementation with vitamin D3alleviates the symptoms of allergy, premenstrual syndrome, prevents atherosclerosis, diabetes and decreases blood pressure in people with hypertension. Moreover, this vitamin allows to avoid ailments and diseases of the nervous system (disorders of memory, depression, torpor, multiple sclerosis) and the skeletal and articular system.

Vitamin D3 and K2 only in tandem

Danish scientists from the University Hospital in Aarhus concluded that vitamin D3 taken with calcium considerably decreases the risk of bone fractures and mortality among seniors. However, calcium supplements should be taken not only with vitamin D3 but also with vitamin K2, as the former improves the absorption of calcium and the latter takes care to deliver it in the proper place.

Vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 cooperate with each other in order to produce and activate the protein GLA Matrix (MGP).

It is an important substance, which plays a special role in the cartilages and walls of blood vessels, inhibits artery calcifications and prevents stiffness and breaking of blood vessels.

Doctors say that vitamin D3 and K2 should constitute an indispensable duet in supplementation, as they collectively slow down the above processes, which cannot be done by sole vitamin D3. Moreover, by acting separately, vitamin D3 and K2may do more harm than good. Storing this calcium in the places, in which it is not necessary, it may stimulate atherosclerosis and increase the risk of excessive blood coagulation and heart attacks.

Maximal daily dose

There are many supplements on the market that combine the complex of vitamin D3 with vitamin K2. It is important to take care of proper doses of these vitamins provided to the organism. In case of vitamin K2, the application of 45-185 µg per day is recommended for adults. In case of higher doses, people who take antithrombotic drugs should pay special attention.

Generally healthy people should take an average dose of 150 µg per day.

The European Food Safety Authority established the maximal daily doses of vitamin D3 for healthy people, which are:

  • newborns and infants: 1000 IU / day;
  • children at the age of 1-10, 2000 IU / day;
  • children and teenagers at the age of 11-18: 4000 IU / day;
  • adults and seniors with appropriate body mass: 4000 IU / day;
  • obese adults and obese seniors: 10000 IU / day;
  • pregnant and breastfeeding women: 4000 IU / day;

It is worth remembering that when we reach for vitamin D3 in capsules, we should always combine it with vitamin K2 in the form of MK-7.

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Foods that boost immunity

In the fall-winter period, it is especially easy to catch an infection, such as cold or the flu. Therefore, it is very important, especially in this period, to pay special attention to prophylactic actions. Without any doubt, one of the essential factors influencing immunity is a diet, ensuring proper level of the organism’s nourishment. If you want to know what to eat to avoid infections, you should definitely read this article.

As commonly known, in order to keep our immunity system it top form, proper supply of vitamin C is essential. This compound naturally occurs in fresh fruit and vegetables, therefore we should take care of their content in our daily menu. Citrus fruits are especially recommended, as they constitute a perfect source of flavonoids, such as quercetin or rutin, which cooperate with vitamin C, strengthening its biological activity and stability. Fruits and vegetables should be included in every meal.

Another food ingredient, which influences immunity is zinc. This element is essential for the proper development of specialized cells in the elimination of intruders, such as viruses and disease-causing bacteria and its deficiency increases the risk of developing infections of the upper respiratory tract. Zinc naturally occurs in seafood, sprouts, nuts, eggs, meat, fish and milk.

Although this fact is not widely spread, scientific literature indicates that people with vitamin D deficiency easier come down with cold and the flu. Our organism covers the need for this compound mainly thanks to the exposure to the activity of UV radiation, no wonder then that in the fall-winter season deficiencies are so common. Oily fish and cod liver oil are perfect sources of vitamin D; its certain amounts are also contained in offal, such as liver and in milk fat and eggs.

Omega 3 fatty acids (especially long-chain fatty acids called EPA and DHA – but also, to some extent, their precursor – ALA) influence our susceptibility to infections and similarly to vitamin D, they constitute a deficient component of a diet. Their natural sources are fish and seafood, sea algae and flax (including flaxseed oil), rapeseed oil, walnuts and products enriched in cod liver oil.

Epigallocatechin gallate and other polyphenols contained in green tea may, on the one hand, support the effectiveness of the activity of our immune system and, on the other hand, they may inhibit the abilities of cold and flu viruses to replicate – i.e. proliferate. Studies from the past years show that the regular intake of green tea or the application of its concentrated extracts decrease the risk of upper respiratory tract infections.


Diet supporting natural immunity of the organism should be varied and should include such products as fruits, vegetables, sea fish, eggs, meat, sprouts, nuts and green tea. Thanks to the proper supply of the compounds contained in these products, it is possible to keep the immune system in the top form, which decreases the risk of developing upper respiratory tract infections.

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Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2, similarly to all compounds that are hidden under the term “vitamin K”, takes part in the process of blood coagulation. For many years it was attributed only this one role. However, studies prove that vitamin K2 is also responsible for healthy bones, prevents calcification of vessels and the development of circulatory system diseases. What are other benefits from supplementing vitamin K2?

Vitamin K2 is not a single substance, but a group of compounds collectively called “menaquinones” or the abbreviation “MK-n”, where “n” indicates the amount of unsaturated isoprenoid residues in the C3 carbon (from 1 to 13).

Vitamin K2 is one of the main compounds, which are hidden under the term “vitamin K”. The remaining are vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) and K3 (menadione). Vitamins K take part in the synthesis of protein factors of blood coagulation and for many years they were attributed only this role. However, it results from the research that certain kinds of vitamin K also play other functions. Vitamin K2, apart from taking part in the process of blood coagulation, is also responsible for the health of bones, prevents calcifications of atherosclerotic plaques and the development of circulatory diseases and even the growth of cancer cells.

Vitamin K2 may prevent osteoporosis

Until recently, it was believed that only one vitamin is responsible for healthy bones and teeth – vitamin D. Currently, it is believed that vitamin K2 plays an equally important role to vitamin D in maintaining proper state of bones. The functioning of osteocalcin – a protein synthesized in the cells responsible for bone creation (osteoblasts) is dependent on vitamin K2.

Vitamin K2 is essential for the proper functioning of the skeletal system.

The task of osteocalcin is binding calcium in bones – a mineral, which is their basic building material. In case of vitamin K2 deficiency, osteocalcin is inactive and at the same time, it is unable to bind calcium in bones, which may be the case of decreasing bone mass and lead to osteoporosis and consequently – to the increased risk of fractures. The dependency between healthy bones and vitamin K2 was proven in many scientific studies. For example, researchers from the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands indicated that vitamin K2 is essential to maintain proper bone endurance in women after menopause and is a factor influencing the improvement of mineral content of bones and the width of femur shaft.

Vitamin K2 may prevent circulatory system diseases

The loss of elasticity of blood vessels as a result of storing calcium-phosphorus salts is one of the causes of circulatory system diseases. A solution to this problem may be vitamin K2, which – according to some scientists – may be used in the future in order to treat or prevent calcification of vessels, especially in the group of patients with the high risk of vitamin K deficiencies or calcifications.² In what way does vitamin K2 prevent calcification of blood vessels? There is a protein called MGP in the blood serum, which binds calcium-phosphorus salts and at the same time it inhibits their deposition in vessels. Its functioning is dependent on vitamin K2 – in case of its deficiency, MGP protein is inactive and cannot inhibit the process of calcification.


People taking antithrombotic drugs before vitamin K2 supplementation should consult with a physician, as this vitamin disturbs the activity of these drugs.

Vitamin K2 – the symptoms of deficiency and excess

Lack of vitamin K2 may lead to the occurrence of hemorrhages (e.g. gums), problems with wound healing, difficulties in bone mineralization (which results in fractions). Apart from this, vitamin K2 deficiency may lead to calcification of arteries and consequently – hypertension, clots and heart attacks.

No undesirable effects were observed in the application of doses up to 45 mg per day or even higher.

Vitamin K2 – dosing. How to use vitamin K2?

The daily application of vitamin K2 has not been determined. Such recommendations are related to all compounds under the name “vitamin K’. An adult should take ca. 55-65 µg of vitamin K per day.

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How To Protect Joints?

Taking care of joints is one of the key tasks in case of physically active people, but not only them. Protection of joints should be important to each of us, due to the fact that damaging joints may exclude us from physical activity for a very long time.

Good condition of our joints is incredibly important. Strength training, running, combat sports or soccer considerably burden our joints and, as widely known, ankles and knees are the most exposed, but also hips. Multi-joint exercises in strength sports may cause injuries. We very often experience sudden, severe pain during barbell overhead presses, squats or deadlift. This pain may, but doesn’t have to be the sign of a serious injury. Therefore, warm-up before training is so important as well as stretching after workout. Regardless of the fact what kind of activity we perform, it should be important to us, as at the same time, we are able to alleviate potential pain or prevent serious injuries.

How to improve diet to make it the first step to joint protection?

Joints are mobile connections between particular bones. They are composed of many elements, which may get pulled, strained, but also they may fall victim of painful inflammation. It is very often accompanied by exudate, swelling, the joint is hot, red and there is no comfort of movement.

Apart from the proper selection of training type, correct technique of exercises and appropriate warm-up and stretching, there are also a few other key aspects that have influence on out joints. Regeneration and relax are also vital, therefore we should find a few moments during the day to simply rest. The selection of shoes is also important, as it may decrease the probability of injury. In this case, we should take advantage of the advice in the shop with sport shoes.

Another important issue is our body mass and diet. As widely known, if we are obese or even overweight, our joints are forced to carry a lot of kilograms every day and this may lead to serious problems, e.g. with knee or hip joints. We should bear in minds that implementing properly adjusted diet may not only prevent pain and inflammation of joints, but it may also strengthen them and alleviate the symptoms that have already occurred. Moreover, it may shorted the time of regeneration and recovery.

6 products that will protect your joints

  1. Protein

Protein constitutes invaluable support of the proper functioning of joints. It is an essential component of new tissues and muscle structures. Whole protein is a building block of articular cartilage, hence it is necessary to include in your diet the products which are rich in protein, such as:

  • eggs;
  • dairy products (quark, natural yogurts, buttermilk, kefirs, mozzarella etc.). Milk products are rich in calcium, which along with phosphorus build the structure of our bones;
  • meat (e.g. pork loin, chicken or turkey breast or thigh, steak etc.). It should be borne in minds that fatty meats are rich primarily in omega-6 fatty acids and they are responsible, among others, for inflammations. Therefore, such meats should be limited.
  • fish (e.g. halibut, cod, wild salmon, fresh mackerel, catfish, pollock, herring, sardines etc.). Fish are rich in, i.a. omega-3 fatty acids, about which I will mention later on. These acids alleviate and eliminate inflammations. They are also the source of the valuable vitamin E, which also demonstrates anti-inflammatory effect;
  • protein supplements – we provide them at the moments of protein deficiency in food or treat as an interesting additive to desserts. However, it best to focus on complete food;
  • legumes, nuts, groats, rice, pseudo-grains etc. provide vegetable protein, which also should have its place in our diet.
  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are one of the most effective natural ingredients with anti-inflammatory properties. They improve the ability to absorb calcium, therefore their application is recommended by doctors, especially in case of the treatment of osteoporosis.

These acids can be found among others in fish such as: salmon, mackerel, halibut, eel or herring, but also in walnuts, linseed or chia seeds. Moreover, vegetable sources of omega-3 are at the same time a great source of vitamin E, which also demonstrates anti-inflammatory effect.

  1. Vitamin D

Low concentration of vitamin D in the plasma may cause increased bone and joint pain and it may also weaken the strength of our muscles. Low level of vitamin D, among others, is visible in people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. The human organism may supplement vitamin D deficiency, thanks to properly frequent, but also safe sun therapy. Endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in our skin, which is caused under the influence of sun rays is the best way to provide proper dose of vitamin D.

This vitamin may be found in a few products, among others: in salmon, cod, tuna, sardines, mackerel, mushrooms, liver, cheese, egg yolks and fungi. It is worth mentioning that unfortunately vitamin D appears in food products in very small amounts, therefore it may be said that vitamin D supplementation is essential, especially in the fall-winter season. However, before we choose proper supplementation, we should test the level of vitamin D in the plasma and only then select proper dose of vitamin D.

  1. Antioxidants (vitamins and minerals)

Antioxidants constitute a wide group of compounds which have positive influence on our organism. They may prevent, among others, joint degeneration, but are also able to limit the production of free radicals, which in excess may cause strong inflammation.

The group of such antioxidants includes:

  • vitamin C, which is essential to create collagen. Collagen, among others, is responsible for the condition of our joints and tendons. Vitamin C takes part in the synthesis of steroid hormones and carnitine, which facilitates wound healing and accelerates bone setting. Deficiency of this vitamin disturbs the process of collagen production, which directly influences joint ailments. Vitamin C can be found in: parsley, kale, red pepper, lemon, apples, oranges or grapefruits;
  • zinc or iron are very important components of antioxidant enzymes, which may prevent inflammatory processes taking place in joints. Zinc can be found among others in: calf’s liver, sesame or garlic, but also in shellfish, while iron may be found in: amaranth, lentil, liver, egg yolks or buckwheat groats, millet groats, cashew nuts, poppy and linseed;
  • phosphorus, magnesium and calcium – are responsible for the proper development and growth of our bones. Phosphorus deficiency may give symptoms of joint pain (it is important to maintain proper proportions of phosphorus and calcium in the organism – 1:1), we will find it in nuts, fish, meat and dairy products. Magnesium deficiency may also cause joint pain, but also muscle cramps. It may be found in: sardines, mackerel, groats, seafood, but also bananas and bittersweet chocolate. As widely known, calcium is essential for the proper functioning of our skeletal system. Its deficiencies may give symptoms of general weakness of bones and muscles. The basic products, in which we can find calcium are milk products, e.g. mozzarella, cheese, but also salmon, sardines or broccoli.
  • vitamin E – has strong antioxidant properties, protecting our organism from diseases and it has anti-inflammatory effect. This vitamin may be found among others in: hazelnuts, almonds, oily fish, olive oil and cereals;
  • vitamin K – is very important to our bones. Its properly high intake decidedly decreases the risk of fractures, the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. This is due to the fact that vitamin K influences the activity of a protein, called osteocalcin, which binds calcium in our bones. Vitamin K also stimulates osteopontin – a factor which decides about bone density. When our organism lacks vitamin K, the creation of bone tissue is disturbed. This vitamin can be found in spinach, broccoli, fermented milk products, but also egg yolks, avocado or liver.
  1. Herbs

It has long been known that people often take advantage of herbalism, however, it needs to be highlighted that one should take caution. Herbs have large potential, but when used without consideration, they may do more harm than good. Moreover, when we reach for herbs, we should take into consideration a wide spectrum of effects, possible side-effects and interaction with food products and some drugs.

Herbs that demonstrate anti-inflammatory effect are:

  • chamomile
  • eyebright
  • St John’s wort
  • yarrow
  • sand plantain
  • ironwort
  • comfrey etc.
  1. Dietary supplements supporting the work of joints

Deficiency of vitamins and minerals, which are essential for the proper functioning of our skeletal and muscle systems may cause considerable weakness of muscles and joints, therefore it is often the case that supplementation is indispensable.

The most recommended dietary supplements that support the work of our joints are:

  • hyaluronic acid – it is one of the main ingredients that are responsible for the condition of our joints. This acid decreases friction between cartilages and additionally it protects them from various damages. It is an ingredient, which generally appears in our tissues, also in cartilaginous tissues, but also in synovial fluid, the amount of which, as widely known, is depleted with age. Therefore, when such deficiencies appear, the quality of synovial fluid is automatically worse and by the same token, the ability of our joints to absorb shocks, that our articular cartilage is subjected to. Its deficiency is also reflected in pain that we experience during walking or physical activity. You should talk about hyaluronic acid with your orthopedist;
  • chondroitin – is an ingredient which fills intercellular cavities in our connective tissues. Thanks to this, our joints are efficient and more durable. It is incredibly vital to maintain good condition.
  • hyalutidin is the combination of chondroitin and hyaluronic acid, which are complementary, thanks to which they more strongly restore proper activity of our joints. This preparation demonstrates incredibly high effectiveness. Its effect has been confirmed on the large number of patients, who suffered from various ailments of the joint system.


Physical activity is mainly associated with shaping and using muscles. However, under muscles, there is skeleton, which constitutes the corpus of our organism. Bones and connections between them, i.e. joints are also very important in practicing sports. What can we do is to diversify our diet in order to provide our organism with essential vitamins and minerals, primarily those which demonstrate anti-inflammatory effect, thanks to which our bone structure is more stable.

It turns out once again that diet is an indispensable element not only of shaping the silhouette, but also of our health.

Therefore, let’s take care of our diet today!