Although watermelon is not a fruit of Polish origin, it is extremely popular with us. It owes its popularity to the sweet taste and the fact that it perfectly quenches thirst. The increase in the consumption of watermelons is noted in particular during the summer. That’s when we feel like it. In addition to the sweet flesh of watermelons for food and medicinal purposes, you can also use their seeds and a thick fleshy skin. Have you ever wondered what nutritional and health properties these fruits characterize?

Watermelon – a few words about the species
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a plant of the cucurbits family. It comes from the areas of South Africa, where you can meet her in both wild and breeding. The first mention of the cultivation of watermelon appeared about 1500 BC. In our lands, this fruit appeared in the fourteenth century thanks to the Teutonic Order.

Currently, the demand for watermelon fruit is very large. To meet the demand for these sweet fruits, large watermelon plantations began to be established in countries such as Spain, Portugal, Italy, Croatia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, China, and many, many others. The climate of our country is not conducive to the cultivation of watermelons, but it does not mean that we can not grow these fruits from us. A dozen or so enterprises in our country produce watermelons in large greenhouses, however, native crops are less sweet and juicy than fruits from southern Europe and Africa.

Watermelon is characterized by a creeping stem, which in favorable climatic conditions can reach a length of up to 6 meters. The large leaves of the plant are equipped with a mustache. Flowers in appearance resemble pumpkin flowers, grow individually, most often are found in yellow or light green. One mature plant produces up to 30 female flowers and up to 400 male flowers during flowering. The fruits of watermelon are massive berries with a characteristic sweet red flesh (mesocarp). There are also varieties with orange, white and yellow flesh. At the end of the growing season, the plant sets up seeds, the color of which, similarly to the color of the fruit, varies depending on the variety.

Watermelon – nutritional values Prenatal Multi Gummies
The English name of watermelon, or watermelon, perfectly describes its properties. This fruit consists of more than 90% water. This property means that watermelon is not the best source of nutrients. However, it can be classified as a low energy food. In 100 grams of watermelon, there is about 37 kcal (for comparison, pineapple has 54 kcal / 100 g, apple 47 kcal / 100 g, and orange 44 kcal / 100 g).

Watermelon – health properties of the flesh, pips, and shells
The health properties of watermelons outweigh its nutritional value. The minerals and antioxidant compounds contained in them have a strong antioxidant effect. The cardioprotective effect is attributed to them. The carotenoids contained in the watermelon, responsible for the red-orange color of the flesh, are very strong antioxidants. The most active compound with such properties in the watermelon is lycopene. This substance prevents the adverse oxygen metabolism of cholesterol, it also has a strong anti-teratogenic effect. It is a powerful scavenger of free radicals that lead to chemical and mechanical damage to the walls of blood vessels. Watermelons reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, reduce the risk of heart attack, atherosclerosis, and stroke.

In addition to antioxidant compounds, citrulline also occurs in watermelons. This substance is an ornithine derivative belonging to the group of endogenous amino acids. Citrulline was first isolated from watermelon fruit. This substance is appreciated primarily by athletes. However, this amino acid does not affect building muscle mass. It is used to increase the efficiency of the urea cycle in which ammonia is neutralized. Also, citrulline has scientifically proven anti-catabolic activity, which means increased protection of muscle tissue against its destruction or breakdown. It was also shown that citrulline reduces the intensity of the so-called soreness.

The high content of water in watermelons affects its diuretic and detoxicating effects. The consumption of watermelon is recommended for those who are feverish and dehydrated. Both the juice and pulp of the watermelon perfectly hydrate the body and provide the electrolytes and carbohydrates necessary for proper functioning. Watermelons also reduce the intensity of unpleasant ailments that occur the day after consuming excessive amounts of alcohol.

In addition to juice and flesh, healing properties are attributed to both its pips and thick, fleshy shell. Small seeds of watermelon deserve special attention, in their composition, they contain about 30% protein and 50% fat, moreover, they have a higher concentration of healing substances than pulp and watermelon juice. Scientific research carried out all over the world has proven that watermelon seeds have antibacterial and antifungal activity, are helpful in case of infections and gastrointestinal infections, as well as reduce the intensity of diarrhea. They have a soothing effect in catarrh of the respiratory system and alleviate the symptoms of skin diseases. Recent scientific studies have provided evidence of the effective action of watermelon seed extract in the treatment of bacterial, viral and fungal infections (including E. coli, among others). Other studies have shown that watermelon seeds have strong anti-inflammatory properties and also support the treatment of prostate diseases. In turn, watermelon shell is an excellent source of dietary fiber, in its white part contains the largest part of the aforementioned citrulline.

Watermelon – interesting facts
Currently, there are over 1,200 varieties of watermelons in the world, they are bred in more than 100 countries, and the world’s largest watermelon suppliers are China, Turkey, Brazil, Iran, and Egypt.

During the communist era, Polish authorities did not recognize imported products from abroad. The watermelon, however, was liked so much that it was not banned from its import. The authorities, however, tried to change its name to another, less exotic. The name, however, was not accepted by consumers and continued to use the name watermelon.

The Guinness World Record in the category of the largest watermelon in the world was beaten in 1990 by farmer Bill Carson from the United States. He managed to grow a real giant – the watermelon from his plantation weighed 118 kg.

Watermelon – recipes for tasty dishes and desserts
Although watermelon is an extremely sweet fruit, it can become a component of many interesting dishes (not necessarily desserts). We have prepared a few tasty recipes for dry dishes and desserts and cocktails with his participation. Try to cook them in your kitchens. You will find that you can use watermelon in many interesting ways, and in each of the scenes, it will taste different. Always, however, delicious.

Salad with watermelon, avocado, and grilled chicken breast
Ingredients for 1 serving
– 2 handfuls of fresh spinach,
– one handful of rocket salad,
– ½ avocado,
– 100 g chicken breasts,
– 100 g of watermelon,
– 1 tablespoon of pine nuts,
– ½ lime juice,
– 1 clove of garlic,
– olive oil,
– pepper, salt, red pepper powder,
– thickened balsamic vinegar.

A method of preparing
Let’s rinse lettuce and spinach in cold water, gently dry. Cut the avocado from the skin, cut into slices – sprinkle them with lime juice to keep their nice green color. Wash the chicken breast, cut into slices. Marinate for approx. 20 minutes in a marinade with a few drops of balsamic vinegar, oil pressed by a garlic press, sweet peppers, pepper, and salt. During this time, cut the watermelon into cubes and roast pine nuts in a frying pan. The chicken breast meat is grilled in a grill pan. When it’s ready, mix all the ingredients, sprinkle lightly with olive oil and pour in thick balsamic vinegar.

The salad is ready to eat!

A refreshing watermelon and mint smoothie
Ingredients for 2 servings
– 500 g of watermelon,
– 100 g raspberries,
– 100 ml of carbonated water,
– 10 mint leaves,
– ½ lemon juice,
– 1 tablespoon of xylitol (optional),
– a few ice cubes.

A method of preparing
Wash all the fruits, cut the watermelon into slices, clean the seeds. Place fruit in a high container, pour water, squeeze juice from half a lemon. Put a few ice cubes and mint leaves. The whole blends to obtain a homogeneous mass. If the whole thing seems too sour, add a tablespoon of xylitol, mix thoroughly.

A simple protein cheesecake with watermelon
Ingredients for 6 servings
– 500 g of lean curd cheese,
– 200 g of natural yogurt,
– 500 g of watermelon,
– 10 tablespoons of xylitol/honey,
– 1 tablespoon of vanillin sugar,
– 4 tablespoons of gelatin food/agar.

A method of preparing
Cottage cheese is blended with natural yogurt, xylitol, vanillin sugar, and diced watermelon. We pour gelatine with a few tablespoons of cold water, wait a few minutes for it to swell, and mix with the watermelon mass. Set aside in a cool place for several hours and wait until it is concentrated. The cheesecake can be served with fresh raspberry fruit, raspberry leaves or vanilla ice cream.


Facts and myths about vitamin C

Vitamin C is a way for many of us to strengthen the body, which is why we most often reach for it in the period of weakened immunity, eg during the autumn and winter weather or spring solstice. Does taking vitamin C when we have a cold actually affects a faster recovery process? When can you talk about the effectiveness of its operation? We reveal facts and myths about the popular L-ascorbic acid and we answer the role it plays in our body. 


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Vitamin C – what is it responsible for? 

L-ascorbic acid, or vitamin C, is a chemical compound whose presence in our body is essential for proper functioning. This substance is actively involved in many metabolic and biochemical processes, and it depends, to a large extent, on the absorption of iron, the production of collagen, thanks to which wounds and fractures heal faster, and bruises disappear. In addition, it is a powerful antioxidant, it carries out the recycling of vitamin E – another powerful antioxidant and together these two important vitamins protect us against free radicals. However, attention! Vitamin C must be supplied from the outside – with the right diet or supplementation, because the human body can not synthesize it itself. 

– Deficiencies of L-ascorbic acid in the body may manifest as general weakness, fatigue, brittleness and cracking of blood vessels, worse wound healing, painful joints, decreased immunity or bleeding gums. The correct level of vitamin C should be especially taken care of people who have problems with hypertension, suffer from diabetes, smoke cigarettes and those with chronic stress, because the need for vitamin C increases under stress. In addition, its adequate supply is particularly important in the diet of athletes and intensely training – comments Joanna Pietroń from the Damian Medical Center. 

Only left-handed vitamin C has a healthy effect? 

MYTH. Reading the opinions about vitamin C, we can find very contradictory information about it. One of the repeating myths is that only the left-handed form of this compound has a pro-health effect, whereas a dextrorotatory vitamin C either does not work or is actually harmful. But is left-handed vitamin C even exists? The letter L in the name of this acid (L-ascorbic) refers to the method of naming and determining the optical isomers of chemical compounds. It means only that the group of atoms is located on the left (it is about the chemical structure of the compound) and it has nothing to do with the so-called lewoskrętnością. This is important knowledge, because on the Internet you can often find a left-handed vitamin C, which is often more expensive than a product without such a mark (and the action is exactly the same, because it is the same chemical that has just a few names) . 

Natural vitamin C is better than synthetic? 

FACT. The synthetic form has exactly the same structure and effect as the natural one found in, for example, vegetables and fruits. However, it should be remembered that the advantage of naturally occurring L-ascorbic acid in food products is that with them we supply our body with many valuable nutrients (eg bioflavonoids) that have a positive health-promoting effect. If we choose products rich in vitamin C, we will provide our body with many additional ingredients and minerals. 

The most vitamin C is in lemon? 

MYTH. Remember that the only source of vitamin C is food (we can not create it alone), which is why we should look after a varied, balanced diet. We can not store it either. Many of us have so far been convinced that the most vitamin C can be found in citrus, but this is not true. The main sources of this popular compound are plant products, especially those colorful green and orange (eg green parsley, blackcurrant, paprika). For fruits that are richer in L-ascorbic acid than citrus, we can include acerola, wild rose (eg after the form of juice), currant, sea buckthorn or apples. In addition, we also find it in vegetables – for example in sauerkraut, cauliflower, spinach, onions, parsley and brussels sprouts. It is important that we provide her with the right amount every day with food. 

If we have the opportunity, let’s try to consume the above raw products, because vitamin C is not stable and decomposes under the influence of high temperature (eg during cooking). 


You can read also: Addition of vitamin C in supplementing arginine improves synthesis of nitric oxide!


Cytron (citron) as a medicine

Cytron (citron, citrus medica L. fruit) is quite rare in commerce, although it can be grown in Europe. Descriptions of the use of citron are found in Persian medicine. It was already described in 1773 in the pages of Qarabadin-e-kabir (the great pharmacopoeia). Citron juice can be a remedy for migraine headaches. 


Here you can find vitamin C – CLICK 



In a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 90 patients with migraine headache were assigned to three parallel groups 


Means were given after a meal for 4 weeks. 


The citron application can be a good alternative to drugs in the context of treating headaches. However, caution should be exercised when using it with medication, due to potential interactions. For example, citrus interactions with drugs are well known. For example, grapefruit juice is a medium strength inhibitor of CYP450 3A4 and 3A5. CYP3A4 and 3A5 are decomposing isoenzymes, e.g. testosterone, estradiol, cocaine, progesterone, cortisol, sildenafil (viagra), salmeterol (beta-mimetic). Against this background, there may be numerous problems and metabolic-type interactions, especially if the bodybuilder is in parallel with the drugs for hypertension, beta-mimetics, viagra and anabolic-androgenic steroids. In addition, in one study, hypertension in a 5-year-old girl caused consumption of 1 liter grapefruit or grapefruit juice per day. After stopping the juices and using a low-sodium diet, the girl’s blood pressure normalized after 2-3 weeks. 


You can read also: Addition of vitamin C in supplementing arginine improves synthesis of nitric oxide!


Vitamin D – a vitamin of life

Vitamin D is called the vitamin of life, because it is crucial in the functioning of many organs of our body and without it it is impossible to preserve health. Despite the fact that it can be obtained from food and the sun through synthesis in the skin, up to 90% of the population of our continent suffers from too low a level of this vitamin in the body.

Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency does not hurt and does not give specific symptoms so that we are not able to detect shortages with the “naked eye”. Bearing in mind that almost all of us have deficiencies of this vitamin, especially in autumn and winter, it is worth considering whether we certainly do not feel the symptoms of this deficit, but we do not associate them with a deficiency.

  • Chronic fatigue,
  • Worsening of mood,
  • Frequent infections,
  • Weight gain,
  • Recurrent injuries.

Do you know it? These ailments tease us especially in autumn because these are some of the symptoms of vitamin D deficiency.

You are not the only ones

Vitamin D deficiencies are among the most common in the world. This problem affects about a billion people! And the consequences can be really dangerous


  • Osteomalacia manifested by bone pain resulting from abnormal bone mineralization,
  • Osteoporosis which affects more and more elderly women,
  • Rickets in children,
  • Depression,
  • Increased risk of developing civilization diseases, which is suggested by the latest research.

Is the sun enough for us?

Unfortunately, as much as 90% of Europeans have too low levels of vitamin D in the body. To put it too low, I mean the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D below 30 nanograms per milliliter. In our latitude, due to the large distance from the equator, unfortunately, we are not able to fully use vitamin D. In autumn and winter, the angle of incidence of light does not allow for skin synthesis, while stocks that we can get in the summer end up in 2-3 months.

In which products will we find the vitamin of life?

Of course, vitamin D can be obtained from food products, but in order to cover the body’s needs, we would have to eat unimaginably large amounts of egg yolks, butter or milk which would not be healthy, because then we would lead to deficiencies of other vitamins, while replanting with cholesterol. And vitamin D from fish? As much as possible, several hundred grams of wild sea fish a day will help to provide a large dose of vitamin D. Let’s think only if we know where to buy wild sea fish, can we afford it and would we be able to eat every day from 500 to 700grams of fish a day, how is it how long? Consuming such large amounts of fish, unfortunately, we would supply too much heavy metals to our tissues. It is better to reach for the source of this vitamin which is not burdened with the consequences for health.

Supplementation? For whom?

In many countries, including Poland, there are official recommendations for taking vitamin D supplements in autumn and winter for everyone. Regardless of sex, age or type of diet, everyone should take a vitamin D supplement to be healthy. The doses of the recommended supplement differ, however, in the case of infants, children, adults, the elderly or obese.

What doses of a vitamin D supplement should we take?

The doses of supplements are usually given in IU or international units (IU) or mcg or micrograms. The converter looks like 1 mcg = 40 IU

Recommended doses of vitamin D supplement in Poland per day

  • 400 IU for newborns and infants up to 6 months old
  • 400 to 600 IU (depending on the amount of modified milk that can be a source of vitamin D) for infants from 6 months to 1 year of age
  • 600 – 1000 IU from September to April for children and youth aged 1-18 years
  • 800-2000 IU, depending on body weight, from September to April for adults (> 18 years old) with normal body weight
  • 800-2000 IU, year-round for people over 65 years of age

800-2000 IU, throughout the year for people working without access to the sun in the hours of 10-15, which are not able to stay in the sun for up to 15 minutes with exposed legs and forearms

  • Up to two times higher doses due to the accumulation of vitamin D in adipose tissue for obese people – according to the doctor’s instructions.

Benefits of living vitamins

In addition to reducing the risk of the aforementioned diseases, thanks to regular care of the adequate supply of vitamin D, we can gain a number of health benefits. Studies indicate that the risk of any invasive cancer (excluding skin cancer) in women with a concentration of 25 (OH) D in the serum> 40ng / ml was 67% lower than in women with vitamin D deficiency. There are also indications that the essential role of vitamin A D in combating bacteria and viruses and preventing both acute and chronic inflammation, as well as autoimmune diseases. It was also noticed that various forms of neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dementia or cognitive decline are much less common in people who are properly provided with vitamin D. In turn, people who are already ill may also benefit from supplementation – a milder course of the disease,longer survival. Clearly, optimal supply of vitamin D and availability of 25 (OH) D seems to be crucial not only to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fractures, and the diseases mentioned above, but also in the case of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and infectious diseases including tuberculosis and influenza.

Can vitamin D be overdosed?

Excess vitamin D in the body, although it does not occur often can have serious consequences. Therefore, UL has been established, ie the upper tolerable level of vitamin D intake which, depending on the age and amount of adipose tissue, is very diverse. For adult and elderly people with normal body weight and children> 10 years and adolescents, it is 4000 IU per day, for obese people up to 10,000 IU, and for children <10 years 2000 IU per day. This means that doses below UL are safe and we should not exceed them on our own. Remember, not always more is better!

Supplementation with doses higher than the acceptable limit is associated with the risk of hypercalcaemia (ie increased blood calcium levels). This is a dangerous phenomenon because it does not cause any symptoms, and if it lasts for a long time it may promote the formation of kidney stones and cause calcification of the blood vessels. Other serious consequences of overdose include nausea, weakness, impaired psychiatric functions, and even kidney failure and arrhythmias.

In summary, the dose of vitamin D is best to consult a doctor who will determine it after conducting an interview and / or blood laboratory tests and will take into account possible factors or disorders that disrupt the assimilation of the supplement.

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Detox with vitamin E

The detoxification process is extremely important for the human body. Thanks to it, our body can get rid of unnecessary and harmful metabolic products, and extend its vitality. This is the role of vitamin E – a group of chemical compounds that are delivered to our body along with food. What are the additional benefits of using it? We invite you to the text below.

  1. What is vitamin E?
  2. Who should use it?
  3. Operation and properties
  4. Supplementation


  1. What is vitamin E?

Under the name Vitamin E, we mean a group of organic compounds that contain substances such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. This product is very widely used not only in medicine, but also in the cosmetics industry. The basic source of this substance are vegetable oils, fish oil, walnuts and almonds, eggs, blackcurrant, white cabbage and green plants like broccoli, parsley or spinach.


  1. Who should use it?

One of the consumer groups are older people. Vitamin E is a preparation that delays the aging process, and thus – is an element of prevention of memory disorders or a decline in the efficiency of intellectual processes.

The next recipients are the exercising people. The improvement of respiration within the cellular system is conducive to the processes of their rejuvenation, and also to the creation of more favorable conditions for muscle work. Vitamin E also increases the efficiency of muscle cells.

Vitamin E is also used to maintain normal blood sugar (by regulating insulin secretion), normalizes the effects of the negative effects of sunlight on the skin, and is also part of the antitumor prophylaxis.


  1. Operation and properties

Vitamin E is recognized as a basic antioxidant in the human body. The antioxidant properties of this group of compounds prevent cell damage and oxidative stress, which is the result of the harmful activity of free radicals. What’s more, vitamin E binds with oxygen, thanks to which it prevents their formation. It has an inseparable connection with the protection of fatty acid – one molecule of this vitamin can save up to 200 fatty acid molecules.


  1. Supplementation

The proper level of vitamin E can be ensured with a small daily dose of 15 mg. In the elderly, the dose should be between 50 and 200 mg. It should be remembered that supplements with vitamin E contain alpha-tocopherol. The biggest benefits we obtain from the antioxidant properties of this preparation from unsaturated fatty acids. The ideal dose of vitamin E is between 2 and 4 IU per gram of saturated fat.

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Vitamin C – lexicon

Greater immunity of the body, anti-cancer effect, improvement of the appearance and condition of the skin … This is only a substitute for the action of ascorbic acid – a popular vitamin C – in the body. What other properties does vitamin C have? In what products will we find it? What are the consequences of deficiency of this vitamin? Answers to these questions – and much more – you will find right here!

Vitamins for boys and girls

Vitamin C probably doesn’t need to be introduced to anyone. Almost everyone remembers it from childhood. Especially in winter, when we had much weaker immunity. We have not yet realized the importance of proper functioning of the body. Ascorbic acid participates in many processes. Among other things, it is necessary during the formation of connective tissue and is involved in the metabolism of lipids. What’s more, it prevents ischemic heart disease. Vitamin C also affects the production of collagen. This, on the other hand, ensures faster healing of wounds, fractures or bruises (also bleeding during injuries is smaller).

As we have already mentioned, ascorbic acid is mainly associated with beneficial effects on the body’s immunity. It is not enough to prevent colds. However, if we fall ill – the disease is much milder. In addition, vitamin C protects the heart and nervous system.

Vitamin C, what is it, really?

What is the role of vitamin C in the body? Unfortunately, this question does not have a short answer. Ascorbic acid is primarily one of the basic antioxidants. This means that it destroys free radicals responsible for cancer. For example, it has a preventive effect against colon cancer, and stomach or esophagus cancers. It is also used as an iron and calcium absorption assistant. Another feature is its use in the case of difficulty with wound healing, hemorrhages or pressure ulcers. Vitamin C is also a guard against damage to the nervous system (primarily the brain). Thus, it reduces the risk of developing diseases such as schizophrenia, multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer’s.

Vitamin C – where will we find it?

The main source of ascorbic acid are fresh vegetables and fruits. The largest doses of this vitamin can be found in:

– green and yellow vegetables (eg kohlrabi, spinach, peas)
– brassicas (eg brussels sprouts, broccoli)
– potatoes
– fruits (eg blackberries, wild strawberries, citrus, currant).

What are the deficiencies of ascorbic acid manifesting?

One of the most serious diseases resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C in the body is scurvy. It manifests itself in the destruction of bone tissue and connective tissue. Nowadays, however, it is a very rare disease. In children, however, Moeller-Barlow’s disease may occur. It results in bone deformation and anemia.

Vitamin C deficiencies are also a greater risk of disorders in the formation of collagen. Thus, the body becomes more susceptible to fractures. What’s more, existing wounds or injuries heal much slower. In addition, insufficient amount of this acid in the body has an impact on the appearance of disorders in the transformation of fatty acids. It is also responsible for reducing the strength of the capillaries. As a result of deficiency, we may notice the appearance of bruises, ecchymosis, inflammation and pain in the gums, weakness of the body, pain in the joints and muscles or osteoporosis. There is also loss of appetite, susceptibility to depression or neurological disorders.

High probability of vitamin C deficiency is observed among smokers, alcohol drinkers and seniors.

Daily intake of vitamin C for specific age groups

Children 1-3 years: 40 mg / day
Children 4-8 years: 65 mg / d
Children 9-13 years: 120 mg / d
Children 14-18 years old: 180 mg / d
Adults over 18 years of age: 200 mg / d
Women during pregnancy and lactation: 180 mg / d

People suffering from hypertension, diabetes, chronic stress, smokers and those exposed to fumes and pollutants should take higher doses of ascorbic acid. It is worth remembering that the correct doses of vitamin C vary depending on the researchers. So let’s use the services of a dietitian to determine the right amount in our diet.

The effects of excessive consumption of vitamin C

As surplus ascorbic acid is excreted in the urine – the risk of “overdosing” is low. Nevertheless, there may be inter alia damage in tooth enamel, heartburn, abdominal pain or laxative effects.

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VITAMIN B6 (pyridoxine) – what is it responsible for? In which products does it occur?


Vitamin B6, also called pyridoxine, is essential for the proper functioning of the organism. Vitamin B6 is responsible for the proper activity of the nervous system, influences blood pressure, muscle contractions and heart work and it also increases the organism’s immunity. What are other functions of vitamin B6? How to recognize its deficiency and excess? In which products does it occur?


Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is a vitamin soluble in water, which appears in the form of six compounds, undergoing mutual transformations – pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal and phosphate esters of these compounds. After the application, it is absorbed from the digestive system and stored mainly in muscles and liver as pyridoxal phosphate.

Vitamin B6 is a coenzyme of more than 100 enzymes (i.e. a substance essential for the proper functioning of these compounds), accelerating a range of transformations in the organism. Vitamin B6 takes part in the process of transformations of protein, vitamins soluble in fats and tryptophan (it helps in its conversion to vitamin B3, i.e. niacin). Moreover, pyridoxine:


– influences glycogenesis (transformation of glucose into glycogen) and glycogenolysis (the process of glycogen breakdown) in muscles

– it is essential for hemoglobin production (red blood pigment)

– influences blood pressure, muscle contractions and heart work

– is responsible for the proper functioning of the nervous system

– increases immunity of the organism – takes part in the creation of antibodies.


Vitamin B6 – symptoms and effects of deficiency

Deficiency of vitamin B6 leads to inflammatory lesions of skin and mucous membrane of oral cavity. The consequence of its lowe level may be changes in the nervous system (resulting in depression, lower mood, sleeplessness etc.), increased susceptibility to infections, macrocytic anemia (hypochromic) and kidney stone. Moreover, in case of vitamin B6 deficiency, the risk of cancer development is higher. However, deficiency of this vitamin is rarely diagnosed.

Vitamin B6 – when the need is higher?

The need for vitamin B6 is increased in case of eating foods rich in protein. The optimal proportion of vitamin B6 is 0.02 mg per one g of protein.


Its higher doses should be taken by pregnant women and elderly people.

Vitamin B6 – symptoms and effects of surplus

The excess of vitamin B6 may take place as a result of long-lasting application of tablets at the dose of 200 mg / day. In such a situation, this vitamin is toxic and leads to:


– lack of muscle coordination

– increased feeling of cold

– limb tingling

– nervous tissue degradation.


Vitamin B6 – in which products does it occur?

One of the richer sources of vitamin B6 is buckwheat groats (0.67 mg/100g). It also appears in meat and cooked meats – chicken (0.31–0.55 mg/100 g) an turkey (0.28–0.59 mg/100 g). However, it is worth knowing that during cooking, frying and pickling of meat, the losses of this vitamin reach 30-50%.

The assimilability of vitamin B6 is limited by alcohol and drugs.

A lot of vitamin B6 is also contained in vegetables, especially broccoli and potatoes. However, as a result of freezing vegetables and fruits, its content may be decreased by 15-70%.


The remaining sources of vitamin B6 are whole grain products, wheat grass, yeasts, soya, bananas, dairy products, fish and eggs.



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VITAMIN B12 – properties, occurrence and dosing of vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is a compound, the health properties of which are hard to overrate. Vitamin B12 soothes nerves, increases immunity to stress, prevents anemia and improves appetite. Moreover, it may decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and mental diseases. Check out some other properties of vitamin B12, where it may be found and how to dose it.


Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin or red vitamin, is a compound, the health properties of which are invaluable. Vitamin B12, similarly to other B-group vitamins, positively influences mental health. It is also essential for the proper functioning of the circulatory and digestive system. Scientists prove that vitamin B12 may also protect from Alzheimer’s disease, cancers and mental diseases.


Vitamin B12 is responsible for the proper functioning of the nervous system in a few ways. Primarily, by the active influence in the biosynthesis of nucleotides and choline being the component of the myelin sheath, which surrounds nerves. Therefore, in case of vitamin B12, there are some disturbing signals in the nervous system, such as numbness and tingling, especially in lower limbs, balance and walking disorders.


Moreover, the “red vitamin” takes part in processing proteins, fatsand carbohydrates into energy. Therefore, it counteracts weakness and the feeling of fatigue. Moreover, it prevents memoryloss and increases concentration abilities.


Vitamin B12 also takes part in the synthesis of serotonin – a neurotransmitter, which, in proper concentration, has anti-depressant effect. If the level of vitamin B12 (and consequently – serotonin) is too low, irritation, fatigue and bad mood appear.

Increased need for vitamin B12 is observed in bowel diseases (Whipple, Zollinger–Ellison syndrome), disorders of the intestinal flora (also in case of the presence of parasites), in atrophic gastritis, overproduction of hydrochloric acid, deficiency of the Castle factor and in case of using some drugs.

In case of the increased need for vitamin B12, daily doses are higher, e.g. in case of Addison’s anemia without neurological symptoms: 250–1000 μg/d every second day for 1-2 weeks. In case of vitamin B12 deficiency after stomach resection or as a result of absorption disorders: 250–1000 μg 1 ×/month.

Vitamin B12 may prevent anemia and atherosclerosis.

Vitamin B12 takes part in the production of erythrocytes in bone marrow. Therefore, its deficiency may contribute to the appearance of anemia resulting from vitamin B12 deficiency (Addison’s anemia).


Moreover, vitamin B12 along with folic acid and vitamin B6 prevents the aggregation of homocysteine – a substance occurring during reproducing proteins in the organism, the excess of which may be harmful to health and cause circulatorydiseases. Homocysteine contributes to the creation of atherosclerotic plaques in the inner parts of blood vessels and consequently – it increases the risk of cardiovascular system diseases: heart attach, stroke or thromboembolic lesions.


It is worth knowing that in order to prevent hyperhomocysteinemia, it is recommended to use 400 μg of folic acid, 3 μg of vitamin B12 and 2 mg of vitamin B6 per day.


Vitamin B12 may support the treatment of liver inflammation.

Vitamin B12 may support the treatment of viral hepatitis type C, as Italian scientists claim in the “Gut” journal. According to them, vitamin B12, when included to standard therapy, i.e. interferon and ribavirin may increase the chance to get rid of HCV virus from the organism. Standard treatment eliminates HCV virus from the organism in ca. 50% of patients with genotype 1 and in 80% of patients with genotype 2 or 3.


Vitamin B12 – the symptoms of deficiency

Deficiency of vitamin B12 causes:


disorders in the nervous system

pernicious and megaloblastic anemia

degenerative lesions in the mucous membrane of the stomach

absorption disorders


Vitamin B12 – where are the highest amounts of this vitamin?

Vitamin B12 may be mainly found in products of animal origin, i.e. meat, fish, milk, eggs, cheese and cooked meats. The largest amounts of vitamin B12 are in pike as well as liver and kidneys (more than 20 µg/100 g). A little less is found in other fish, such as herring, trout, mackerel and in rabbit’s meat (from 5 to 20 µg/100 g). The lowest amount (less than 1 µg/100 g) of vitamin B12 can be found in egg pasta, cooked meats, gammon, milk and its products (yogurt, kefir, curd cheese, cream).

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Vitamin D3

Vitamin D3 has been described in many publications. In recent years its deficiencies were constantly discussed, which are currently taking the size of epidemy, causing many long-term side-effects. It was concluded that the most effective way of increasing its concentration is supplementation. However, it turns our that this procedure requires proper support. Those who decide to supplement deficiencies of vitamin D should reach for supplements with vitamin D3 and K2.



The answer can be found in our article.

Vitamin D3 – the sunshine vitamin

For a few years, the majority of European countries have been fighting with the considerable lack of sun, not only in the period of winter months, but also during summer. Therefore, we more and more often hear about vitamin D3 deficiencies, which is synthesized in the deeper layers of skin, as a result of body exposure to sunrays.


Vitamin D3 influences almost 3000 genes, which play a key role in the human body. Moreover, it prevents many diseases, increases immunity and helps to maintain optimal state of health.


It was scientifically proven that maintaining its proper concentration decreases the risk of 16 kinds of cancer, including cancer of pancreas, lungs, ovary, prostate and skin. Daily supplementation with vitamin D3alleviates the symptoms of allergy, premenstrual syndrome, prevents atherosclerosis, diabetes and decreases blood pressure in people with hypertension. Moreover, this vitamin allows to avoid ailments and diseases of the nervous system (disorders of memory, depression, torpor, multiple sclerosis) and the skeletal and articular system.

Vitamin D3 and K2 only in tandem

Danish scientists from the University Hospital in Aarhus concluded that vitamin D3 taken with calcium considerably decreases the risk of bone fractures and mortality among seniors. However, calcium supplements should be taken not only with vitamin D3 but also with vitamin K2, as the former improves the absorption of calcium and the latter takes care to deliver it in the proper place.

Vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 cooperate with each other in order to produce and activate the protein GLA Matrix (MGP).

It is an important substance, which plays a special role in the cartilages and walls of blood vessels, inhibits artery calcifications and prevents stiffness and breaking of blood vessels.

Doctors say that vitamin D3 and K2 should constitute an indispensable duet in supplementation, as they collectively slow down the above processes, which cannot be done by sole vitamin D3. Moreover, by acting separately, vitamin D3 and K2may do more harm than good. Storing this calcium in the places, in which it is not necessary, it may stimulate atherosclerosis and increase the risk of excessive blood coagulation and heart attacks.

Maximal daily dose

There are many supplements on the market that combine the complex of vitamin D3 with vitamin K2. It is important to take care of proper doses of these vitamins provided to the organism. In case of vitamin K2, the application of 45-185 µg per day is recommended for adults. In case of higher doses, people who take antithrombotic drugs should pay special attention.

Generally healthy people should take an average dose of 150 µg per day.

The European Food Safety Authority established the maximal daily doses of vitamin D3 for healthy people, which are:

  • newborns and infants: 1000 IU / day;
  • children at the age of 1-10, 2000 IU / day;
  • children and teenagers at the age of 11-18: 4000 IU / day;
  • adults and seniors with appropriate body mass: 4000 IU / day;
  • obese adults and obese seniors: 10000 IU / day;
  • pregnant and breastfeeding women: 4000 IU / day;

It is worth remembering that when we reach for vitamin D3 in capsules, we should always combine it with vitamin K2 in the form of MK-7.

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Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2, similarly to all compounds that are hidden under the term “vitamin K”, takes part in the process of blood coagulation. For many years it was attributed only this one role. However, studies prove that vitamin K2 is also responsible for healthy bones, prevents calcification of vessels and the development of circulatory system diseases. What are other benefits from supplementing vitamin K2?

Vitamin K2 is not a single substance, but a group of compounds collectively called “menaquinones” or the abbreviation “MK-n”, where “n” indicates the amount of unsaturated isoprenoid residues in the C3 carbon (from 1 to 13).

Vitamin K2 is one of the main compounds, which are hidden under the term “vitamin K”. The remaining are vitamin K1 (phytomenadione) and K3 (menadione). Vitamins K take part in the synthesis of protein factors of blood coagulation and for many years they were attributed only this role. However, it results from the research that certain kinds of vitamin K also play other functions. Vitamin K2, apart from taking part in the process of blood coagulation, is also responsible for the health of bones, prevents calcifications of atherosclerotic plaques and the development of circulatory diseases and even the growth of cancer cells.

Vitamin K2 may prevent osteoporosis

Until recently, it was believed that only one vitamin is responsible for healthy bones and teeth – vitamin D. Currently, it is believed that vitamin K2 plays an equally important role to vitamin D in maintaining proper state of bones. The functioning of osteocalcin – a protein synthesized in the cells responsible for bone creation (osteoblasts) is dependent on vitamin K2.

Vitamin K2 is essential for the proper functioning of the skeletal system.

The task of osteocalcin is binding calcium in bones – a mineral, which is their basic building material. In case of vitamin K2 deficiency, osteocalcin is inactive and at the same time, it is unable to bind calcium in bones, which may be the case of decreasing bone mass and lead to osteoporosis and consequently – to the increased risk of fractures. The dependency between healthy bones and vitamin K2 was proven in many scientific studies. For example, researchers from the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands indicated that vitamin K2 is essential to maintain proper bone endurance in women after menopause and is a factor influencing the improvement of mineral content of bones and the width of femur shaft.

Vitamin K2 may prevent circulatory system diseases

The loss of elasticity of blood vessels as a result of storing calcium-phosphorus salts is one of the causes of circulatory system diseases. A solution to this problem may be vitamin K2, which – according to some scientists – may be used in the future in order to treat or prevent calcification of vessels, especially in the group of patients with the high risk of vitamin K deficiencies or calcifications.² In what way does vitamin K2 prevent calcification of blood vessels? There is a protein called MGP in the blood serum, which binds calcium-phosphorus salts and at the same time it inhibits their deposition in vessels. Its functioning is dependent on vitamin K2 – in case of its deficiency, MGP protein is inactive and cannot inhibit the process of calcification.


People taking antithrombotic drugs before vitamin K2 supplementation should consult with a physician, as this vitamin disturbs the activity of these drugs.

Vitamin K2 – the symptoms of deficiency and excess

Lack of vitamin K2 may lead to the occurrence of hemorrhages (e.g. gums), problems with wound healing, difficulties in bone mineralization (which results in fractions). Apart from this, vitamin K2 deficiency may lead to calcification of arteries and consequently – hypertension, clots and heart attacks.

No undesirable effects were observed in the application of doses up to 45 mg per day or even higher.

Vitamin K2 – dosing. How to use vitamin K2?

The daily application of vitamin K2 has not been determined. Such recommendations are related to all compounds under the name “vitamin K’. An adult should take ca. 55-65 µg of vitamin K per day.