Thyroid is more complex than we thought!

For many years, it was thought that the thyroid influences mainly metabolism and, above all, the reduction of adipose tissue. Meanwhile, it turned out that thyroid hormones regulate, for example, the work of the heart, but not only, because through regulatory proteins (myosin 7, 2, 1 and 4) affect the rate of muscle contraction, and even the metabolism of muscle tissue.

It turned out that thyroid hormones indirectly can reduce the economics of muscle contraction by the higher ATP consumption associated with the flow of Na + / K + and Ca2 + during exercise and at rest, have an effect on GLUT4 receptors (glucose transporters), I can increase the glycolytic potential leading to increased ATP production, through PGC1 α induce an increase in the density of mitochondria, which affects the increased production of ATP, can reduce the energy efficiency of mitochondria through the UCP3 pathway, mGPDH. can reduce the economics of muscle contraction by the higher ATP consumption associated with the flow of Na + / K + and Ca2 + during exercise and at rest, have an effect on GLUT4 receptors (glucose transporters), and can increase the glycolytic potential leading to increased ATP production, through PGC1 α induce an increase in the density of mitochondria, which affects the increased production of ATP, can reduce the energy efficiency of mitochondria through the UCP3 pathway, mGPDH.

Other researchers have found that the thyroid gland has an impact on intellectual development, but also on eg CNS disorders, respiratory system “in children with congenital hypothyroidism more often than in the general population (10% vs 3%) there are other congenital malformations mainly heart defects … and Down’s syndrome. The disease syndromes in which congenital hypothyroidism are accompanied by symptoms of CNS disorders, respiratory or dysmorphic disorder are described. ” 9

Diagram of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis :

hypothalamus => thyreoliberine => pituitary gland => TSH, thyrotropin hormone, thyrotropin => T4 / T3 in the thyroid (it should be added that the majority of T3 arises in peripheral tissues, as a result of dehydrogenation of T4).

In general, the increase in TSH concentration is recorded:

in primary hypothyroidism,

with increased aromatization (estradiol has a stimulating effect on TSH),

during recovery after severe diseases,

with liver cirrhosis,

in primary adrenocortical insufficiency,

in the case of inadequate thyrotropin secretion (eg pituitary adenoma secreting thyrotropin),

in thyroid hormone resistance syndromes.

in primary hypothyroidism,

with increased aromatization (estradiol has a stimulating effect on TSH)

during recovery after severe diseases,

with liver cirrhosis

in primary adrenocortical insufficiency,

in the case of inadequate thyrotropin secretion (eg pituitary adenoma secreting thyrotropin). In thyroid hormone resistance syndromes. Drop TSH can mean  primary hyperthyroidism (subclinical attention to hyperthyroidism, also called subclinical or latent, is an asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic condition characterized by a decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, in the serum, against normal free thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations), 21 hypothalamus and pituitary disease (secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism), severe acute and chronic diseases, states of nutritional deficiencies (sometimes also with restrictive diets, see below), old age, use of drugs and hormones (eg amiodarone, glucocorticoids, somatostatin, somatostatin indirectly inhibits TSH by affecting TRH); TSH reduces dopamine and often abused by bodybuilders bromocriptine or cabergoline (they act as dopamine agonists, they are often used to reduce pathologically elevated prolactin on the SAA cycle)

primary hyperthyroidism (subclinical attention to hyperthyroidism, also called subclinical or latent, is an asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic condition characterized by a decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, in the serum, against normal free thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations), 21

hypothalamus and pituitary disease (secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism),

severe acute and chronic diseases,

states of nutritional deficiencies (sometimes also with restrictive diets, see below),

old age,

use of drugs and hormones (eg amiodarone, glucocorticoids, somatostatin, somatostatin indirectly inhibits TSH by affecting TRH); TSH reduces dopamine and often abused by bodybuilders bromocriptine or cabergoline (they act as dopamine agonists, they are often used to reduce pathologically elevated prolactin on the SAA cycle).

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